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The Beginnings of the Ma^with its Ceremonies foretold in the 
Patriarchal Wormip^'^if^the Old Testament^ in the He- 
brew Religion, in Jtwses' Tabernacle, and in the 
Temple of the Days of Christ, 








? BY ^l^G 


Teaching Truth by Signs and Ceremonies. The Church 
Building, Symbols, Religious Objects, and Ceremonies of the 
Mass with their Origin and History. 56th Edition. 

The Festal Year, or the Feasts, Fasts, and Festivals during the 
Year, with their Origin, History and Meanings. loth Edition. 

The Seven Gates of Heaven, or the Seven Sacraments 
among all the Christian Churches, with their History and 
Discipline. The Oriental and ancient Customs. 9th Edition. 

The Great Cathedrals and most Celebrated Churches 
of the World, their Architects, Builders, History and 
present Condition, with Historic Events which took place in 
each. 7th Edition. 

Man the Mirror of the Universe, or the Agreement of 
Science and Religion, Man as a Mineral, a Plant, an 
Animal, an Angel with all the Discoveries of Science till our 
Day. 8th Edition. 

Christ's Kingdom on Earth, or the Constitution of the 
Church, with Origin and History of every Official, from 
Pope to Pastor. 'J'he Universal Church, the Papacy, the 
Cardihals, the Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops, Bishops, 
Cathedral Chapter, the Diocese and Parish. 3rd Edition. 

The Religions of the World. How the seventy-two Grand- 
sons of Noe founded the Ancient Nations, the Religions of 
the Greeks and Romans, Celts, Germans, Scandinavians, 
Medes and Persians, Assyrians and Babylonians, Chinese 
and Japanese, Egyptians, Mexicans and Peruvians, Brah- 
manism. Buddhism, and Mohammedans, with History and 
Ceremonies and Belief. 6th Edition. 

The Tragedy of Calvary, or The minute Details of Christ's 
Life, from Palm Sunday morning till the Resurrection and 
the Ascension, taken from Prophecy, History, Revelation 
and Ancient Writings. It gives, as in a series of living 
pictures, the scenes and incidents of the Passion, vivid and 
enthralling in their striking incidents. 

The Masses the Apostles Composed, or The Oriental 
Liturgies. Translated into English. The Twelve Masses 
Oriental Christians hold the Apostles composed, their Origin 
and History. (In Press.) 






How God foretold the crucifixion and the Mass to Adam and 
his children in types, images and emblems. The drama of 
redemption in the Temple ceremonial. God the Architect 
of the tabernacle. The Holy of Holies typified heaven, 
the Holies the church building, the Courts the Jewish 
Church. The Ark of the Covenant. The cup of manna 
foretold the ciborium with the Host on our altar. History 
of the manna. The gold statues of Cherubim gave rise to 
the statuary of our churches. The Holies the model of 
our sanctuary. The altar of incense typified our altar, the 
table of proposition bread our credence table. The gold 
candlestick foretold Christ enlightening the world ; the 
Easter candle. The bishop and priest teaching truth from 
the pulpit. The sacrificial altar foretold Calvary. Origin 
of sacrifice. Adam's sixty -three children. Cain, typify- 
ing the Jews, killed Abel, type of Christ. What is a sacri- 
fice? The Passover developed into tabernacle worship. 
How the sacrifices were offered with a cross in Temple. 
Jews did not understand the reason of sacrifice. Names 
of Persons of the Trinity in Old Testament. How God 
spoke through the Shekina to the prophets. Remarkable 
evidence from Jewish writers. Meanings of Elohim, Jeho- 
vah, Jesus Christ, Shekina, Yaqara, Eloi, etc 15-46. 



How the ceremonial of Day of Atonement foretold Christ 
entering heaven. The Talmuds, their history, divisions 
and contents. A Papal decree saved the Talmuds from 
destruction. Jewish traditions and peculiar ideas. The 
high priest seven days separated from his wife foretold an 
unmarried clergy. Three arks, three crowns. How the 
high priest prepared. Origin of holy water. How 
" lots " were drawn to choose the priests. Candles lighted, 
incense offered. Temple chambers. The Supreme Court 



administered an oath to the high priest lest lie might be an 
infidel. Image of baptism. Avarice of the priests. Tlie 
second "lot." Moses on Nebo and tombs of the patri- 
archs at Hebron. Ceremonies beginning the services at 
daybreak. The high priest's bath. His vestments and 
what the}^ cost. The pontiff with his assistant priest and 
twelve ministers. Names of persons who made gold 
utensils for Temple. How the five services began. How 
the bullock was slain after confession of sins placed on 
him. Names of avaricious families denounced in Temple 
prayers. The goat for Jehovah and the one for Azazael 
drawn by lot. The crimson cloth became white by a 
miracle, but did not after Christ's death. Alaj'^man killed 
all the animals tins day, and a pagan led the scapegoat to 
death, for the pagan layman Pilate condemned Christ. 
The ceremonial described. The censer and incense same 
as used in church today. The high priest once became de- 
filed. How he put the incense in the censer. How he 
entered behind the two A^eils. Ceremonial in the Holy of 
Holies. How he sprinkled the blood. M3'stic meanings 
foretelling Christ in heaven. How he offered incense on 
the altar in the Holies t3^pifying the Mass. The goat for 
the Eternal Father. The scapegoat with the sins of Israel 
on him on the high platform foretelling Christ before 
Pilate. How the scapegoat was led out into the country 
by a pagan amid shouts and curses of great crowds as they 
mocked Christ. How he was pushed off the high rock 
Tsuk, and killed. How the pagan returned. Morning 
services image of a Pontifical High Mass. The reading of 
the Law imaging the reading of Epistle and Gospel. The 
change of vestments. St. Paul's explanation of the Day of 
Atonement. John's vision of the Liturgy and services of 
the Heavenly Church. The eternal throne. How the Mass 
on earth is offered in heaven. The four Evangelists. The 
sealed book. The Lamb of God. The vast multitudes 
adoring God in heaven, etc 47-85. 


Reasons why God chose bread. History of wheat. How the 
altar breads for Passover and Temple were made. Why 
the celebrant at ]\Iass bieaks the Host. Why unfermented 
bread is used at Mass. Tiie Hebrew flour-mill and oven. 
Way of making fermented and unfermented bread. The 
ceremonies of ])hicing the bread and wine in the Temple 
Holies on the credence table. How the bread and wine 
foretelling the Mass were honored in the Temple. The 
sign of the cross. How the removed bread was eaten and 
the wine drank. History of wine. How Noe blesssed the 
white races. Palestine wine and how it was made. 
" Dry " and '* sweet " wines. A famous festival. Vessels in 
which wine was kept. The Lord's great Chalice. Why 
wine is mixed wjth water at Mass; The Temple ceremony 

CONTENTS. ^1^1 5^- 3 

in honor of water. The Hebrew maidens dance after the 
wine was made, during which men chose their wives. 
Christ a Temple Priest and Prince of David's family. 
Origin of the Holy Oils used in the Church. Composition 
of the holy oil Moses made. Myrrh, cinnamon, cassia, 
balm, storax and plants which produce them. Anointing 
the sick in the Old Testament. How the high priest and 
priest were ordained in the Temple, and anointed on head 
and hands. History of Mary Magdalen, and why she an- 
ointed Christ. Priest, Rabbi, king, judge and officials 
anointed before Christ. Blessing the holy oils on Holy 
Thursday. Composition of the incense used in the Tem- 
ple. Stacte, onycha, calamus, galbanum, frankincense. 
Meaning of burning incense. How the incense was 
offered in the Holies as now at a high Mass. Graphic 
scene in the Holies when Zachary incensed the gold altar. 
Gabriel told him John the Baptist would be born. Why 
he did not believe the angel's words. History of the Bap- 
tist. Origin of the ceremony of incensing the clergy dur- 
ing a high Mass. Origin of the tonsure, etc 86-123 



Meaning of the word Passover. The great Jewish Easter 
feast. The anniversary of their delivery from Egyptian 
slavery. How God developed the patriarchal feast into the 
Hebrew Passover. The Hebrews delivered to foretell how 
mankind would be delivered from the demon's slavery. 
The minute directions God gave Moses. The Egyptian 
Passover, and the Feast of Unleaven Bread foretelling the 
crucifixion and the Mass. The lamb. The time, place and 
ceremonies of the sacrifice. The blood on the door jambs 
typified the cross. Egyptian, perpetual, first and second 
Passovers. The times they sacrificed the Passover during 
Hebrew history. How the lamb foretold Christ. Origin 
of the Christian Easter. How they crucified the lamb. 
How God enlarged the Passover into the tabernacle and 
Temple and bread and wine into the Feast of Unleaven 
Bread. Mystic meanings of the foods at Passover. Rejec- 
tion of the Jewish sacrifices. Joseph us on the Passover. 
A description of the Passover as held to-day by the Samari- 
tans. The Passover celebrated by thirteen Jews on Sion, 
which the writer attended, etc 124-151 


St. Paul explains the meanings of Passover preparations. 
The Pesachim Tract of the Talmud. Why the Jews search 
for leaven bread with a candle at twilight on eve of Pass- 


over. The examen of conscience, confession, and prep- 
aration for Communion foretold before Christ. Tiie cere- 
mony of the searcli for leaven bread. Wlio were obliged 
and who exempt. Tl)e candle signified Christ. The liglit 
imaged the Holy Ghost rousing the sinner to repentance be- 
fore Easter confession. The two cakes of proposition bread 
exposed in the Temple. The two cows plowing on Olivet. 
All leaven bread burned at noon the day before Passover. 
Rites which foretold Communion must not be received in 
mortal sin. How tliey cleaned houses and dishes in days of 
Clirist. House-cleaning in our day before Passover to 
typify the cleansing of conscience before Easter Com- 
munion. Hov^' the Pharisees of our day plant the Pass- 
over wheat, make the flour, draw the water, and make the 
breads. The Garmo family had a monopoly of making the 
bread for tlie Tem[)le. The *' Water of Precept " the man 
was bringing to the Cenacle when Peter and John met 
him. How the women made the breads for Passover in 
the days of Christ. How they got the gold to cover the 
Temple. Avarice of the priests. What king Hezekiah 
did. Why we fast before Communion. Jewish mourn- 
ing. Origin of the black vestments. Work forbiden be- 
fore Passover. Origin of offerings to the Church. How 
the lamb was sacrificed in Temple. The blood put on the 
altar horns. The skin taken off. The three divisions, or 
** bands." Why Herod Agrippa ordered the kidneys 
counted. Cost of Temple chalices. How the lamb was 
crucified and roasted on his cross. Who could sacrifice 
the lamb. Why a bone was not broken and the remains 
removed after the supper. How the lamb was eaten. The 
Masses said for others, Communion for the sick fore- 
told. The second Passover. Easter duty prefigured. The 
synagogue services before the supper. Evening prayers. 
The seven benedictions. The master's chalice. The reclin- 
ing ])Osition. Rules relating to bread and wine and dif- 
ferent foods. The four Passover chalices of wine. How 
the Psalms were written. The Holy Spirit known to the 
Hebrews. The chalice the Lord used foretold. Graphic 
description of Passover and Day of Atonement by Marcus 
Ambivius, Roman procurator over Judea before Pilate, 
etc 153-197. 


Why the feast lasted for a week. Why they asked Pilate to 
deliver Barabbas in place of Christ. Ceremony of the 
Omer " first fruits" foretelling Christ's arrest. The minor 
feasts during Passover week. Why the Jews would not 
enter Pilate's hall. How the victims were sacrificed on 
Passover week. The evening banquet. The bath and 
washing the feet images of baptism. The arcliitriclinus. 
The tables. Positions of guests. When the couch was in- 
troduced. Why they washed their hands. Origin of 


prayers before meals. Why the bread and wine are raised 
up and offered to God during Mass. Dress of guests at 
feasts. Ancient jewehy. Origin of incensing the clergy 
during High Mass. " Crumbs which fell from the table.'' 
Prayers after meals. Origin of the Agapae " love feasts " 
St. Paul on abuses at, etc 153-216. 




Who was Melchisedech ? Different opinions. Meaning of 
the word. Records relating to him. Jews and Orientals 
say he was Sem, Noe's eldest son. Nimrod author of 
paganism. Jewish traditions relating to Adam. Why 
Calvary was called Golgotlia. Melchisedech founds Jeru- 
salem. Wliy Abraham was called out of Ur. Why Abra- 
ham gave tithes to Melchisedech. History of Sion, David's 
city. The treasures David gathered to build the Temple. 
Why Herod built the Cenacle. Why relics of the Saints 
are placed in the altar stone. Why the dead are buried 
under churches. Christ's family owned tlie Cenacle. The 
first cathedral of the world. St. James' Liturgy in the 
Cenacle. History of the Cenacle after Christ. Sion at the 
present time and its inhabitants. Description of the room 
where Christ said the First Mass, etc 238-217. 


Origin of the synagogue. Meaning of the name. Syna- 
gogues of Palestine in days of Christ. Synagogue build- 
ing copied from Temple gave rise to porch, nave and 
sanctuary of church building. Origin of poor-boxes, and 
holy water fonts. Why altar is in east end of cliurch. 
Why women cover head in church. Origin of the pulpit. 
The language of people of Judea at the time of Christ. Why 
Mass is said in dead languages. Origin of the sanctuary 
lamp and seats for clergy. The famous Alexandrian syna- 
gogue. The two Messiahs Jews believed in. The model 
of the altar railing and of the Easter candle. Where 
the Gospel writers found Christ's genealogies and origin 
of baptism and marriage records. The Rabbi and mean- 
ing of name. Why Christ did not begin to preach till he 
was thirty. Christ called a Rabbi in the Gospels. Why 
a priest is called "Father." Origin of Rev., Very Rev., 
and Rt. Rev. How Christ with his followers wandered 
over Judea. How the Rabbis taught their followers. 
Jesus as a Rabbi. The presbyters or elders in the 
synagogue. Origin of Cathedral Chapter. The archi- 
synagogos. Origin of the diocese and parish. The apos- 
tles of the Jewish Church before Christ. Why the apos- 


ties chose seven deacons. The education of a Rabbi in 
Christ's day. Tlie othce of porter in tlie Jewish Church. 
Church collections and collectors came from the syna- 
gogue of days of Cluist. How the order of exorcists 
began. Minor orders prefigured. Ciiurch music. How 
the Psalms were sung in Temple and synagogue. Musical 
instruments. Origin of the church choir. Singing with 
music in Temple and synagogue. The two choirs. Origin 
of Church music. Tlie ark in Temple and synagogue. 
How Moses wrote the five first Books of the Old Testament. 
The Scroll of the Law. How the Scriptures were read in 
Christ's day. Why the congregation sits while the Epistle 
is read at Mass. How the Hebrews read parts of Bible 
relating to the feast. The custom continued in the 
Church. The men who read the Scriptures. Why we 
kiss the Gospel after reading it. Why seven ministers 
attend the bishop when he pontificates. Details of read- 
ing the Bible in the ancient synagogue. How Christ read 
in the synagogue. Why the priest holds out his hands at 
Mass. Prayers for the dead in the days of Christ. Testi- 
mony of non-Catholics. Jewish belief in purgatory. 
Jewish bequests for prayers for the repose of their souls. 
Origin of the seventh day, "month's mind," and anni- 
versary of death. Jewish prayers to the Saints in heaven. 
Kaddish prayers for repose of souls of the dead. A New 
York street scene. Jewish prayers for repose of souls of 
friends killed in Russia. " God have mercy on their souls." 
The origin of the bridal Mass. Blessing of virgin but not of 
wndow in the Hebrew Church, with beginnings of mar- 
riage customs. Mass in the apostolic age. How the 
apostles founded dioceses, and names of some bishops they 
consecrated in Syria, etc 218-284. 



Wliy the clergy wear vestments during Church services. 
Priests in all ages wore vestments offering sacrifice. God 
revealed material, form and colors of vestments. Why they 
are of linen and silk. Origin of gold cloth. The four vest- 
ments of priest, and eight of high priest in Temple. The 
linen drawers, girdle, cassock, and miter. Origin of the 
bishop's rochet. The rational, Urim and Thummim. Why 
tlie bishop wears so many vestments. Description of the 
Phylacteries. Why the apostles wore a gold band on the 
brow. Why the Popes forbade the Phylacteries. History 
of the sandal and shoe. Why the bishop puts on shoes 
before pontificating. Why God ordered Temple priests to 
wear drawers. Origin of the cassock and its different 
colors. Origin of the alb and of the frock-coat. Why 
amice and cincture are worn. The sash and waist-band. 
The tunic. Why the bishop wears two tunics. How the 
prophet's mantle, worn by Christ, became the chasuble and 


cope. The imatian or chasuble Christ wore at tlie Last 
Supper. Origin of embroideries on Church vestments. 
Why the altar boys and ministers hold up the chasuble. 
Origin and history of tlie stole and its fringes. How Jews 
made the fringes on the stole. Origin of articles of devotion. 
Why the amice is first put on the head before falling on 
the shoulders. How Christ was confirmed in the Temple 
in his twelfth year. Origin of the pallium and how it was 
worn. Christ wearing the pallium. The broach for cope. 
Why Christ wore tlie purple garments of a bishop. 
Origin of the turban which developed into the miter and 
kingly crown. Why the bishop removes the miter before 
going up to the altar. Garments worn in English courts. 
Why the clergy cover the head in church. Origin of the 
episcopal ring, gloves and crosier. St. Augustine explains 
the mystery of the prophet's staff. The apostles carried 
the staff. Did Christ use a crosier ? 285-316 




The exact date of the Last Supper. The preparations 
for the Passover. Who were obliged to go to the Temple? 
About three millions went to Jerusalem for the feast. Why 
the lamb was chosen the tenth of the month. The Grotto 
where Christ hid at night. How they prepared the lamb. 
The discounts the money-changers gave the priests. Why 
Christ and the apostles fasted before the Passover. Why 
we fast before Comnmnion. The Paraceve, " the Prepara- 
tion." Easter eve in the Temple. What was forbidden be- 
fore Passover. How the Jews confessed their sins in the 
Temple. Why we strike our breasts at the General Confes- 
sion at Mmss. Graphic scenes in the Temple eve of Pass- 
over, with the prayers they said. Origin of the Litanies. 
How the high priest said the words of absolution. Did Christ 
absolve the apostles? The power of forgiving sins. How 
the early Christians confessed their sins. Why the con- 
fessional is called a tribunal. Origin of confession on Holy 
Saturday. How Christ and his apostles came to the 
Temple Thursday afternoon. The Pilgrinis' Psalms. 
Scenes in tiie Temple tilled with Jews from all nations. The 
disputes about Jesus of Nnzareth. The Levites with gold 
and silver crosiers. Christ carrying tlie lamb with the 
apostles enters the Priests' Court. How the lamb was pre- 
pared for sacrifice. Sins of the "band" of Jews placed 
on the lamb. The vic^tiin tied and offered in form c^f a cross. 
The Levite choir of 500 members, and tlie priests' choir of 
same number. How all Temple woisliipeis faced Calvary 
How the lamb was sacrificed. Gold and silver chalices 


catch the blood, pass it in form of cross and mark the 
horns of altar with bloody cross. How they sang the 
Psalms in the Temple. How Christ left the Temple carry- 
ing the body of the lamb. The Church foretold in Sion's 
glories. "Whither wilt thou that we prepare" for the 
Passover? The great bridge leading from Temple to Sion. 
Peter and John met the man carrying the " Water of Pre- 
cept " for Passover. Why the Cenacle was given to Christ 
for the First Mass. Origin of " Peace be with you," (Pax 
vobis) and " The Lord be with you," (Dominus A^obiscum.) 
Christ comes to the Cenacle. How they crucified the lamb 
without breaking a bone, and how they roasted him rest- 
ing on his cross. How the}"" made the breads for the First 
Mass. The chase roth, couches, cruets of wine and water, 
eggs, meats, foods. How the Cenacle was decorated. Origin 
of the the six beeswax candles at High Mass. Prayers for 
the repose of the souls of the dead. A peculiar Hebrew 
idea regarding Adam. The Passover bath. " The two ves- 
pers." etc 317-346 


The Temple porter sounds the trumpet. Origin of the 
vesper service. How tliey blew the trumpet in Temple. 
Christ with his followers enter the Cenacle. The prayer 
they said while coming through the door. Origin of the order 
of Church processionals. Temple and synagogue cere- 
monial in the Cenacle. Christ pontificated as Bishop. The 
first Higli Mass. A bishop in every church in the early 
ages. The prophet foretold the First Mass. Meaning 
of his Hebrew words. The sanctuary of the Cenacle. 
Origin of the steps leading up to the altar railing. The 
Jewish Church Christ's spouse. Origin of the seven minis- 
ters of a Pontifical High Mass. Christ as the Rabbi. Origin 
of the prayers said wlien vesting. The Messiah vesting for 
the Last Supper foretold. Congregational singing at the 
Passover. A holy dance. The Lord's purple cassock. 
How they began the Mass. The opening prayers. They 
strike the breast. Origin of the General Confession at Mass. 
How they incensed the ark inclosing the Books of the Old 
Testament. How Christ held out his hands at the Mass. 
Prayers of deep devotion. The eighteen Benedictions. 
Prayers for the coming of the Messiah. Why the deacon 
places the Gospels on the altar and receives the celebrant's 
blessing. Origin of the ceremonies before reading the 
Epistle and Gospel. How the Scriptures were read in the 
Hebrew Church. The Megillah or Exodus on the Passover. 
Christ's sermon in the synagogue on the Real Presence. 
The Creed of the Jewish Church in days of Christ. Why 
the deacon spreads the corporal on the altar during the 
Creed. How the crucified lamb was placed on the table. 
The Shema. Origin of the Preface andSanctus. Why the 


bishop goes from his throne up to the altar at the Offertory- 
attended by his ministers. Wliy the disciples left the 
Lord and his apostles alone in the Cenacle to continue the 
Mass, etc 347-378 



Why the bishop lays by his crosier and miter before going 
up to the altar. How the tables were arranged at the Last 
Supper. The Triclinium, " Three Beds." Origin of tlie 
assistant priest, deacon and subdeacon. Peter, James and 
John. What they represented in the Church. Why they 
said Mass facing the people in the early Church. Origin of 
the clergy seats in our sanctuary. How John could lay his 
head on Jesus' breast. Why Christ used the words " This is 
my Body." The lamb eaten in the Old Law prophesied 
*' the Lamb of God " in tlie New. Communion image of the 
Incarnation. Mystic and prophetic meanings of the Pass- 
over. The great Chalice Christ used. The paten with the 
three altar breads. Origin of the credence table and cruets 
of wine and water. Why the ministers put wine and 
water in tlie chalice for the celebrant at Mass. Origin of the 
Canon, why it is sajd in a low voice. The Passover Seder 
and meanings of its sections. Why the clergy say the Mass 
with the bishop while being ordained. Why the celebrant 
leans over the altar table beginning the Canon and saying 
the words of Consecration. Why the Gospels do not give the 
details of the Last Supper. The Ritual of the Last Supper 
the foundation of the Church Liturgies. Prayers at the 
first chalice of wine. Whj-^ the celebrant waslies his hands at 
Mass. The parsley. The " Bread of affliction." The ques- 
tions John asked, and the replies. Tiie history of Abraham. 
The delivery of the Hebrews from Egyptian slavery at 
Passover imaged the delivery of the world from demonic 
slavery. How the Divine Son delivered the Hebrews. 
The plagues on Egypt. The paschal lamb foretelling the 
crucifixion, and the bread and wine prophetic of the 
Mass. The Little Hallel. The bitter herbs. Who was 
Hillel ? Judas' treason foretold. The Real Presence in the 
Eucharist. End of the first Supper, thanksgiving prayers. 
The washing of the feet. Christ consecrates the apostles 
bishops. The ordination rite he followed. How the high 
priest, priest, Rabbi, king and judge were ordained and 
consecrated. Why three bishops consecrate a bishop. 
Origin of consecrating the holy oils on Thursday. The 
first bishops of the Cliurch. How bishop and priest bind 
Christ. The betrayal. Warnings against pride and vanity. 
The three orders essential to the Church. Origin of the 
religious orders. How the table was set for the feast of 
unleaven bread. The rite Christ followed when he gave 
Communion. Why the bread and wine are raised, lowered 
and offered with a cross at Mass. Why the deacon touches 


paten and chalice. How the sacrifices were offered in the 
Temple. Why the celebrant spread his hands over the 
bread find wine. How the Aphikoman Christ consecrated 
was hidden at tlie Last Supper. Peter as assistant priest 
and John as subdeacon, and what they represented. Why 
the subdeacon holds up the paten before his e3^es at high 
Mass. How Christ incensed tiie bread and wine. Origin 
of incensing the clergy at a high INIass. Beautiful prayers 
of the Last Supper Liturgy. The Messiah. Elijah to pre- 
pare for him. The cup of wine on the doorstop. Prayers 
to the Saints of the Old Testament. Origin of prayers for 
our friends. The Little Hallel. How Christ and the apostles 
sang the Psalms. The Hosanna, with origin of this word. 
Where the bread and wine rested before the Lord. The 
Eucha ist at the Last Supper foretold. The ceremony be- 
fore the Consecration. How Christ consecrated the Aphi- 
koman. The words of Consecration according to Peter's 
Liturgy. The chalices in the early Church. "The mj\s- 
tery of faith." Each apostle wanted to be the head of the 
Cliurch. The bishop's throne foretold. Tiie prayer for Peter. 
The sacred Hymn they sang. The prayers after Com- 
munion. Two beautiful Canticles. Judas remained till 
the end of the Sui)per. How his crime was foretold in tlie 
name of his birthplace. The betrayal again foretold. Why 
Christ gave Judas the "sop" of love and friendship. 
Judas was nephew of Joseph Caiphas the high priest. The 
sermon in the Cenacle, etc 379-434. 


Worldly people look with wonder at the Mass, and 
often say : " What is the meaning of this form of divine 
worship ? Where did these ceremonies come from ? Why 
are candles lighted during daytime ? Why do the priests 
wear such peculiar robes ? Why don't they say the serv- 
ice in a language the people can understand ? " 

The Catholic sometimes says to himself : " The Mass 
came from the Last Supper. But did Christ or the 
apostles say Mass as priest or bishop of our time ? Did 
Christ that night follow any form of worship ? If he did, 
where is it found ? From ancient days the Church used 
the Ordinary of the Mass, but we do not know its origin." 

Many questions rise in people's minds to which they 
find no answer. A common opinion holds that Christ 
said the First Mass at the Last Supper according to a 
short form of blessing and prayer, then consecrated the 
bread and wine, gave the apostles Communion, and 
preached the sermon John's Gospel gives. When the 
apostles said Mass, they recited some Psalms, read the 
Scriptures, preached a sermon, consecrated the bread and 
wine, recited the Lord's Prayer and then gave Commun- 
ion. In the apostolic age the saint^ added other prayers 
and ceremonies. Afterwards Popes and councils still 
more developed the rites, composed new prayers, and 
that during the Middle Ages the Mass grew and expanded 
into the elaborate Liturgy and Ceremonial of our day. 

But these opinions are wrong. From the beginning 
the Mass was said according to a long Liturgy and with 
ceremonies differing little from those of our time. No 
substantial addition was made after the apostolic age — 
what the early Popes did was of minor importance — revis- 
ions and corrections. Little addition was made to the 
Ordinary of the Mass handed down from the days of 
Peter^ founder of our Latin Liturgy; 



Xo pagan ceremony ever formed a part of the Mass. 
Through holy men of the Old Testament, God Himself 
revealed the forms, rites and ceremonies of divine wor- 
ship, and these were all combined and summed up in the 
Last Supper. But what was this Supper? The four 
Gospels mention the feast, but do not enter into the mat- 
ter. The Bible, Hebrew writers, and histories of that time 
tell us that the night He was betrayed the Lord held with 
His apostles the feast the Hebrews called the Pass- 
over, mentioned a hundred and seventeen times in Holy 
Writ as the Pascha, Phase, Azyme, Uideaven Bread, etc. 

Every Jew from his youth celebrated the feast each 
Easter ; even Heathens could have learned its history and 
meanings, and the Gospel writers did not think it seemly 
to fill their writings with its details. They mention only 
words, acts and incidents of the Last Supper, which did 
not properly belong to the Passover. 

Round the lamb foretelling the crucifixion, and the bread 
and wine prophetic of the ^lass, from times immemorial, 
the Holy Spirit, by and through the prophets, had gathered 
along series of ceremonies and numerous objects recalling 
the history of God's people. The consecration of the bread 
and wine changed these shadowy forms, emblems, types 
and sacramentals of the Hebrew religion into the sub- 
stance they had so wonderfully foretold. The apostles 
therefore saw nothing new or strange when Christ 
changed the ancient Passover into the Mass. 
I We will begin with the religion of the patriarchs, de- 
scribe the tabernacle, the Temple, their ceremonial, give 
the history of the Passover, of the Feast of Unleaven 
Bread, and show how the Mass was foretold in the He- 
brew religion. Then we will pass to the Cenacle wherein 
the Lord held the Passover, describe the Synagogue serv- 
ices they carried out before the Supper, the vestments 
they used that night, and give a translation of the Form 
of Prayer or Liturgy of the First Mass. This Passover 
service of the Last Supi)er was the foundation of the 
Liturgies of the Mass. 

We will show that the ceremonies seen to-day in the 
INIass came down from the Hebrew rites God established 
through Moses and the great men of the Old Testament. 
We will cite many Jewish and non- Catholic writers who 


will not be suspected of favoring the Church. We cannot 
quote all without filling the work with notes. Many trans- 
lations from the Talmuds will show that the lamb, as a 
type of Christ, was sacrificed, during these long ages of 
waiting, for the sins of the offerers, for their friends, the 
sick, the absent, and the dead as to-day He is offered in 
the Mass. 

No work could be found in any language treating in a 
complete way the Last Supper, and the writer had to rely 
on his own resources regarding matter and form. A 
subject so vast was beset with many difficulties, for it is 
hard to lay before the reader minute details, descriptions 
and scenes of a world which passed away two thousand 
years ago. 

The writer studied the Jewish authors of ancient and 
modern times, was present during synagogue services in 
different cities of the world, consulted learned Rabbis, 
searched libraries, read the lives of Christ by famous au- 
thors, lived for weeks in Jerusalem, talked with Palestine 
Jews, was present while they held the Passover on Sion, 
and the result of his investigations are laid before the 
public. We hope that it will clear up many questions 
the laity ask regarding the origin of the Mass and its 

We do not hold that every statement is absolutely 
exact, but is about as correct as we can reproduce the 
First Mass. " Small men " may find some things to crit- 
icise, they would have written in a different way, but we 
hope our humble efforts will draw sincere human hearts 
nearer in love to their Saviour when they see how He 
established the great Christian Sacrifice. 





The Catholic Church, its divisions of porch, nave, and 
sanctuary, its ornaments, vestments, and ceremonial, came 
from the Jewish Temple and the sj^nagogue of the time of 
Christ. The Passover service was modeled on the Tem- 
ple worship. Thus the Last Supper combined in one 
ceremonial the patriarchal worship, the tabernacle, the 
Temple, the synagogue, all united in one feast the 
Hebrews called the Passover, which Christ fulfilled and 
changed into the Mass. Let us therefore see first the 
Temple, its divisions, its rites, its ceremonies, and its 
sacramentals, that we may better luider.stand the cere- 
monies Christ followed when he said tlie first Mass. 

To teach truth by visible objects is an instinct of our 
nature. Words, spoken or printed, represent ideas. But 
we love to show our thoughts by actions. Even animals 
make-believe a fight in play ; witli her doll the girl images 
her motherly instinct ; boys amuse tliemselves with toys ; 
men speak in figure, type, parable ; tone of voice, shade 
word meanings, show hate, anger, fear or sorrow, and 
smile, tear, and sob tell our feelings. 

We love to see the actor in the play represent, not him- 
self but a celebrated personage. Therefore, before the 
dawn of history, the theater was found in civilized lands, 



where on its stage tragedy, comedy, and history were 
imaged before delighted audiences. 

God made use of these representative instincts through 
which to foretell the future Tragedy of Calvary, to proph- 
esy the Last Supper and the Mass. This was the best 
way to teach mankind, in that age when Adam's children 
were ignorant, when words were few, when language was 
hardly formed, when ideas were crude, when books were 
unknown, when few could read or write. 

From the gates of Eden the Redeemer was revealed, the 
woman's Seed who was to come and conquer the serpent- 
demon who had enslaved mankind. But how was the 
revelation to be handed down in that age of the childhood 
of our race ? God made use of this representative instinct 
of our nature, and told the life of the foretold Christ in 
the ceremonial of sacrifice, in the rites of the tabernacle, 
and in the ceremonies of the Temple. We will, therefore, 
first see the Temple, its ceremonies, for these we will later 
find in the Last Supper. 

To Jew and unbeliever the Temple has ever been a 
riddle, and they have written countless books to explain 
its mysteries. The Catholic Church alone has the key 
which unlocks the mysteries of that maze of vast bewil- 
dering building, with its Holy of Holies, Holies, Priests' 
Court, Court of Israel, Women's Court, Chel, Choi, 
Cloisters, some roofed, others open to the sky, with 
various chambers, each at the time of Christ having its 
own proper use. 

The wonderful building, with its rites and ceremonies, 
was a divine poem written by God to reveal present, past 
and future. In the past, the Jew saw God his Creator, 
mankind in original innocence, the Temptation and the 
Fall, the condemnation on our race, woman's de(>[)'v*r 
wound, the promise of the woman's Seed, sinners 
drowned when the world was baptized by the flood, tlie 
call of Abraham, the blessing on his race, the revelation 
given the Hebrews, their delivery from Egyptian slavery, 
the manna their food for forty years, their miraculous 
preservation and struggles, the whole world plunged into 
darkest idolatry, the glory of their judges, and the 
splendors of David and Solomon. 

The Temple was the very heart and soul of the Jewish 


Church, in which alone Jehovah was then adored in days 
of deepest paganism. But beyond, deep into the future, 
the Temple story and worship carried their minds, down 
to the days of Christ, to his Last Supper, to his atrocious 
death, to the New Testament, to the Catholic Church * 
with her Pontiff, her bishops, her priests, her sacraments 
and her millions of redeemed souls. ^ 

The Temple and its vast ceremonial formed a book 
within and without written by God's eternal hand, not in 
dead lifeless letters as man writes, but in warm, living 
signs, symbols, types and figures. Amid the multitudes 
of Temple emblems, let us take those relating to our sub- 
ject, and read the lessons of this Divine Poem, this 
heavenly poetry, this drama of Calvary, transcendent 
above all others — God its author here taught the future 
death of the only Begotten Son.^ 

The Holy of Holies closed by a veil represented heaven 
closed to mankind because of the sin of our first parents. 
The Holies with its glittering golden altar and walls fore- 
told the church building — especially our sanctuary with 
its altar on which now the Mass is offered. The Courts 
with the ministering priests, the sacrificed victims, pre- 
figured the Jewish priests who later were to kill the 

The words then of God's wonderful book had two 
meanings : — one, what the objects showed in themselves ; 
this now alone the Jew can see ; and the other meant 
the God-Man, the Church, the Eucharistic Sacrifice, and 
this the Christian with his faith can see. Patriarch, 
prophet, the holy ones of Israel, filled with faith of the 
foretold Messiah saw this sacred drama of the future, and 
read between the lines and behind the objects the story 
of the redemption of mankind ; thus they walked in the 
faith, hope and love of Him who Avas to be born of their 
race. Thus the holy ones of old saved their souls. 

Cenacle and church building were modeled after the 
Temple. We will tlierefore give a rapid glance over this 
great building, famed in all the earth, visited so often by 
the Lord, itself being copied from the tabernacle. 

*S. Augustine, De civit. Dei, L. xviii. c. 48. 

* S. Augustine, In Epist. Joan, ad Parthos, Tracts 11, n. 111. 

' S. Thomas, Sum. Theo. I. a, 2se 102 ; S. Augustine, The Fathers, etc. 



The talxniiacle God directed Moses (<:> make while 
wandering in the vast deserts of Arahia, "the Sandy," 
leaving no permanent res ting-phi ce, represented mankind 
in this world of trials — tired, weary, wishing ever for 
something higher, better.' The Temple Solomon built 
to replace the taberuacle, permanently resting on Moriah 
"Jehovah providss," within the city of Jerusalem 
"Possession of Peace," was the emblem of heaven 
where in beatific vision our souls will rest in everlasting 

" When it was building, it was built of stone hewed 
and made ready, so there was neither hammer, nor ax, 
nor any tool of iron heard in the house, wlien it was 
building " '^ 

The Temple Solomon "the Peaceful" built imaged 
the Universal Church ^ the Son of God, the " Prince of 
Peace," built, while the tabernacle represented the He- 
brew religion. Whence the Hebrews alone built the 
tabernacle, but pagan Sidoniaus and Tyrenians aided 
Solomon to build the Temple, to foretell that pagan con- 
verts would help Christ and his apostles to build the 
Universal Church. 

God revealed to Aloses the model of the tabernacle, and 
the plans and specifications of the Temple came from 
heaven; the Eternal Himself being its architect, for the 
Divine Son planned and founded the Catholic Church. 
" And David gave to Solomon his son a description of the 
porch, and of the Temple, and of the treasuries, and of 
the upper floor, and of the inner chambers, and of the 
house for the mercy-seat. All these things, he said, 
came to me written by the hand of the Lord that I might 
understand the works of the pattern." * 

Sole Temple of the Lord of hosts, amid the thousand 
temples of pagan gods, resting onMoriah's top, within the 
sacred City " Vision of heavenly Jerusalem," terrace 
upon terrace towered the Temple at the time of Christ, 
dominating high over all the city, except Sion, a loftier 
hill, the latter emblematic of the Church and her Eucha- 
ristic Sacrifice. 

»S. Augustine, Knar, in Psal. xir.. S Thomas, Sum. i, 2. q ; 102. 4, ad H, ©to, 
» III. Kings t;-T. => S. Tiiomas Sum, ii. 2. q : l€2, 4 aU 2, 

♦ See i. Vav. xxii, xxviii, 19, 


Cedar-roofed and richly carved, enclosed by cloisters 
grandest ever built, its walls of white marble, the sacred 
fane dominated the city. Copied after the tabernacle of 
desert wanderings, the Temple was divided into four parts 
— the Holy of Holies, the Holies, the Hebrew Courts and 
the Court of Gentiles — each with its own symbolic and pro- 
phetic meanings, this was the sacred sanctuary Christ 
called " His Father's House," ' 

The inner fane of the holy sanctuary, called by 
Jewish writers : " The Gold House," was seven stories 
high, and 150 feet square, but within and without was 
covered with plates of purest gold, bought with money 
received from the sale of millions of paschal lambs' skins. 
Each plate was a yard square and as thick as a twenty- 
five cent piece. Not only walls and sides were gold 
covered, but even the roof, and it bristled with gold 
spikes about four inches long, to prevent birds settling on 
and soiling. This " Golden House," was seven-storied, em- 
blematic of the sacred number seven, the word in which 
the Gospels were later written, and the seven sacraments 

In the center was a room thirty feet square, the Holy 
of Holies its walls covered with gold plates, this was 
the resting-place of the Holy Ghost of tabernacle and 
first Temple. There, visible as a cloud by day, a fire at 
night, He spoke to Moses, to the prophets and revealed to 
them the Old Testament. They called him the Shekina 
" The Holy Presence." 

The Holy of Holies was closed by a great veil, sixty by 
thirty feet, so thick and heavy it took 800 priests to hang 
it.^ It was woven of seventy-two colored strands — white, 
representing waters of baptism ; violet, em])lematic of 
penance ; red, martyr's blood ; and green, youthful inno- 
cence. The closed Holy of Holies, dwelling-place of the 
Holy Spirit, represented heaven closed by Adam's sin to 
all the members of the seventj^-two nations born of Noe's 
grandsons, except they pass through baptism, penance, 
martyrdom, or youthful innocence regained.^ Josephus 
and Jewish writers say the colors typified water, sky, 
fire and earth.* The colors are now seen in the Church 

» John ii. 16. » Edersheim, Sketches, p. 197. » See S. Augustine, De 

civitate Dei, L. xri. c. S. n. 2 ; c. 6. n. 2. * Antiq. iii. 7. 7. 


Once a year, tlie Day of Atonement, tlie high priest, 
typifying Jesus Christ in his death and ascension, his 
hands dripping with hlood of victims he had sacrificed in 
the Priests' Court, emblematic of the Jewish Church 
which killed Christ, entered alone that secret place, 
holiest sanctuary of earth, and there sprinkled the blood 
to foretell Christ entering and opening heaven to man- 

In the center of the Holy of Holies of tabernacle and 
Solomon's Temple rested the ark of the covenant, sign of ^ 

God's contract ' with the Hebrews. It was a box of ' 

sweetly smelling sitim wood, the acacia of Arabia, about 
three feet long, two wide and high, and covered within 
and without with plates of purest gold. The cover was 
edged around with a gold rim, forming the " Mercy Seat of 
God," the Shekina.^ That ark was an emblem of Christ 
in heaven and on earth, in whom burned the Holy Ghost, 
with his fire of love moving him to die for the race.^ 

In a gold cup, like a ciborium, was preserved some of 
the miraculous manna which fell from heaven during the 
forty years of the wanderings of the Hebrews through 
Arabia. It reminded them of the food with which the 
Lord had fed their fathers, and it foretold the Eucharist 
preserved in the ciborium on our altars with which 
Christ now feeds Christian souls. Let us see the story 
of the manna, for one of the cakes of the bread of the 
Last Supper was named after it. 

During the desert wanderings, 15,000 pounds of manna 
a week fell from heaven to feed the Hebrews. One 
morning they found the ground covered with little grains 
like hoar-frost, and when they saw it the first time they 
exclaimed in Hebrew, " Manna ? " " What is this ? " 
For forty years God fed them on this miraculous food, 
till they entered the Promised Land, to foretell the 
Eucharist nourishment of our souls during the wander- 
ings of this life. 

Every morning, except the Sabbath, the ground was 
found covered with manna, which had to be gathered be- 
fore the heat of the sun corrupted it ; if a family gathered 

* S. Augustine De civitate Dei, liber x. 1. =* An explanation of the Shekiua 
will be found towards the end of this chapter. » See S. Augustine, De genes 
ad litLeruin, iv. 17, Enarratio in Psalm cxxxi ; Talmud, Yomah, 107. 


more than wanted for food during the day it became 
offensive ; but the double portion found Friday morning 
for that day and Saturday did not corrupt. They made 
the manna into thin cakes ^ like those of the Passover 
and of the Mass. The third cake Christ consecrated was 
called the Aphikoman " The heavenly manna." A gold 
ciborium filled with the miraculous manna was placed 
in the ark to remind them of the miracle, and down 
the ages it lasted unchanged till Solomon's Temple was 
destroyed ; it was a type of the Eucharist reserved on 
our altars. 

The Orientals still gather a kind of manna, which has 
not the qualities of that of Scripture. It is not a food 
but a purgative medicine ; it does not fall all the year, 
but only from May to August j it is found only in small 
quantities ; it keeps for a long time without corruption ; 
a double portion does not fall on Friday ; it does not sud- 
denly cease as the miraculous manna did when the 
Hebrews entered Palestine, when they began to raise their 
own food. 

Burkhardt, who traveled extensively through Arabia 
in 1812, says "Manna in our day is found on the ground, 
leaves, etc., must be gathered mornings for the sun melts 
it, and it is found only during wet seasons, rarely in dry 
weather. Strained through a cloth, it is spread on bread 
like butter or honey, but it is never made into cakes like 
the Hebrew manna, and in leather bottles will keep for 
years." The Arabian physician Avicenna says, " Manna 
is collected from the tarfa or tamarisk shrub Tmnarix 
gallica^ it is a dew which falls on stones and bushes, be- 
comes thick like honey and can be hardened so as to be 
like grain." 

In the ark was also the blooming rod of Aaron show- 
ing forth his priesthood, and shadowing holy orders in 
the Church. It was a type of Christ's eternal Priesthood 
blossoming forth into bishop and priest of every age. 
Beside the rod lay the two stone tablets, having engraved 
on them the Ten Commandments, the foundations of 
law and order in every civilized land. Thus the manna 
was emblematic of food sustaining life ; the rod, priestly 
wisdom, and the two tables of the law faith and morals — 

1 Babyl. Talmud, Yomah, p. 115, 


belief and practice of the future religion of the Crucified. 
These were preserved to recall to the Hebrews the wis- 
dom, power, and goodness of God leading them from 
Egyptian paganism, nourishing them in the desert, and 
preserving them in the Promised Land. 

Over the mercy-seat of God, above the ark, brooded 
the great gold images of the Cherubim " Hohling fast,"' 
or ** Those grasped." They represented the highest 
heavenly spirits, holding fast purest and highest truths 
streaming down into their minds from the Divine Son, 
as their wills grasp the (xood of God the Holy Spirit. 
They recalled to the Hebrew mind tlie Cherubims the 
Eternal placed at the gates of Paradise after the Fall, 
"with flaming sword turning every way to keep the way 
of the tree of life." ^ 

In ancient religions they come from Eden's gates, as 
winged female sphinx of Egypt, as composite creature 
forms of Persia, as winged bulls of Assyria and Baby- 
lonia, as Chimera of Greece, as Gryphon of Assyria, as 
Griffins of Northmen, and as grotesque emblems of fable 
and heraldry. They are still seen on coins, in sculpture, 
and art. 

There, between the gold wings of the cherubim, on the 
mercy-seat rested the Shekina, the visible Presence of the 
Holy Spirit, a cloud by day, a fire at night, who spoke to 
the prophets, and gave mankind the Old Testament. 
WJiy were these golden images placed in the Holy of 
Holies? To image the millions of supernal spirits ever 
adoring the Eternal in His heavenly sanctuary, and to 
foretell images of Christ, of his Mother, of angels and of 
saints in the sanctuary of our churches. No member of 
our race was tlien in heaven, for it was closed till Clnist 
opened it to us, therefore no image of saint was there. 
The custom of placing images, paintings and statues of 
Christ in the church come« down to us from the Apostles,^ 

Temple and church are images of heaven, dwelling- 
place of God. " And they shall make me a sanctuary and 
Twill dwell in the midst of them."^ Here the word 
" dwell " is in the HebrcAV " I will shekina." Israel's 
greatest prophet in vision saw the Lord on his high 

* Gen. lii. 24. See S. Augustine's Question, in Exod. L. ii. 2, cv. etc. 
» St. Thomas, Sum. iii. q. 25, 3 ad 4. * Exod. xxv. 8. 


eternal throne, his court of heavenly beings filled the 
celestial Temple, while the Seraphim " The Burning " 
with knowledge and love, forming two choirs, sang the 
tresagion, " Holy, Holy, Holy is the Lord God of hosts." ^ 
The words formed a part of the synagogue service sang 
at the Last Supper, and is now a part of the Preface of 
the Mass. The beloved Apostle saw the four living 
creatures in apocalyptic vision ^ who sing the same before 
the Eternal's throne. 

Next to and east of that Holy of Holies, most sacred 
fane of earth, was the Holies, Jews called " the Holy 
Place," typifying the future Universal Church, the Jew 
or unbeliever cannot see. Therefore it was closed by a 
great veil woven of white, green, red, and purple strands, 
behind which twice daily entered the priest chosen to 
offer incense on its altar, to prophesy Christ praying in 
his Church.' 

There were thirteen veils in the Temple — they gave rise 
to the veils now covering the tabernacles of our churches, 
behind which, in the ciborium, dwells Jesus Christ under 
the veils or species of bread, as under the form of the 
Shekina, the Holy Spirit brooded over the niercy-seat in 
the Temple. 

The Holies not only represented the Universal Church, 
but also the sanctuary of our Church. Three things in 
the Holies also typified, in a still more striking way, 
what the cup of manna, Aaron's rod, and the tables of 
the Ten Commandments represented in the Holy of 

In the middle of tlie Holies rose the altar of incense, 
which the Jews called the '-Golden Altar," because it 
was made of pure solid gold, and to distinguish it from 
the great sacrificial altar outside in the midst of the 
Priests' Court. That gold altar was the image of Jesus 
Christ. At nine in the morning, and at three in the 
afternoon, the priest spread on it burning coals to image the 
burning Shekina in the inner sanctuary. On them he 
sprinkled incense, the ceremonial foretelling Christ, burn- 
ing with fire of the IIol,y (rhost, offering the prayers of 
the Mass on our altars in our sanctuary by the ministry 
of his clergy. The altar in our Church is a type of Christ, 

* Isaias vl. 1 to 4. * Apoc. iv. 7. • Apoc. viii. 8, 4. 


and for that reason the altar is incensed at solemn services, 
as was the golden altar of the Temple.* 

No animal was sacrificed on that golden altar, to fore- 
tell that in the Church, on our altar, Christ is not sacri- 
ficed in a violent, bloody or painful manner, but in the 
mystic ceremonial of tlie Mass. But on the Day of 
Atonement, the high priest reddened the four corneis of 
that altar witli the blood of the sacrifices, held out over 
it his hands dripping blood, to foi'etell the cross of Christ 
reddened with Ids blood, and to foreshadow that the 
sacrifice of Calvary and of the Mass are one and identical.'^ 

At the north of the gold altar of the Holies, at your 
right, stood the gold table ^ with the twelve loaves of pro- 
position bread, which Jewish writers call the "Bread of 
the Face," and twelve flasks of wine. They represented 
the twelve tribes of Israel, God had fed with manna in 
the desert. They foretold the bread and wine resting on 
our credence table at a High JMass, changed into the body 
and blood of Christ, with which he now feeds the souls of 
the members of his Church Only Temple priests could 
eat this bread or drhik this wine with the flesh, to proph- 
esy that the clergy of the Church live on its revenues. In 
memory of these breads, in Greek, Russian, and Oriental 
Kites, they cut the bread for the Mass into twelve pieces 
in honor of the twelve Apostles, having one for John the 
Baptist, a large one for the Blessed Vii'gin, and a still 
larger piece for the Sacrifice. 

Oriental Christians build their altar the same shape 
and size of the gold altar of incense in the Holies. They 
allow notliing to rest on it l^ut the liturgical books, not 
even candles. Thus the Holies, Avitli its altar in the 
middle, the credence table on your right, and the great 
candlestick on your left, foretold the altar, credence table, 
and Easter candlestick in our sanctuary. 

The candlestick of Herod's Temple at the time of 
Christ was of solid gold, weighed 100 pounds, and had 
been presented by Queen Helen of Adiabne of Assyria, a 
convert to Judaism. 

The middle shaft of the candlestick ended with a gold 

' S. Aug., Question in Exod. L. ii. Qu. cxxxiii. et cxxxiv. 

' For a description of the altar of incense, see Edersheim, Temple, 133, 134, 
377 ; Migne, 8. Scripturae, 11, 109, 170. V.m : (5, 440, 447, etc. 
' Migae, Cursus Conip. S. Scripturu", ii. 1300, vi. 305. 


cup, having at each side a straight row of three cups of 
the same shape and size, making seven lamps. The 
central lamp burning day and night bent towards the 
Holy of Holies. The others were always lighted from it, 
which, with striking ceremony, foretold that while Christ's 
life was taken, his Divinity lived, and that he was to rise 
from the tomb.' 

This great solid gold candelabrum, purest metal offered 
to God alone, was six feet high, Christ's stature. It could 
not be cast, but was made by being beaten, to foretell the 
flageWation. Its seven lamps, Joseph us says, typified the 
the seven planets, but they foretold the seven gifts of the 
Holy Ghost: wisdom, understanding, counsel, fortitude, 
knowledge, godliness and the fear of God poured out on 

While the stone tables having the engraved Ten Com- 
mandments were within the ark and showed Christ 
resting in heaven after teaching mankind religion, the 
candlestick showed him " The light enlightening every 
man who cometh into the world," ^ glorified in heaven, 
while his Church preaches the light of his Gospel. The 
lamps were lighted each morning and extinguished at 

The Rabbis wrote before the Incarnation, that the 
candles and lights of Temple and Passover, especially the 
great candlestick, with its seven lights, foretold the Mes- 
siah, who would come and kindle for them " The Great 
Light." They wrote that he was " The Lord our Right- 
eousness," " The Branch," " The Comforter," " The En- 
lightener," " The Light of the nations," etc. For that 
reason, when presented in the Temple, Simeon took the 
Child-Christ in his arms, and filled with the Holy Spirit 
burst forth into the prophecy and poetry written in this 

Now thou dost dismiss thy servant, 

O Lord, according to thy word, in peace ; 

Because my eyes have seen thy salvation, 

Whicli thou hast prepared. 

Before the face of all peoples, 

A Light to the revelation of the Gentiles, 

And the Glory of thy people Israel.* 

» Lightfoot, Works, II. 399. * Isaias ii. 2, 3 ; Migne 2, 168-1018. » John i. 9, 
* Migne, Cursus Completus, S. Scripturae ii. 168. ^ Luke ii. 29-32. 


This was why John wTote : " And the Life was the 
Light of men, and the Light shineth in darkness, and the 
darkness did not comprehend it."* The Holies was em- 
blematic of this world with Christ burning with the fire 
of the Holy Ghost, filling men with the light of his teach- 
ings, enlightening souls with faith and heavenly truth. 

It foretold the church building. In the center of the 
Holies was the gold altar from which twice a day rose the 
smoke of incense ascending before the Lord, as from our 
altar, resting in the center of our sanctuary, ascends the 
liturgy and prayers of the Mass. 

Each of the seven branches of the golden candlestick 
ended in an olive oil lamp with wicks of worn-out 
priestly vestments ; about a wine-glass of oil was poured 
into each every day by a priest chosen by " lot " for the 
function ; the lamps were lighted from the central lamp 
turned toward the Holy of Holies ; thus it represented the 
Messiah the Christ — Hebrew and Greek words meaning 
" The Anointed " — by the Holy Ghost who was represented 
by the oil ; thus the candelabrum foretold God made man 
through the Spirit of God illuminating the world, enlight- 
ening men's minds by his teachings. 

This is the meaning of numerous words and figures 
found in the Old Testament and Temple ceremonial. 
Many lamps of olive oil, hundreds of beeswax candles, 
burned during Temple worship, and before the Torah, 
" the Law," the first five books of the Old Testament, in 
Temple and synagogue hung an ever-burning lamp and 
this lamp and these candles have come down to us in tl\e 

What became of the golden candlestick ? That of 
Solomon's Temple was carried away into Babylonia when 
the first Temple was destroyed and was never heard of 
more. That of the Temple of the time of Christ was 
carried away to Rome, after Titus took the city in the 
year A. D. 70, and was borne before the conqueror in his 
triumphal entry into the Eternal City.' Its image is 
still seen on his triumphal arch, with the incense chests 
still standing in the upper part of the Roman Forum. 

The candlestick was deposited in the Roman temple of 

> John 1. 4-«. See Edersheira, Life of Christ, 1. 198-SOO. 
* Josephus Jewish Wars, VU, v. 5. 



Peiice. One writer says it was thrown into the Tiber 
from the Milivial bridge during Maxentius' flight from 
Constantine, but another account says it was carried by 
Genseric to Carthage in A. D. 455, recovered by Be- 
lisarius, brought to Constantinople in 533, and placed 
in a church, but it has never been heard of since. 

The great gold candlestick of tabernacle and Temple 
rf^presenting Christ is still seen in our churches ^ in the 
Easter candlestick. It is lighted with long ceremony on 
Holy Saturday, and used during High Mass, till the 
Ascension, when it is quenched after the Gospel, to signify 
at the Ascension Christ finished his work of teaching 
the world religion.- 

The candelabrum, bearhig seven or more burning candles 
during our services, were copied from this famous Temple 
candlestick. The thirteen candies used while chanting 
the Tenebra3 during Holy Week, are (quenched as the 
Psalms are sung, while the highest is hidden behind the 
altar to signify the prophets the Hebrews killed, and the 
one hidden for a moment and brought forth represents 
Christ buried and risen from the dead. 

Each Jewish synagogue has many seven-branched candel- 
abrum, which they light during the services to remind 
them of the great candlestick of the Temple. But they 
do not light the central one, burning only six lights. It 
seems singular, for the central light foretold the Messiah 
in Temple ceremonial. The priest chosen each day trim- 
med and lighted the great candlestick. The Jewish laity 
never entered the Holies — only a priest, chosen day by 
day, burned the incense on its golden altar, prototype of 
the priest now offering in the Mass the prayer of Christ on 
our altar.^ 

The candlestick lighting up the Holies, emblematic of 
Christ the Light of his Church also foretold the bishop, 
light of his diocese."* Therefore the Pontiff places his 
episcopal throne on your left, where the candlestick 
stood in the Temple Holies, and there he sits " a light to 
the revelation of the Gentiles," reflecting the light which 
shines on him from the Fisherman's Throne. The Son 

* See S. Augustine, Sermo in cereo Paschali ; Sermo— 183 deVerb. Ap 1 ; Joan, 
4. n. X ; Sermo 317. de S. Stephatio, ix. - Sec S. Aug. Serrrio. 338 n. }, 

•' See AtigrustiriP). Eri;ir. in P'-a.l. cxxxviii. 1") in Psaltn Qix, n, 1, 

♦ ijee S Aujiusiiue, fct!riuo, i, Uc per-^o r^jjiljiali. 


of God told John his beloved Apostle to write to the 
seven Churches of Asia, that if they did not do penance 
he would remove their candlesticks — that is, their 
bishops. We have seen the sad state of these cities 
where now Moslem fanatics rule. 

The priest is placed as a light to the congregation.' 

Where in the Holies the candlestick stood, on the 
side where now the Gospel is read in our churches, there 
rises the pulpit from whence is preached the sermon. 
Down from the Catholic Church, of which he is an officer, 
comes the bishop to his diocese, bringing with him all 
the lights and glories of the Universal Church. Down 
from the society of the priests of the diocese, comes the 
priest into the church bringing Avith him the Mass, Bible, 
sacraments, and wealth of doctrine. He is, in teaching 
and example, as a lamp for the people, a candlestick with 
the seven lamps of tlie Holy (Thost, Avith his seven-fold 
gifts of salvation for the members of the parish. 

Ten gold candehibra, each with seven gold cups of olive 
oil, each forming a lamp, divided the Priests' Court from 
the Holies. They were united by gold chains, and they 
formed a railing for the sanctuary, like our sanctuary 
railing, to wliicli they gave rise. These lamps were 
ligiited on great Hebrew feasts. 

Thus stood the Temple at the time of Christ, which he 
so often visited, — his " Father's house," where he so often 
worshiped wlien he came to the feasts of his people. Gold- 
Avalled Avithin and Avithout as Avell as roofed, every object 
of purest massive gold, adorned Avith religious objects, 
it Avas a sacramental emi)lem of the foretold glories of the 
Catholic Church. The I'emple Herod had spent forty-six 
years building Avas famed in all the earth for its Avorship, 
its holiness, its glories and its Avealth. 

People of our day, when money-making has become a 
craze, Avhen the Avhole object of this life is to get rich, find 
fault because they are asked to support religion, and 
grumble AA^ien they see our churches adorned with costly 
altars, statuary and Avorks of art. Let them go back in 
thought to that time of dying David, who inspired of God 
prepared the means f(n* his son Solomon to build the 
Temple, and they Avill find that he gave $19,349,260, be- 

* See S. Augustine, Enar. iv. ia Psalm ciii. Sermo iv. n. 8. 


sides other treasures of almost equal value to erect a 
building which was but an image of one of our churches/ 

Directly east of the Holies, the three Courts of the 
Priests, of Israel, and of the Women — formed one great 
Court, divided as the names suggest. In the middle 
of the Priests' Court, now called the Es Sakhra "the 
Rock", where Abraham offered his son Isaac, rose the 
great sacrificial altar foretelling Calvary and its Victim 
the priests were to sacrifice that fatal Friday. To still 
more precisely typify Calvary, this altar was made of un- 
hewn stones, built into four walls on the outside, the 
stones being held together by leaden bands, and the in- 
terior filled with earth. 

The altar was fifteen feet high and forty-eight feet 
square, the exact dimensions of Calvary. It was in two 
terraces, the first forty-eight feet, the next thirty-six ; the 
latter having a pathway, along which the ministering 
priest walked. The top was thirty feet square, on which 
burned three fires. To the south was an inclined plain 
forty-eight feet long by twenty-four wide, leading up to 
the altar. Each corner of the altar had a hollow bronze 
"corner " rising about eighteen inches high, to typify the 
arms of the cross. The one at the southwest had two 
openings with silver funnels, into which they poured the 
wine and water on the feast of Tabernacles, foretelling the 

This ever-burning fire, which had come down from 
heaven, in these three places on the sacrificial altar imaged 
the Shekina as fire and cloud on the mercy-seat.^ One 
fire was to burn the flesh of the animals, the other was 
for the incense, the third to light the other fires if 
they went out. The roasted flesh was removed each 
day ; but the bread and wine on Saturday were taken 
from the Holies and laid on a table for the priests to 
eat and drink. At the north of the altar stood the in- 
coming priests chosen by " lot," and on the south stood 
the outgoing clergy, who had finished their duties for that 
week, the latter took their portions of bread and wine ; in 
the center stood the high priest, and as the outgoing 
priests passed, they gave him half their portion of the prop- 
osition bread. The bread could be eaten and the sacred 

» 1 Par. xxii. 14, etc. « Eaersheim, Teuiple, 33, 33, f IVIacb, i. 82, 


wine partaken of only on Saturday by priests in a state of 
Levitical purity, to foretell that only priests free from 
mortal sin must partake of Communion. 

A red line ran round the middle of the altar ; above, the 
blood of the victims to be eaten was thrown, and below, 
the blood of the holocausts " entirely consumed." ^ 

At the north of the altar rose six long rows of stone 
pillars, each about nine feet high, having near the top 
four rings to which they tied the bodies of the victims 
while removing the skins. Near-by were eight lower 
stone pillars, with hooks on which they hung the pieces 
of sacrificial flesh. Near-by were a marble table for laying 
out the pieces, a gold table for sacrificial vessels after the 
service, and another silver table on which they'laid the 
victims before the services. 

The Temple places we have described called the Chel 
"The Sacred Place," was surrounded by the Choi 
"The Profane." There the Gentiles could worship. 
But they were forbidden under pain of death to enter 
farther in. Greek, Latin and Hebrew bronze tablets on 
the surrounding marble balustrade, some of them found 
in the ruins in our day, told them the penalty of entering 
beyond. This Profane Place represented the Heathen 
nations not yet called to the Church till the Apostles went 
to preach to them. This is the reason every Catholic 
Church has a porch representing the heathens and infidels. 

Now let us see the origin and history of these sacrifices 
of the Jewish Church. The grand liturgy of the Temple, 
the sacrifices of the Hebrew Courts have passed away, for 
the Sacrifice of the cross they foretold has been accom- 
plished, while the sacrifice and ceremonial of the Holies, 
foretelling the Mass, still continues in the Eucharistic 

When God condemned our parents for their sin. He 
foretold that from the woman would be born a Personage 
who would crush the serpent's head.* Then was revealed 
a person more powerful than the demon ; the Seed of a 
virgin, a father is not mentioned ; suffering is in the pre- 
diction that his heel w^ould be bruised ; and victory in 
the words that he would crush the serpent's head.' 

* Edersheirn, Ternj)le. ;W ; Talmud, f»ic, * Ueu. JU. 15, 

» Edersheirn, Temple, UT, 


But ages of education and revelation were wanted that 
mankind might understand the cross and Mass. When 
tiie world was young, divinely directed patriarchs formed 
the ancient Passover, unfolding mystic rites, which Moses 
developed into the tabernacle ceremonial, which David 
and Solomon augmented into the Temple service, which 
the Jews introduced into the synagogue, and all these 
(,'iirist fulfilled, finished and changed into the Eucharistic 
Sacrifice at the Last Supper. 

In tliese ceremonies and prophecies, most minute de- 
tails of the Incarnation, the life of Christ, the history of 
his sufferings and death, were written by the finger of 
God, that the Apostles miglit know, him, and that the 
nations might enter his Church. 

In the infancy of our race God taught our fathers as 
you would teach a child. Words were few, writing was 
not known. But religious truths might be seen in sur- 
rounding objects. 

Whether God revealed the nature of sacrifice to Adam 
or if he knew it in his state of innocence we know not. 
But in the infancy of our rac^e, they offered animals and 
first-fruits to God, to whom ail belong, in place of their 
own life. The father priest might tell his children the 
story of creation, of the fall, of the foretold Seed of the 
woman, who was to come and restore mankind to inno- 
cence lost in Eden, but the words would be soon for- 

The father chose a lamb as the chief sacrifice, repre- 
sentative of the Redeemer in his passion and death, ^ 
that the gentle innocence and purity of the animal might 
foretell the same in Christ. Whence down the pages 
of the Old Testament, and in the Temple sacrifices, the 
lamb immolated morning and evening was the chief 
sacrifice — all others were only accessory. 

What more impressive scene and prophetic type could 
have been given, than the young lamb, sinless, mute, 
chosen from the flock and condemned to die ? The father, 
head and priest of the family, leads the victim to the 
altar, while round gather in prayer, wife, children, serv- 
ants. Its feet are tied, it is thrown on the ground, its 
throat is cut, its warm blood flows, its skin taken oft*, its 

»S. Thomas, Sum. 3, q. 23. 


body roasted on the fire, its flesh is eaten while flame 
and prayer ascend up before the Lord. There was a 
prophecy of Christ's arrest, flagellation, crucifixion.^ It 
was a sacred poem, written not in cold words, but by 
the Holy Ghost in acts, signs, symbols, and mystic move- 
ments, teaching in striking ceremony truth to minds 
of men when the world was young. 

But people say. Who were these children of Adam? 
For the Bible mentions only his two sons, Cain and Abel. 
Jewish writers tell us that thirty-two times Eve brought 
forth twins, a boy and girl at each birth, and the twins 
married. The names of only two are given, for these 
related to Christ. They say Cain " Acquisition," mar- 
ried his twin sister Ripha " The Wanderer," ^ and that 
Abel " Passing away," born without a sister never 
married. These statements of Jewish writers are to be 
taken with great care, but we give them and let the 
reader judge for himself. 

How often Adam and his sons sacrificed we know not.' 
But in the year 129 or 130 after the fall, Holy Writ says 
Abel, a shepherd, offered the firstlings of his flocks, the 
lambs, for he was liberal and generous with his Creator. 
Cain, a farmer, was close and stingy, and loving worldly 
things, he offered the poorest and the most worthless of 
his farm products. For these reasons God received Abel's 
sacrifices and rejected Cain's. 

Jealousy, the fiercest passion, human or demoniac, 
rose in Cain's soul, and he killed his brother. Talmudic 
writers say, that filled with frenzy, he hacked his brother 
all over, covering him with wounds, in his ignorance try- 
ing to make a hole through which, his soul might pass 
out of his body. 

Abel the innocent priest lying dead, covered with 
wounds after his sacrifice, was an image of Christ* 
dead after his sacrifice of the cross, all wounded by the 
scourges. Condemned for the murder of his brother, 
Cain with Ripha, his wife, wandered over the world with 
a mark on him, lest his brothers might kill him.^ 

* S. Augustine, Sermo. xxxi- De Pasoh. 1 11, 111, xxxii. etc. 'Dutripon, 
Concordantia, S. Scripturae, wortl Cain, who quotes S. Chrysostom. 

* S. Thomas Sum. Theo., 2. 2 q. 85, 1 ad 2. 

* S. Augustine, De civit. Dei., L. xv., c. vii., L. xviii., xvii. 
^ S. Augustine, contra Faustum^ L. xii. u. ix. x. etc 


Because they killed their brother, Christ, the Hebrews 
have been an outcast people, living in cities, engaged in 
trade, never farming, for the earth yields not its harvests 
to them. Shunned by all people, they Wander among the 
nations with a mark on them : " He is a Jew." Now they 
fulfil the prophesy God uttered in the case of their 
famous prototype Cain.^ 

" The voice of thy brother*s blood crieth to me from 
the earth. Therefore, cursed shall thou be upon the 
earth, which hath opened her mouth to receive the blood 
of thy brother at thy hand. When thou shall till it, it 
shall not yield to thee its fruit ; a fugitive and a vaga- 
bond shalt thou be upon the earth. And the Lord set 
a mark upon Cain, that whosoever found him should 
not kill him. And Cain went forth from the face of the 
Lord and dwelled as a fugitive on the earth." ^ The 
names and history of the other sixty-two children of 
Adam are not given, because they did not relate to 

Sacrifice was revealed to acknowledge God, as Creator 
and Master of life and death, to recall blessings on their 
fathers, to excite their devotion, to keep the people from 
idolatry, and to foretell the future sacrifice of Christ. 
Its historic meaning was the creation, its literal meaning 
the worship of God, and its typical meaning the death of 

Every offering of the Hebrew religion foretold Calvary 
and the Eucharistic sacrifice, as St. Paul says : " Every 
priest standeth daily ministering the same sacrifice, 
which can never take away sin. But he, Christ, offering 
one sacrifice, forever sitteth on the right hand of God." * 
" Christ was offered in a lamb to show his innocence, in 
a calf because of the merits of his cross, in a ram to fore- 
tell his government, in a goat for he bore our sins, in 
a pigeon and dove because of his two natures, or in a 
pigeon because of purity, and in a dove because of his 
love of man." 

The lamb with bread and wine were sacrificed from 
remotest history, all other offerings were secondary — one 

* S. Augustine, Enar. Ps. xxxix, n. xiii., Ps. h'iii. ; Ser. ii. n. xxi. ; Ps. Ixxxii. 
n. xxii. ; De civitate Dei, I. xv. c. xiii. ^ Qen. iv. 10-16. 

» See Migne, S. Scripturae, ii. 1329 to 1346, etc. * Heb. x. 11, 13. 



foretold the crucifixion, the other the Eucharist; they 
were always intermingled, mixed in mystic ceremonj'' 
foretelling Christ's one sacrifice, of Calvary and the Mass 
which form not two, but one act of divine worship. Be- 
fore he came they foretold his coming in the future. 
After he came the Eucharistic sacrifice points back to 
him. One majestic sacrificial ceremonial went before 
him in patriarchal, tabernacle, and Temple worship, tell- 
ing that at a future age he Avould come to fulfil their 
meaning. Another still more magnificent ceremonial, 
the Liturgy of the Church, coming from the Last Supper, 
shows that He came. One pointed in the future, the 
other to the past, to the Tragedy of Calvary. Let us see 
what is a sacrifice. 

The word comes from the Latin words sacra faciens : 
" doing a holy act." In a wide sense any religious act, as 
praj^er, loss, suffering for God's sake, ourself, or for others, 
is a sacrifice. But strictly speaking sacrifice is the de- 
struction of a valued sensible thing, which a priest offers 
to God in worship, to show forth His almighty power. 
It is the highest act of adoration, and must be only 
offered to the Deity. Reason demands the worship of 
God, but tells not the time, place or ceremonial — only 
revelation could determine these.^ 

Abraham, Isaac and Jacob built altars, offered sacrifices 
with the bread and wine of the Passover worship. Jacob 
with his sons went down into Egypt, became slaves in 
the Nile land, dwelled there till God, in the form of the 
Shekina, called Moses from the burning bush to be their 
deliverer. For forty 3^ears he led them through the vast 
deserts of Arabia, " The Sandy.** Amid the fearful 
thunder and lightning of Sinai, while the earth quaked 
and the Shekina covered the mount, God gave the Ten 
Commandments, foundations of all laws of civilized coun- 
tries. The Lord then developed the patriarchal Passover 
into the elaborate ceremonial of the tabernacle and 
Hebrew religion. 

The tabernacle and its ceremonial came from God him- 
self. " And they shall make me a sanctuary, and I shall 
dVell " — in the original it is "I shall shekina" — "in the 

* See Goldhagen, De Rellgione, liebreorum Dissert. Pro]), iii. ; Migne Cur- 
SU8 Comp. S. S(.'riptura3, ii. 1041 to 134^ ; vi. 009 ; xii, IXt to 181. etc. 


midst of them, according to all the likeness of the taber- 
nacle, which I will show thee." ' 

Down to the days of Moses the father was the priest 
and offered sacrifices for the family. Thus, in patri- 
archal days, fathers, heads of tribes, princes, kings, revered, 
feared and loved of subjects, offered sacrifices that their 
personality might excite reverence, devotion and religion 
in their subjects. Thus monuments of Assyria, Persia and 
ancient nations show us the priest-king in sacerdotal vest- 
ments offering sacrifices for the nations they ruled. 

But when the Hebrews became a nation, a more special 
priesthood of the family of Aaron " The Enlightened", 
and ministers descending from Levi " Joined ", were 
chosen to offer the sacrifices of the Hebrew nation, for 
these were later to kill tlie foretold Christ."'' 

Only beasts of the " clean " species, as the sheep, cow, 
and goat, with birds not younger than eight days, nor 
older than three years, without blemish, were sacrificed ; 
the sick, castrated, lame, blind, etc., being rejected, for 
they foretold their great Antitype, the sinless Christ 
sacrificed in the fulness of his mild and gentle man- 

Day by day at nine in the morning, and at three in the 
afternoon, the chief sacrifice was a lamb ^ offered with holy 
Psalms, canticles and prayers, sung b}?" a choir of 500 
priests and another choir of Levites — a magnificent cere- 
monial, image of a pontifical High Mass. The high priest 
pontificated, served by the Segan as assistant priest, 
with twelve priests, six each side of the pontiff, Aaron's 
heir, like the bishop or I'ope in our days. They robed 
in the most costly and magnificent vestments the world 
could furnish.* 

On great feasts after the sacrifice of the lamb countless 
animals were immolated, the blood of each splashed on the 
four " horns " of the great altar. The Temple was a 
vast shambles, a great slaughter-house of innocent vic- 
tims, to shadow forth the awful, terrific sufferings of the 
Victim of Calvary. The blood w^as poured at the base of 
the altar, and flowed down through an underground 

^ Exod. XXV. 8, 9. * See Migne, iii. 845 to 847, etc. See S. Thomas, Sum. L, 2, 
q. J02-4 ; iii, 983, etc. ' S. Thomas, Sum. iii. q. 22. 3, 5, etc, * Edersheim Temple, 


passage into the Cedroii " the Black Valley," thus named 
because of the blood. 

While the bloody sacrifices foretold the crucifixion, the 
unbloody offerings, the Jews call " flour " and " drink 
offerings," pointed to the Mass, where in an unbloody man- 
ner from the rising to the setting of the sun he is offered 
now among the nations. Wheat, barley, flour, chalices of 
wine, cakes of unleaven bread, azymous "thin," were 
offered with every sacrifice. 

To get the animals for the sacrifice. Temple guards, led 
by priests, went out the Sheep Gate, and down into the 
Cedron Valley, as they went out that fatal night, led by 
Judas, when they arrested Christ. With money from the 
Temple treasury, they bought the victims, as they gave 
money to Judas. The high priests had stretched a bridge 
across the Cedron stream near Gethsemane, and across 
that bridge they led each victim tied and driven, as they 
led Christ, tied, the night of his arrest. To the priests 
they brought the animals, as later they brought the 

They led the animals into the Temple, to the north of 
the great sacrificial altar.' The Jew saw in the cold 
dark north a figure of Lucifer, who had deceived Adam, 
and plunged the nations into unbelief and paganism. 
They sacrificed the victims towards the north as against 
the demon and sin resting on the world. At Mass, when 
the altar is in the eastern end of the church, the Gospel 
is read towards the north as against the demon of in- 

They washed the animal to foretell the PassDver bath 
taken by Christ and his Apostles. They poured perfume 
over it to typify the odor of good works, words and miracles 
of the God-man. With a rope they fastened the right 
forefoot to the left hind-foot, and the left forefoot to the 
right hind-foot, the cord making a cross, emblematic of 
Christ fastened to his cross. 

The bread and wine of the Mass is first raised up, 
offered the Eternal Father, lowered, moved to form a 
cross, and then laid on the altar. This comes from the 
Temple, and from the Last Supper. To foretell the 
Crucified they raised up every Sacrifice in the Temple, 

t Edersheim, Temple, 84, 85, 



offered it to God, holding it as high as their heads, the 
action being called the Teruma. Then they lowered it, 
and " waved " it to the north, south, east and west, this 
being the Tenupha, foretelling Christ raised up in the air 
on his cross, and his dead body taken down for burial. 
The Rabbis write that the actions meant that the sacrifices 
were offered for the nations living in the four quarters of 
the world.^ 

Ten classes of sacrifices thus formed a cross before 
being killed in the Temple. The bread and wine at the 
Passover were offered with the identical ceremony as the 
bread and wine of the Mass in our day. The animals to 
be sacrificed were offered with a cross, the bread and 
wine were not offered in the Temple with the same 
ceremonial, for the animals foretold his sufferings, and 
the bread and wine then typified the Mass, where he 
is not immolated in a cruel bloody manner but in mystic 
meaning in memory of the crucifixion. Sin sacrifices 
were sacrificed with a cross, but were not offered to God in 
the Temple, for God did not receive sin with the sacrificed 
victims. The following the Jews called the Menachot 
will explain our meaning. 


Passover Barley ' 

Raised lowered and formed a cros 

Living animals 
Barley flour of 

(( n n 

Raised lowered but did not form a 

Libations of 


(( «( (( 




li °4( tt 

Leper's Log of 


ti ti it 

Pentecost Bread 

(( H it 

Sin Offerings 

Offered but did not form a cross. 

Unleaven Cake 

H «( (( 

The Five vol- 

untary Offer- 
Initiation Sa- 

« t( « 


tt « ti 

* See Edersheim, Temple, passim^ 


The high priest with his assistant, the Sagan, at his 
right, and the twelve priests, all vested in magnificent 
priestly robes of cloth of gold, embroidered in the four 
colors of the sanctuary, spread out their hands between 
the animal's horns,^ thumbs crossed, palms down and 
])laced their sins and the sins of all the people on the ani- 
mal, as the sins of the whole world were placed on Christ, 
and said a prayer we will give when we describe the 
ceremony when Christ and his Apostles offered the Pass- 
over lamb the day before his death." 

Two long lines of vested j^riests stand between the 
victim, one line having gold, the other silver chalices in 
their hands ready to receive the blood. The victim's 
throat is cut, the blood caught in the chalices, and passed 
along each line with arms crossed in form of a cross and 
splashed on the four horns of the altar, marking each with 
a bloody cross.^ A choir of 500 i^riests and another of 
the same number of Levites, one surrounding the great 
altar, the other standing on the steps of the Nicanor Gate, 
sing the psalms. The Temple worship ottered at nine in 
the morning and three in the afternoon was a striking 
image of a pontifical High Mass. We will describe it 
more in detail later when we come to the ceremony of 
offering the Passover lamb Christ brought to the Temple. 

Down the ages from Solomon's day millions of people 
worshiped the God of their fathers in their Temple 
Courts, their backs turned to the east, for the pagans 
worshiped the rising sun, moon and sl<ars facing the 
east. As a protest against idolatry, the Israelites faced 
the west towards the altar and the Holy of Holies.* 
They put their sins on the victims with outspread hands, 
sacrilicing them as images of the future Victim they prayed 
for to come and fulfil these types. A line drawn through 
the center of the Temple, passing through the center of 
the altar and the Holy of Holies, towards which they 
faced, looking for the future Victim, and continued about 
1,000 feet, passed through the center of Calvary. Thus 
every ceremony and victim f need the cross with its agon- 
izing dying Sufferer. 

They did not understand the reason God chose this 

* EdersVielm, Temple, p. 87. - Numb, xxviii. 18-28 ; Levit. iv. 15, 16-21 ; II. 
Par. xxix. '^i, etc. <* Edershelm Temple, p. 00. * Edersheim, Temple, 127. 


place for the sanctuary. Rabbi Moses says it was lest 
Gentiles might there build a. pagan shrine, destroy the 
sanctuary, or lest each Hebrew tribe might have its own 
place of worship. Therefore they had no Temple till a 
king was chosen, who could settle disputes about the 
place of divine worship. 

Jewish writers say there was no forgiveness without 
blood, that the offerer, putting his hands on the victim's 
iiead, showed that he put his sins on the animal ; that the 
beast bore the sins of the offerer and the people ; that 
those who touched it, touched sin ; this, Maimonides says, 
was why they were unclean. The sins were not forgiven, 
but " covered up " till the Messiah came. Let us give 
some of the words of Hebrew writers.^ 

" Properly speaking the blood of the sinner should 
have been shed, and his body burned as those of the 
sacrifices. But the Holy One, blessed be He, accepted 
our sacrifices, for us as a redemption and an atonement. 
Behold the full grace which elehovah, blessed be He, has 
shown to man. In his compassion and in the fulness of 
his grace, he accepted the life of the animal instead of 
man's soul." 

''While the altar and the sanctuary were still in their 
place, we were atoned for by the goats designated by lot. 
But now for our guilt, if Jehovah be pleased to destroy 
us, he takes from our hand neither burnt offerings nor 
sacrifices." *' Bring us back in jubilee to Sion, thy city, 
in joy, as of old, to Jerusalem, the house of thy holiness. 
Then shall we bring before thy face the sacrifices that 
are due." 

Alas for the children of Israel ! The spiritual deep 
V)lindness which fell on them the night they sentenced 
their Messiah to death has not yet lifted. All their 
sacrifices are now centered in the Mass. 

The prophets and Old Testament say, that these 
sacrifices were in themselves worthless, if separated from 
Christ the Antitype to whom they pointed, who at a 
future time was to die to fulfil their shadowy meanings. 
The Passover lamb, the bread and wine, filled up, com- 
bined in one the vast details of the Temple. The burn- 
ing words of Hebrew prophets all down Old Testament 

^ Edersheim, Temple, 93. 


history, find expression in these words of Messianic Pass- 
over prayer. 

Haste, my Beloved, come, ere ends the vision's day. 

Make haste Thyself, and chase the shadows all away 

" Despised " is He, but yet *' extolled " and *' high " shall be. 

** Deal prudently, " sprinkle nations," and " Judge" shall He." 

While establishing the ceremonial of sacrifices foretell- 
ing the crucifixion, Moses wrote the Five First Books of 
the Old Testament. He gathered up the traditions of 
the patriarchs, which had been handed down from father 
to son, from Noe to Sem and to Abraham, relating to 
creation, the fall of man, the flood, the separation of the 
seventy-two families, which developed into the tribes, 
and which became the great nations of antiquity. We 
will give a rapid glance over the Hebrew Scriptures, and 
give some of the names in which God revealed the future. 
These are lost in translations of the Bible. 

God's first name given in the beginning of Genesis as 
the Creator is Elohim, who made heaven, earth, and formed 
Adam, " man," " the reasoning being." Elohim is God in 
justice, author of nature, unbending as the physical forces, 
rigorous in righteousness, punishing Adam for his sin, 
destroying the wicked down the pages of the Old Testa- 
ment. The word was spoken for the last time by the 
dying Son of God on the cross atoning the justice of his 
Father for the sins of all men, when he quoted the Psalm 
using the word Eloi Eloi, etc., " My God, my God, why 
hast thou forsaken me ? " ^ 

When man because of sin was doomed to hell like the 
demons, Elohim-Jehovah appears to Adam, curses the 
serpent, and promises that the Seed of the woman would 
conquer. Here was first revealed a new name of the 
Deity, Jehovah, " The Existing One." But the name has 
another meaning : " The God of Mercy. " Jehovah the 
Divine Son, had mercy, took pity on fallen man, and 
promised to redeem the race. While Elohim treated 
man with the rigors of his justice, destroying the world 
with the flood, burning Sodom and Gomorrah, killing the 
wicked, in dealing with the Hebrews, the justice of Eloi, 
the eternal Father, is tempered with the mercy of Jehovah, 

* Mark xv. 34, Psalm xxi. 1. 


" God of mercy," the Son, foretold as the Redeemer. " I 
appeared to Abraham, to Isaac and to Jacob by the name 
of God Almighty, but by my name Jehovah, I was not 
known to them." ' 

Down Hebrew history Elohim the Father is justice, 
Jehovah the Son is mercy. Acting with the Holy Spirit, 
called the Shekina — these three Persons of the Trinity 
carry on the preparation for the Incarnation, the Church, 
the Mass. They are often called in the original Hebrew 
Adon or Adonai, " Lord " or " Lords." 

Filled with religion, animated with devotion, feeling 
the aurora of coming Christianity, the Hebrews called 
objects, places, and their children by names bearing the 
roots of these names of God to show forth his power and 
attributes. Elohim was shortened to El, Jehovah to Ja, 
Jo, or Je, while Adonai is often found unchanged. If the 
reader will examine the Bible words with these roots, he 
will find almost enough names with them to fill this book. 
Each is a revelation of God, of his attributes, or a prophecy 
of the coming Christ. 

Let us take the words Jesus Christ as an example. 
Jesus is the Greek form of the Hebrew Josue, or Joshua, 
meaning " Jah Saves," " Jehovah Saves," or " The God of 
Mercy Saves." The name was first borne by Josue, that 
leader who succeeded Moses, and led the Hebrews into 
the Promised Palestine. Moses only saw it from afar, led 
them in sight of it, did not enter, and died on Nebo, for 
the law of Moses brought the Hebrews only in sight of 
the Church. Jesus or Josue led them into Palestine, as 
the one he foretold, Jesus Christ led mankind into the 
Church. Christ is the Greek for Messiah " The Anointed." 
Therefore Jesus Christ means, " The Anointed God of 
Mercy Will Save." How appropriate then the angel's 
words to the Virgin : " And thou shalt bring forth a Son, 
and thou shalt call his name Jesus. For he shall save his 
people from their sins." '^ 

But a visible sign of the Almighty Guide was necessary 
during the existence of tlie Hebrew religion, to win them 
from the striking pagan rites of Egypt, to keep them 
from the paganism of surrounding nations, to foretell the 
Holy Spirit guiding the future Church. For that reason 

1 Exod. vi. 3. 2 Luke i. 31, Matt. i. 21. 


God appeared to them in visible form, spoke first to 
Adam, to patriarchs, to Moses on Sinai, in the tabernacle, 
taught their leaders, gave the revelations to their proph- 
ets, and appeared to holy men in the days of Christ. 
This visible appearance of God the Jewish writers call 
the Shekina. Let us see what they say, that the reader 
may better understand the meanings of the Temple. 

In the original language of the Old Testament and 
later Hebrew writings, in hundreds of texts and passages, 
we find the word Shekina, from the Hebrew word : " to 
appear," "to dwell," meaning the "Majesty of God," 
" The Divine Presence." It was a cloud by day and a fire 
by night. Hebrew writers represent it as a visible ap- 
pearance of the Deity, God the Holy Ghost accommodating 
himself to man's eyes, so that he might see the invisible, 
Eternal Spirit.^ 

First before the fall, under this form of the Shekina, 
God walked with Adam in Paradise, blessed marriage,^ 
gave them the world with its plants and animals for 
food, and the law regarding the tree of good and evil, for 
society cannot exist without laws.^ Under this form of 
a cloud, or fire, God spoke to Adam after the fall, con- 
demned him and his race for eating the forbidden fruit 
and promised the Redeemer.* 

To the patriarchs, the Shekina appeared, revealed the 
future and blessed them and their race. He told Noe how 
to build the ark, called Abraham out of Ur of the Chalde- 
ans into Palestine, blessed him and his race — in hundreds 
of these passages of Scripture where the word God or 
Lord in the translation is given, in the Hebrew it is the 

For nearly four hundred years it spoke not till it ap- 
peared to Moses in the burning bush. " And the Lord 
appeared to Moses in a flame of fire out of the midst of 
the bush." That "bush" was the Khamnus, from which 
was made Christ's crown of thorns.^ 

The Shekina directed Moses how to deliver the Hebrews 
from Egypt, went before them as their guide, opened the 
Red Sea, and led them for forty years through the Arab- 
ian deserts. It was a pillar of cloud by day, and a pillar 

» See G«ikie, Life of Christ, ii., 612, etc. : Edersheim, Life of Christ, 1. 166, 168. 
« Gen. i. S8. ^ oeu. ii. 17. * Gen. iii. 13, « Exod. iii. 3. 


of fire at night. When it moved, the hosts of Israel fol- 
lowed ; when it rested, they camped ; and when the fierce 
desert sun burned them, it spread over the whole camp, 
tempering the heat. It covered Sinai as a great cloud 
which Moses alone penetrated amid thunders and light- 
nings : it gave the law and commandments, told Moses to 
form the priesthood, the ceremonial, and build the taber- 
nacle. " And they shall make me a sanctuary, and (I will 
shekina) I will dwell in tlie midst of them." ' 

In this visible form of fiery cloud, the Holy Spirit rested 
in the tabernacle, on the mercy-seat, over the ark of the 
covenant, between the gold wings of the cherubim. He 
spoke face to face witli Moses, Josue, the Judges, Samuel, 
Nathan, David, Solomon and all the prophets. Through 
them He revealed to mankind all the prophecies of the 
Old Testament. God the Shekina was the King of the 
Hebrews ; their government was a Theocracy : " God- 
ruled." The synagogue prayers coming down from this 
time have everywhere the words : " O Lord our King." 
" We have no King but Thee," etc. 

They tired of God's government, asked for a king 
similar to the rulers of the nations round them. Samuel, 
filled with sorrow, consulted the Shekina. "And the 
Lord said to Samuel. . . They have not rejected thee, 
but me, that I should not reign over them." - God warned 
them of the troubles a king Avould bring on them. The 
people persisted, and the Shekina told Samuel to anoint 
Saul, who, rejected for his sins, David was chosen in his 

His son Solomon built his famous Temple. The day of 
its dedication the Shekina filled its sanctuary so the 
priests could not minister.^ On the Mount of Offence Solo- 
mon built temples for his wives' gods ; * as a punishment '" 
ten tribes rebelled and only the Jews and Benjamites re- 
aiained faithful to David's family. Wicked kings led the 
Jews into idolatry, in the very Temple of Jehovah idols 
were adored,* and as a punishment the Babylonians de- 
stroyed the city, burned the Temple and carried the people 
away into captivity. 

God told Jeremias to hide the ark of the covenant in a 

1 Exod. XXV. 8. 2 I. Kings viii. 7. s qi. Kings viii. U. ♦ Ul. Kings xi. 
" in. Kings xii. * Ezech. viii. 


cave on Nebo where Moses died.^ The covenant or con- 
tract with God was broken, the Shekina spoke no more, 
prophets ceased to teach ; Rabbis, Scribes, Pharisees and 
Sadducees misled the people. For many centuries the 
Jews were left without a Divine oracle, and the narrow 
peculiar teachings and practices of Judaism, of Scribes 
and Pharisees, rose, which ended in the crucifixion of 
their Messiah. 

But it was revealed that when the Messiah would come, 
the Shekina would appear and speak to them again. In 
far-off Persia, three high priests of Zoroaster's religion, 
coming down from Elam " The Youth", Sem's eldest 
son, saw the Shekina under the form of a star which 
led them to the manger of the infant Saviour.^ The 
night Christ was born lie appeared as a bright cloud 
to the shepherds on Bethlehem's hills, while angels 
sang the hymn of " Glory be to God in the highest, 
and on earth peace to men of good will.^ 

When John the Baptist baptized the Lord at Gilgal, 
the Shekina, in the form of a dove, overshadowed 
Christ. At the Transfiguration, in the form of a cloud. He 
covered Thabor's height. When preaching in the Temple 
He spoke in testimony of the Saviour. AVhen he died He 
left the Holy of Holies as a mighty wind, saying, " Let 
us go hence.'' He rested on the western walls of the 
Temple, according to Jewish writers. The day of the 
Ascension He surrounded the ascending Christ. "And 
a cloud received him out of their sight." The day of 
Pentecost the fiery cloud, the Holy Ghost,* filled the 
Cenacle and rained down tongues of fire on the Apostles, 
giving each the language of the nations he was to convert. 

Jewish writers tell us, the Shekina took up its abode 
on the summit of Olivet, for three and a half years, day 
and night they heard His voice in pleading words : 
" Come back to me, O my people, O come back to me ! '*. 
The Presence never spoke again.^ 

In numerous places the Talnmd has the words " Holy 
Spirit " having the same meaning as in Christian writings. 
The Old Testament, the Talmuds, Targums, Philo and 
Rabbinical writers use words which in translations of the 

* II. Mach. ii. ' Matt. ii. 1. ' Luke ii. 14. * S. Augustine Sermo, Ixxi. 
ile Verb ; Mach. xii. n, xi.v. ^ Sheiiioth, R. 3. Ed, Warsh. 7 b. 12, etc. 


Bible are rendered as Lord, God, etc., which show they had 
a dim idea or knowledge of the Trinity. As all translations 
are weak, our English Bible loses these peculiar terms. 

The Hebrew Word Yaqara " The excellent Glory," 
found especially in Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and 
Deuteronomy, means God the Father in the act of re- 
vealing, while the term Memra " the Logos," " The 
Word," is the Divine Son revealed. Hundreds of times 
Memra will be found in Moses' five books. The Targum 
Onkelos gives it 179, the Jerusalem Targum 99, and that 
of Pseudo Jonathan 321 times. Yaqara is God in his 
divine majesty ; Memra is God in his wisdom ; the 
Shekina is God revealing himself to man. 

We give an example of the Targum Onkelos. " God, 
Yaqara, spoke to Abraham." ^ " God, Yaqara, rested at the 
top of Jacob's ladder," ^ and later spoke to the patriarch.' 
Moses uses the word when he says God called to him 
from the bush,* promised the manna,^ when the Hebrews 
defeated Amalec,® when Jethro visited Moses,' and when 
the Lord, Yaqara, gave the Ten Commandments.® There 
are hundreds of terms in the Hebrew Bible which are 
dim revelations of the Persons of the Trinity. 

The first foundations of the Hebrew religion was laid 
by the Eternal Father Yaqara. The forms of nature, the 
knowledge of divine things, were given by Memra, the 
Word of God, the Wisdom of the Father, the Son of God. 
The ceremonial, law, tabernacle, Temple and Hebrew 
Church were founded by the Shekina the Holy Spirit. 
The Apostles and converts were then, by reading the Old 
Testament, ready to receive the belief in the Trinity, first 
clearly revealed when Christ said, " Baptizing them in the 
name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy 
Ghost." ' 

These words were applied to the Persons of the Trinity 
in the times of the patriarchs, and continued down 
through Moses' writings. When God called Moses from 
the fiery bush to develop the patriarchal religion into the 
tabernacle and Temple ceremonial and found the Hebrew 
nationality, he revealed himself by a new name, " I am 

» Gen. xvii. 22. * Gen. xxviii.13. ' Gen. xxxv. 13. * Exod, iii. 1--6. 

^ Exod. xvi 7--10. « Exod. xvii. 16. ' Exod. xviii. 5, * Exod. xx. 

» Matt, xxviii. 19. 


who am," * which was rendered by the Hebrew Jehovah 
" The Existing One " or Adonai, " Lords," from adon, 
"Lord," "sir." 

While Eloliim, from Eloi, " My God," represents the 
Eternal as creating and governing the universe, Jehovah 
shows him in his relation to man as the " God of mercy " re- 
vealing himself to the world, forming the covenant, giving 
the Law, forgiving sin, and proniised as the Redeemer. 
Elohim is the God of justice punishing the wicked — tlie 
Eternal Father to whom sacrifices are offered by direc- 
tions of Jehovaii the Divine Son, with whom the Shekiiia 
acts, enlightening patriarchs and prophets. 

After writing the Law and sprinkling the people with 
blood, "Moses, and Aaron, and Xadab, and Abiu, and the 
seventy ancients of Israel went up, and they saw the God of 
Israel." ^ Here the original Hebrew has the word Yaqara, 
as also in verses 11 and 17. 

When God established the daily sacrifice of tabernacle 
and Temple for perpetual oblation ' the word is Yaqara, 
as it is when Moses asked to see His glory.* The same 
word is used when God filled the tabernacle with his 
glory .'^ 

The bullock and ram for peace offerings are sacrificed be- 
fore Yaqara,^ the Lord, Yaqara, commanded ' them when 
He appeared to the multitude.® When the ark was set 
down, Moses said, " Return, O Lord, to the multitude of 
the house of Israel." * God as Yaqara spoke to Aaron and 
Mary, promised to appear to the prophets in vision and 
dream, and he spoke to Moses, who saw the Lord Yaqara.^® 
Moses prayed to the Yaqara not to destroy the Hebrews, 
and the Yaqara was not with them when they wanted, 
against his wish, to go to the Promised Land.^^ 

»Exocl. xiii. 14. « Exod. xxiv. 10. SExod. xxix. 43. « Exod. xxxiii. 18, 22, 33. 
6 xi. 32--3(j. « Levit. ix. 4. ^ Ibidem. ^ ibidem 23. » Yaqara, Numb. x. 36. 
w Numb. xii. 8 " Numb. xiv. 14-42. 


Leaving not the supernal glories he had with the 
Father and the Holy Spirit before the world was, the 
Eternal Son was made man, suffered death to redeem us, 
then with our nature united to the Divinity, he went back 
into the spirit world unseen, where he ever offers sacrifices 
from our altars. 

Day by day, at every Mass, he returns from these 
eternal, boundless, spaceless, timeless realms, hides his 
body, soul, and Divinity under forms of bread and wine, is 
sacrificed in Eucharistic ottering, in Communion feeds our 
souls, and then enters again his eternal sanctuary. Thus 
every Mass is like a renewal of the Incarnation and an 
entry into heaven. Communion is an image of God 
made man in the Person of the Divine Son united to each 
soul who receives him, and the feasts of the Incarnation 
and birth of Christ intermingle with feasts of the Eucha- 
rist in all (Church Liturgies. 

Every year the Hebrews lield a most holy and mysterious 
Temple rite, foretelling Christ's death and his entry into 
heaven at his Ascension and after every Mass. God him- 
self told Moses how to establish the ceremonies of this 
the Day of Atonement, so celebrated in Jewish writings. 
But only thirty-four verses are all we have in the Old 
Testament relating to this great day.^ The ancient world 
has vanished, the priesthood ceased centuries ago, and not 
a stone remains on a stone of the Temple. But fortu- 
nately, a work hardly ever seen by Christian eye has most 
minute details of this the most striking of all the Temple 
ceremonies of the time of Christ. 

One Part of the Babylonian Talmud Tract Yomah : 
" Day of Atonement," is filled with descriptions of the 
rites and ceremonies of that day. We will first see the ori- 

* Levit. xvi. 



gin of this remarkable product of the Jewish people, which 
tiiey revere next after the Old Testament. Then we will 
lay before our readers details picked out here and there 
from this work, at the same time giving explanations of 
the text as we go along. This is the first time, Ave think, 
that this work has been given to Christian readers in this 
form. For the Talmud has been looked on as a vile pro- 
duct of the Jewish mind, written to deceive, and perhaps 
prejudice has prevented its study. We will first give the 
origin and history of the Talmud. 

The year 3,428 of Adam's creation, 128 of Rome's 
foundation, 626 before Christ, reigned in Babylon Nabu- 
chonosor II. " Nebo protects the landmarks." Nebo 
comes from nibach^ " to teach," " to prophesy." Because 
of their idolatry, God allowed this monarch's armies to 
capture Jerusalem, destroy Solomon's Temple, carry away 
the Hebrews as slaves and scatter them over the plains 
of Babylonia. 

There they began to better study their religion. With 
the Torah " The written Law," in Moses' five books, they 
claimed, came down also the Talmud " The Teachings " ; 
that these traditions were as old as Holy Writ ; that they 
were equally revealed to Moses with the law, and that they 
are the explanations and the supplement of the written 
word and Temple ceremonial. 

The New Testament mentions these traditions thirteen 
times.^ The Scribes and Pharisees had carried them to ex- 
cess, which Christ reproved. In their foundations these 
Talmud traditions are correct. Many traditions come 
down to us from apostolic days, always existed, came 
from no Pope or counsel, and found everyAvhere. Such 
universal customs or teachings giA^e us an idea of the 
Talmudic Jewish traditions, Avhen stripped of fanciful, or 
distorted exaggerations.^ 

In the year A. D. 70, the Jcavs rebelled against the 
Romans. Vespasian marched doAvn from the north to 
invade Judea. Elected emperor by the army, his son 
Titus Vjecame commander, took Jerusalem, destroyed the 
Temple, carried the captiA^e Jews to Rome, Avhere they 
worked building the Colosseum. A fcAV years later the 

» Matt. XV. 2, 3, 6 ; Mark vii. 3, 5, 8, 9, 13 ; Acts vi. 14 ; Gal. i. 14 ; Col. ii. 8, II. 
Thes. ii. 14 ; I. Pet. 18. « See Geikie, Life of Christ, ii. 193, etc. 


Jews again rebelled, and Hadrian captured the sacred city, 
left it a heap of stones and forbade a Jew to enter the 
sacred city under pain of death, except once a year to 
celebrate the Passover. 

On the site of an old cemetery, Herod Agrippa had 
founded Tiberias, nestling on the shores of the Lake of 
Galilee. The leading Jews made this their religious 
capital, where they founded a flourishing college, to which 
wealthy Jews from all the nations sent their sons to be 
educated, especially if they were destined to become 
rabbis or preachers of the synagogue. 

None but a Jew would be received ; the Gentiles were, 
they held, doomed to hell because they did not know the 
Torah or written law, and tlie Talmud or traditional Law, 
which were only for the Jew. St. Jerome tells us he 
could not find a Jew in Jerusalem or Bethlehem who 
dared teach him Hebrew, and he went down to Tiberias, 
where he says " his teacher feared for his life like another 

In the second century after Christ, the famous Jehudah 
Hansi, heir of a wealthy family, and honored as a patri- 
arch, was president of this college. He began to write 
the traditions in the year 150 after Christ ^ which they 
claimed could be traced back as far as Josaphat,^ David's 
recorder, and which they contend God had given to Moses 
with the written word. 

These writings of Jehudah form the Mishna " Study," 
the first part of the Talmud. His successors at the 
Tiberias school Avrote the part called the Gemara " Ex- 
planation " or " Commentary," on these traditions given 
in each Mishna. Later learned Jewish sages added 
further explanations, and opinions of different schools of 
thought which flourished before the destruction of the 
Temple under Titus, were added. In later ages still other 
opinions were incorporated till the work becoming un- 
wieldy, a decree of the Sanhedrin forbade any otlier addi- 
tions. This is what is now called the Jerusalem 

In the year B. C. 490, the great Persian king issued 
the decree that the Jews could return and rebuild their 

* Zanolini, De Fide Jud. Cap. 1. 

2 II. Kings, viii. 16, 20-24 ; III. Kings iv. 3 ; I. Par. i. 18-15. 



city and Temple. But many Hebrews engaged in trade 
remained in Babylonia, and at the time of Christ numer- 
ous Hebrew colonies there flourished. These also had 
their traditions coming down, as they held, from Moses. 
They also began to write them down in the same form as 
the learned rabbis of Tiberias. Tlieir labors come down 
to us under the name of the Babylonian Talmud. 

The Talmuds, most peculiar products of an age when 
Christ walked the earth, throw a In'ight light on the Old 
Testament, Hebrew customs, Temple ceremonial, public 
and private prayers, and show the Jew of that epoch in 
his religious belief and i)ractice. 

Living in Palestine before the Babylonian Captivity, 
the Hebrew kept liimself separated from all nations, for 
he was of the chosen race, of whom the ^Messiah was to 
be born. Of brightest mind, glorying in being a son of 
^Vbraham, he kept secret from pagans his religion, and it 
was almost impossible to penetrate the secrecy of his 
belief and practice. Religious right thinking and living, 
faith and morals, were only for the Jew. All Gentiles 
were condemned to hell, because of their ignorance of the 
Law or Torah and of tlie Talmud, and they would not 
teach the Gentiles, for the Law was for the Jews — this 
was the prevailing idea of the Scribe and Pharisee in the 
days of Christ. 

INFutual suspicions caused the persecutions of the 
middle ages, the Jew was i)rescribed in every Christian 
country, the Hebrew mind became exceedingly acute be- 
cause of adversity and poverty. But amid all their 
miseries they held Avith a death-grasp to their religion — 
])erliaps there is a Providence in this, for tliey show thai 
the Old Testament is true. 

In the middle ages all Jewisli books Avere condemned 
to be destroyed, the Talmud was oi-dered burned ; but 
tliey saved a few coi)ies. A J(!W learned in Talmudic 
lore was converted to the Catholic Church, and explaining 
to the Pope the contents of this work, the Pontiff for- 
bade any further destruction of this product of antiquity. 

This decree saved the Talmud from utter destruction. 

The Talmud is divided into six sections : " Seeds," 
" Festivals," '• Women," " Jurisprudence," " Holiness," 
and " Ptirity," making sixty "Tracts," each treating of 


diiferent matters — both Talmuds forming sixty volumes 
in quarto.* 

These Talmuds show you the Jewish mind before and 
during the time of Christ. There is little in them to be 
condemned, as many hold who never saw them, except 
that the Jerusalem Talmud, contains some scandalous 
attacks on Christ's character. But the Babylonian Tal- 
mud hardly alludes to Him. 

You pass page after page of weary waste of discussion, 
disputes of learned sages, and their opinions of what the 
Torah " the Law," means reminding you of disputed 
points of moral theology. The oldest part, called the 
Mishna, the purest and best, is rich in information, for it 
comes down perhaps from beyond the Babylonian Cap- 
tivity, when Israel Avas led by the prophets guided by 
the Hol}^ Spirit. 

The Gemara, coming after the Captivity, shows minds 
absolutely without faith, devoid of a spark of the super- 
natural. All is founded on the Torah, "the Law," as 
they call the Books of Moses, — the first five books of the 
Bible. The prophets are seldom quoted; the beautiful 
Temple service is explained, but they never look beyond 
and behind it to see the Christ it foretold. 

They looked for two Christs — one to be born of David's 
family who was to establish a kingdom of matchless 
splendors, trample on his enemies, and wade through 
rivers of blood to his throne in Jerusalem, where he 
would make the Jews rulers over all the earth. Borrow- 
ing these ideas from the Jew, Mohammed and his succes- 
sors spread their empire by the sword. The other Christ 
or Messiah, to be born of Joseph's tribe, was to be a 
suffering Christ to come and die ; why, they do not 

Bible and Talmud, both written by Hebrews, differ in 
a striking degree — one is the product of inspired men, 
through whom God spoke to the world, the other was 
written by men of an outcast nation, spiritually dead, 
absolutely divested of every spark of supernatural faith. 
One pulsates with life; in every page you see, in the 
original, the foretold Redeemer, the face of the Holy 
Ghost ; the other, the Talmuds, show the heart of a race 

» See Edersheim, Life of Christ, i. 47, 103, 104, 175. 


punished for idolatry by the Babylonian Captivity, and 
for the crime of killing their Messiah driven by the 
Romans into all the earth fulfilling these words. " We 
will not have this man rale over us." " His blood be on 
us and on our children." 

We do not always realize what an Oriental tradition 
is. To us a tradition is a story, more or less true, 
changing from one generation to another, vague, or exag- 
gerated, founded on truth, but developed by time. 

But a tradition among the Jews was a religious truth 
coming down from their forefathers, told and repeated in 
the synagogues, in the Temple, at feasts, by family fire- 
sides, given exactly word for word as they had heard it. 
If it were not given as handed down, in almost the very 
same words, if a word were added to it, or left out, the 
whole company cried out, the relator was execrated 
and driven away. This was the way the patriarchs 
taught their children the story of the creation, the fall of 
man, the religious belief of ancient days. In this way 
they claim religion and history were handed down till 
Moses wrote them in Genesis. 

Adam died in the year 930 when Mathusala Avas 
ninety-four years old. The latter lived till 8em, called 
also Melchisedech, was in his fiftieth years. Sem, or 
Melchisedech, died on Sion when Isaac was thirty-three 
years of age, and the latter lived till he was 180, — 2288 
years after the creation of Adam, and but a short time 
before the birth of Amram, Moses' father. Thus history 
came down from Adam and the patriarchs to ]\Ioses the 
great Lawgiver, Founder of the Hebrew nationality and 
writer of the first five books of the Bible.^ 

In the same way, they claim, the teachings they called 
the " traditions " of the Jews, i^assed down till written in 
the Talmud. In the schools of Babylonia and Judea, the 
scholars received only what was taught, no deviation 
was allowed, not a word was changed. Fi-om his high 
seat, like a pulpit, the learned Rabbi gave the sayings of 
their fathers, the traditions of the elders held as sacred 
as the written word, sometimes more so, and the pupils 
learned them by heart and treasured them as the breath 
of their nostrils. 

* De Religione Hebrffiorum, n. 68. 


Living in Babylonia since the days of the Captivity, 
the Hebrews were not there disturbed by the Christ's 
life, his teachings, the tragedy of his death and the 
preaching of the apostles, The Talmud contains little 
relating to Christianity. We find in it Hebrew rules 
and customs of the Passover, as it was celebrated in the 
days of the Jewish kings. 

We will describe the Temple worship on the Day of 
the Atonement, because we wish to lay before the reader 
the minute details of how God was worshiped in the 
days of Christ, because the Temple ceremonial was in- 
troduced into the synagogue and was followed by Christ 
on the night of the Last Supper, and because atonement 
of sin is the very foundation of every Old Testament 
offering fulfilled in the Last Supper and is now continued 
in the Mass. 

The Temple high priest in the ceremonial, and the cele- 
brant to-day offering the Mass, image Him, the High Priest 
of eternity who came into the world, offered his life and 
sufferings as a sacrifice, then passed back again into his 
heavenly sanctuary. Therefore ascending the altar steps, 
beginning Mass the celebrant recites these deep words of 
the Church's Liturgy : 

" Take away from us, we pray thee, O Lord, our sins, 
that with pure minds we may be made worthy to enter 
into the Holy of Holies. Through Christ our Lord. 
Amen." ^ 

To link every offering with Christ and the Holy Spirit 
burning in him, following God's orders, every sacrifice 
was consumed or roasted on the altar with a fire which 
had come down from heaven.^ But Nadab and Abiu, 
Aaron's sons, sacrificed with a strange fire, which did not 
typify the Holy Ghost or relate to the foretold Redeemer. 
For that awful sin God struck both dead.^ Then the 
Eternal ordained the ceremonial the Hebrews were to 
follow each year on the Day of the Atonement.* 

The Bible does not go into the details of that sacred, 
holiest and most striking of all the Temple ceremonies. 
But before us is the Tract Yomah " Day of Atonement," 
of the Babylonian Talmud. We will go over the whole 
volume, search in the rubbish for the pure untarnished 

' Roman Missal. * Levit. ix. 24. ' Levit. x. 2. * Levit, xvi. 16. 


gold of the days before Christ, and lay before the reader 
these interesthig details. As we go along we will give 
explanations of the Hebrew texts that the reader may 
better understand how Christ and the Mass were fore- 

The high priest, representing Christ for the Hebrew 
nation, alone performed all the ceremonies of this solemn 
day which always fell on the tenth day of Tishri. In fear 
and trembling, he bore the sins of Israel behind the veil 
in the gold-walled room, the Holy of Holies, image of 
heaven, where the Shekina, the Holy Spirit, dwelled as a 
cloud by day and a fire by night, in the tabernacle and 
first Temple. Before the ceremonial of this day, priest 
and people, even the very sanctuary, were unclean, and 
without this ceremonial the services of the following year 
could not be carried on. Tlie Law laid down numerous 
details,*'* but we will give the more minute descriptions 
of the Talmud.^ 

" Seven days before the Day of Atonement, the high 
priest moves from his house, lest his wife might defile 
him, and takes up his abode in the Palhedrin Chamber, 
called in Greek Paraderon, (the Lord's Chamber), near 
the Nicanor Gate. Another priest, generally the Sagon, 
his substitute, is chosen and instructed to take his place 
if he becomes unclean.* Out of his own pocket he must 
buy all the animals for the sacrifice." '^ 

Thus be foretold the sinless Christ atoning for the 
iniquities of the world, and foreshadowed the unmarried 
clergy entering our sanctuary to offer Mass. 

" Why was he separated six days before the feast ? 
When God gave the Law on Sinai, he called Moses up 
the mounttiin. ' And the glory of the Lord dwelled on 
Sinai, covering it with a cloud six days, and on the 
seventh day he called him out of the midst of the 
cloud.' *^ During all these six days of preparation, they 
sprinkled the high priest with the ashes of all the red 
cows offered." 

^ The words of the Old Testament iu tlie Talmud are not the very same as 
those found in the translations Christians use, but the sense is the same. No 
two persons will give the same terms when translating from another lan- 
guage. 2 Levit. xvi. » See Geilcie, Life of Christ, i. 95. ♦ Levit. viii. 34. 

» Babylonian Talmud, Tract Yoniah. " Day of Atonement," Chap 1 ; Mishna 
and Gamaras. ^ Exod. xxiv. It;. 


These animals, were sacrificed outside the walls of the 
city, led over the bridge spanning the Cedron, built by 
the high priest out of his own pocket. Across that same 
bridge they dragged Christ the night of his arrest. The 
red cows foretold Christ, red with his blood, offered in 
sacrifice for mankind. The high priest was sprinkled 
with water mixed with their ashes, to typify that the 
pontiff was typically in spirit sprinkled with the Re- 
deemer's blood to clean him from sin to offer the sacrifice 
and enter the sacred sanctuary. Sprinkling the high 
priest foretold our holy water. 

" Aaron was separated seven days, during which time 
Moses instructed him regarding the services of this day. 
During these days two men of the Beth Din ' The 
Court of Law ' taught him (the high priest) the cere- 
mony as it was written, as at this present it hath been 
done, that the rite of sacrifice might be accomplished.' ^ 
Moses ascended into the cloud and ^as sanctified in the 
clould, in order that he might receive the Torah ' The 
Law,' for Israel in a state of holiness."^ 

" This happened the day after the Ten Commandments 
were given, which was the first of Moses', fast of the next 
forty days.^ The high priest the Day of Atonement has 
not the gold plate with the engraved words ; ' Holiness 
unto Jehovah ' on his brow " for he represented our High 
Priest Christ " who his ownself bore our sins in his body 
on the tree." ^ 

" The chamber where he took up his abode was first 
called the * Chamber of the Lords,' but after the high 
priests bought their office with money, after the Roman 
occupation of Palestine, it was called the Hall of the 
Palhedrin, ^ Officers.' " 

All houses, chambers, etc., had hangings on the door- 
posts boxes of leather, in which on parchments were 
written the morning and evening prayers. " Hear, O 
Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord. Thou shalt love 
the Lord thy God, with thy whole heart, and with thy 
whole soul and with thy whole strength," etc. "And 
thou shall write them in the entry, and on the doors of 
thy house." * Did they give rise to the holy water founts 

» Levit. viii. 34. * Talmud, Tract Yomah, " Day of Atonement " p. 4, 

» I. Peter ii. 24. * Deut. vi. 4-9. 


of our churches and houses, that by taking the water, 
and blessing ourselves we may remember our baptism 
and redemption through Christ ? 

"No chamber of the Temple had these Muzuzahs ex- 
cept the Palhedrin Chamber, because for seven days it 
was the high priest's abode, and the Nicanor Gate 
through which the people entered the Temple. 

" First he clothed himself in the eight vestments God 
prescribed for Aaron and his sons, went with the gold 
basin turned over the sacrifices burning on the altar to 
make it burn better. Every day he sprinkled the blood 
of the victims, offered the incense in the Holies, trimmed 
the lamps of the seven-branched candelabrum, and takes 
for his own use a part of the first oft'erings, which he 
eats. Incense he ofi:ers first, then he trims the lamps, 
and sacrifices the lamb morning and afternoon. (In- 
cense typified the prayers of Christ offered to his Father 
before he was sacrificed.) 

" They drew lots to choose the priests to wait on him. 
The first lot was to select the priests to clean the ashes 
from the great altar, called the Ariel, ' Lion of God,' the 
second, for those who would kill the victim, sprinkle the 
blood, clear the ashes on the altar of incense in the Holies, 
trim the lamps and carry up the members of the sacri- 
fices. The third lot was to choose the one among the 
nine priests to offer the incense in the Holies." 

The incense was offered first, and that is the reason 
the candles are first lighted and the celebrant of the 
Mass first incenses the altar at the beginning of Mass. 
" And Aaron shall burn sweet-smelling incense upon it 
in the morning. When he shall dress the lamps, he shall 
burn it." ^ 

Then follow directions to mark the horns of the great 
altar with the blood of the victims in the form of a cross 
which we will describe later. 

" Four chambers were in the heating-house, like small 
rooms opening into a great hall, two belonged to the 
sanctuary (the Priests' Court in the middle of which stood 
the great altar of sacrifice), and two were profane, and 
small wickets parted the sacred ones from the jjrofane. 
The southwestern was for the lambs for the sacrifice. 

* Exod. XXX. 7, 8, etc. 


The southeastern was for the showbreads (the proposi- 
tion bread in our Bible). In the northeastern the Mach- 
abees, the Asmoneans, had hidden the stones of the 
altar profaned by the Greeks. The northwestern was 
used as a passage to the bath-house. The chamber at 
the northeast was the place where the wood was kept, 
and blemished priests examined the wood there, as 
moldy wood was unfit for the altar. The northwestern 
chamber was the place for the cured lepers, who came 
to the Temple to be sprinkled. Wine and oil for the 
offerings were kept there, and it was called the chamber 
of oil. 

" The altar stood in the middle of the court, and was in 
size thirty-two ells, ten ells opposite to the door of the 
Temple, twenty ells wide, eleven ells toward the north, 
and eleven ells to the south, so that the altar was oppo- 
site to the Temple, and its walls." 

This altar stood on the summit of Mount Moriah, where 
Abraham offered his son Isaac, who carried the wood of 
tlie sacrifice up the mount, foretelling Christ carrying 
his cross. At the present time tlie Mosque of Omar, 
called the "Dome of the Rock," covers the rock summit 
of Moriah, which rises about fifteen feet over the floor of 
the eight-sided building, it being within covered with 
beautiful faince or delf ware, mostly colored white and 
blue, and ornamented with passages from the Coran. 
The rock is now inclosed with an iron railing. In the 
southeastern part of the rock is a round hole about two 
feet in diameter, through which the blood of the victims 
flowed down and was carried by underground pipes 
below the city to the Cedron " Black Valley," thus called 
because of the blood. The great rock, irregular like the 
top of a mountain, never leveled off, shows the groves 
where the blood flowed, and is colored by age. To Mo- 
hammedan eyes this holy place is second to Mecca, be- 
cause of Abraham from whom the Arabia-ns descended 
through Ishmael. Under the rock is a kind of cave, 
and there they showed shrines, where they told the writer 
Abraham, Christ and Mohammed prayed. 

"During these six days the elders of the Beth Din, 
judges and learned lawyers of the supreme court, instruct 
the high priest, read to him out of Leviticus xvi., and 


say to him, 'My lord the high priest, say it aloud lest 
thou hast forgotten or not studied this.' On the morning, 
preceding the Day of Atonement, he comes to the eastern 
gate and the bulls, rams and sheep are placed before him, 
that he might get a knowledge of the service. All the 
seven days he is free to eat and drink, but the eve of the 
Day of Atonement he is not permitted to eat much. 

" The elders of the Beth Din left liim to the elders of 
the priesthood, who took him up into the house of 
Abtinas, and made him swear : * My lord the high 
priest, we are the delegates of the Beth Din, and 
thou art our delegate, and the delegate of the Beth Din, 
we conjure thee by Him who hast made his abode in this 
house, that thou slialt not alter one thing about which 
we have spoken to thee.' " 

"They made him take an oath that he was not a Sad- 
ducee, for the Sadducees believed not in the future life. 
He took farewell, weeping, and they wept, he because he 
miglit be suspected of being an infidel, they lest they 
might suspect an innocent man. He read day by day the 
Scriptures, especially the Books of Job, Esdras, Chroni- 
cles and Daniel. 

" He lived in two chambers, one on the north, the other 
on the south, the Palhedrin to sleep in, and the Abtinas 
as a study. He used to take a handful of incense so as 
not to spill any, and practised with the censer, the sacri- 
ficial knives, took five legal baths, and ten times washed 
his hands and feet in the brazen laver." ' 

These baths were shadows of baptism. The night be- 
fore the great day, he slept not, for the night of his pas- 
sion Jesus did not sleep " The chief priests sang to him 
Psalm cxxxvi., and talked among themselves and with him 
all night. About the midnight hour, they cleaned the 
great altar of ashes, beginning at the crowing of the 
cock, in Hebrew tlie geber^ while the courts and the 
Temple were filled with Israelites, for no one slept in the 
Holy City that night. 

" Bezeleel * God in protection ' made three arks, the 
middle one was of wood nine spans high, the one inside 
was of gold eight spans high, that outside was of gold 
ten spans high, and a span and a trifle over to hide it. 

> Exod XXX, 18. 



The gold on the top was a span thick, that it might seem 
like a small crown on the top of the ark under the mercy 

*' There were three crowns, one of the altar, one of the 
ark, and one of the table of proposition for the bread and 
wine. Of the altar called the * Crown of the Priesthood ' 
Aaron received ; that of the table called the ' Crown of 
Royalty ' David received ; that of the ark called the 
' Crown of Learning is yet to be bestowed on the Mes- 
siah. " (That foretold the Crown of Thorns on Jesus). 

Then follows a long description of the way God spoke 
to them through the Urim and Thummin with their 
twelve precious stones, each having the name of one of 
the twelve tribes of Israel, which became bright so they 
read God's oracles and thus wrote his reply. 

" In the Urim and Thummim were only the names of 
the tribes, the names of Abraham, Itz'hak, and Jacob, 
likewise the words Shibtei Jeshurun ' The Tribes of 
Israel,' we have learned that a priest on whom the 
Shekina does not rest, and is not inspired by the Holy 
Spirit, need not be inquired through. The Holy Spirit 
enabled him to perceive the letters. 

" Five things were missing in the second Temple. 
What are they ? The ark, the mercy-seat, the cheru- 
bim, the heavenly fire, the Shekina, ' the Holy Spirit,' and 
the Urim and Thummim." 

" Formerly, whoever desired to clear the altar of 
ashes did so. When there were many priests, they ran 
on the staircase leading to the top of the altar. Who- 
ever came within four ells, merited it. One of two who 
were running up the staircase, pushed his companion so 
he fell and broke his leg. Another time one stabbed a 
priest to death. The Beth Din made a reform, that the 
altar should be cleared by lot —there were four lots. 1 f 
a layman should sprinkle the blood, offer incense, water 
and wine, he would be put to death.* 

"The second lot was to choose thirteen priests to 
slaughter the victim,^ sprinkle its blood, clean the gold 
altar in the Holies of ashes, trim the lamps, take up the 
members of the victim to the great altar, the head, rigiit 
hind leg, two fore legs, tail, left hind leg, windpipe, two 

^ See Yomah, chap. xl. 33, 2 Yomah, chap, xi, 35, 


flanks, entrails, fine flour, things in pans ; and the third lot 
was to select priests who had never offered in the Holies, 
and the fourth lot was to choose priests to take up the 
members of the animal from the staircase to the altar. 
The daily sacrifices were offered by nine, ten, eleven and 
twelve priests, according to the feast. The ram was 
offered by eleven priests, the flesh by five, the entrails, 
fine flour and Avine by two." 

The services began when the sunlight illumined the 
tomb of Abraham. When Sarah died, in her 127th year, 
Abraham bought of Ephron, the Ilethite, the double cave 
of Hebron, with argument and talk, just as to-day the 
Arabs will haggle with you in making a contract. It is 
a specimen of Oriental agreement, showing how little the 
people of that country have changed for thousands of 

A good carriage road leads south from Jerusalem to 
Hebron, twenty miles away, winding through Bethlehem, 
and south by Solomon's Pools. On the side of the hill, 
surrounded with ancient reservoirs, and other marks of 
extreme antiquity, in the midst of the city of Hebron 
rise the walls of a mosque once a Christian church, 
Moslem fanatics fill the streets scowling at you. Your 
life is hardly safe from those who guard with jealous 
care the burial-place of the patriarchs and their wives. 
The Prince of Wales, later Edward YII., with his suite, 
having the Sultan's firman, was allowed to enter the upper 
parts of the building, where six silk-covered cenotaphs 
cover the places, where down beneath, in the " double- 
cave," rest the remains of the fathers of Hebrew and 
Arabian races. 

On the walls of the upper church, a bronze Greek 
tablet tells you that below is the tomb of " Abraham the 
Friend of God." Some years ago the building was re- 
paired under the direction of an Italian architect, 
Farenti, who one day followed the keeper down the 
stone steps, although kicked and rebuffed, he persisted, 
and tells us, he saw on the floor of the cave the six white 
marble sarcophagi of the patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, 
Jacob, and their wives. 

" The lots to choose the ministers of the Temple took 

* Gen. xxiii. 


place either the evening before or at dawn. Before the 
break of day the Superintendent said : ^ 

" Go out and see whether the time for sacrificing has 

"They ascended the Temple tower at the southeast 
corner of the area, and the one who saw the light first 
said : 

" Barquai, It becomes light. The East is bright." 

" As far as Hebron ? Is the whole East bright as far as 

" Yes, Baraq Barquai, the light has risen." 

" Then each went to his work. Why this ceremony ? 
Because the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph 
and their wives were buried at Hebron. Abraham be- 
gan the Mincha prayers of the morning, when the walls 
began to throw dark shadows, according to the words, 
" Abraham rose up early in the morning.' ^ 

When the disc of the sun rose over the far-distant 
Kebo whence Moses saw the Promised Land, where he 
died and was buried, its shadows in the forenoon 
stretching across the mirrored waters of the Dead Sea, a 
band of priests, stationed in the tower on Olivet, blew 
blasts on their silver trumpets. The priests stationed on 
the Temple tower took up the strain and blew three 
blasts, the first reminding them of the prophecies of the 
coming of the Messiah and his kingdom, the second 
God's providence over the world, and the last the 
General Judgment. All the people in the sleeping city 
rose, each Jew put on his Phylacteries, stood beside his 
bed and recited his " Shema " and morning prayers. 
But this great Day of Atonement, all Jewry gathered in 
the Temple or went to the synagogue if they lived in 
distant lands. 

The pontiff rose from his couch at the trumpet tone, 
clothed himself and went to take a bath showing forth 
the baptismal innocence required of the celebrant enter- 
ing the sacred sanctuary of our church to sacrifice the 
Lamb of God. 

" Undressing he went down and dived into the water 
of the great bath over the Beth Haparva, a screen of linen 
byssus being placed between him and the people. Five 

^ Yomah, chap. iii. 40-41, * GeiK xxii. 3. 


times the high priest bathed, and ten times he washed his 
hands and feet. Each time he dived into the water he 
said : 

" Let it be thy will, O God, my Lord, that thou causest 
me to come in and to go out in peace, that thou causest 
me to return to my place in peace, and save me from this 
and from like danger, in this world and in the world to 

The danger he feared was lest he might die within tlie 
Holy of Holies, as God struck with death the two wicked 
sons of Aaron. ^ 

" The high priest ministers in eight vestments, a common 
2)riest in four — in linen breeches, cassock, girdle and miter ; 
to the high priest are added the breastplate, the ephod, a 
coat, and the tists, the gold fillet on the forehead with the 
words "Holy to Jehovah."^ The Urim and Thummim 
" Learning and Virtue " were inquired of only when he 
was thus vested, but inquiries were not made for a common 
man, only for the nation, the king, the chief of the Beth 
Din. (the chief justice of the Supreme Court), and for a 
public official. 

" The vestments should be made, according to the Bible, 
of linen six times twisted. Where twisted linen is pre- 
scribed, it should be eightfold twisted. The material of 
the high priest's cassock was twelve times twisted, that 
of the veil tv/enty-four times twisted, and that of the 
breastplate and ephod twenty-eight.^ They made on the 
lower hem of the robe pomegranates of blue, and purple 
and red yarn, twisted. " And thou shalt make the ra- 
tional of judgment, with embroidered work of diverse 
colors, according to the workmanship of the ephod, of 
gold, violet and purple and scarlet twice dyed, and line 
twisted linen." * Four times each sixfold is twenty-four, 
and the gold thread four times makes twenty-eight. 

" Cleanliness is next to godliness " was the rule in the 
Temple. The frequent bathing of the whole body, the 
washing of the hands and feet required before ceremonies 
of the Temple and the bath taken before the Passover, 
foretold Christian baptism. For without this sacrament, 
the Eucharist cannot be received. "When John the Bap- 
tist came to the banks of the Jordan at Galgal, where the 

» Levit. X 2. » Excd. Txviii. 3G, » ?.s:od. xxxix. 28. • Exod. xxvill. 15. 


Hebrews crossed to take possession of the Promised Land, 
preaching penance and baptizing he followed the Temple 
teachings. Following the customs of Jewish bathing, 
the Mohammedan washes himself at the mosque before 
entering the house to him so holy. 

In the morning, Avhile the vast crowds are filling the 
Temple courts, and 1,000 priests and Levites are prepar- 
ing for the service, the high priest again takes a bath say- 
ing tlie prayer we have given. While the high priest 
sacrifices the ordinary morning lamb the priests and Lev- 
ites sing the Temple Liturgy, the Psalms, the Canticles 
and tlie prayers. Surrounded by twelve priests, at his 
light hand the Segan, ready to take his place if he beeanu3 
unclean, at his right and left the heads of the " course " 
of priests serving that week, like the assistant priest, 
deacon and subdeacon of the Mass, with twelve other 
priests around him he carried out the service. 

" In the morning, he clothed himself in vestments of 
Pelusian linen costing $180, in the evening, Hindoo 
linen worth not less than $100 ; sometimes they were 
more valuable, and they were paid for from the Temple 
treasury. But he could use still more costly vestments 
bought from his own funds.^ 

" After the service of the congregation was finished, if 
the high priest had a linen vestment made by his mother 
at her own expense, he might put it on and perform the 
service for a private person, but not for the congregation, 
carry out the spoons for the frankincense, and incense 
from the Holies of Holies, but after taking it off he must 
give it to the congregation. 

" His mother made for K. Ishmael ben Phabi,^ who 
was the high priest, a linen vestment worth $9,000. He 
used to put it on, perform the services for private persons, 
and mentally give it to the congregation, but brought it 
home. R. Eliezer ben Harsum's mother made him a 
linen vestment worth 20,000 minas. (It seems hard to 
believe this, for as the former vestinent cost $9,000 that 
is 100 minas, what did this cost ? But we are giving the 
statements just as we find them in the Talmud, Tract 

' Yomah, chap. ili. 47. ^ He was vpry wealthy, dressed in the height of 

fashion, decked with gold lace and jewels. He seized the property of widow 
and orphan. He was one of the judges of the Sanhedrin, was bitterly opposed 
to Christ and with the others condemned him to death. 


Yomah.) His brethren the priests did not let him put it 
on, as in it he seemed to be naked, so delicate was its 
texture " 

If priests of Jehovah's Temple vested in such magnifi- 
cent and costly vestments, when sacrificing animals to 
foretell the Victim of the cross, how beautiful and spot- 
less should be our vestments, when we offer in the Mass 
the real Lamb of God. 

" The high priest Ben Katin made twelve cocks to the 
laver, which had only two. He also made a machine 
for the laver to take it down into the well at will, that its 
water might not become unfit by being kept overnight. 
The King INIonobaz made all the handles of the utensils 
used on the Day of Atonement of gold. Helen, his mother, 
made the gold candlelabrum over the temple-gate. She 
likewise made a tablet of gold whereon was inscribed the 
section about a Avoman who goes aside." * 

This Queen Helen, a convert to Judaism, carefully fol- 
lowed its tenets, took the vow of a Nazarene three times 
and practised it for twenty-one years. Her family tombs, 
called the " Tombs of the Kings" are now shown at the 
north of Jerusalem. They are very extensive, being 
rooms excavated out of the solid rock to the north of 
what was once a deep quarry. The stops leading down 
were cut so the rain water is conveyed into cisterns under 
the rock to the south. The door to the tombs was closed 
by a round flat stone like the stone which closed the door 
of Christ's tomb. 

" The high priest bathed. Coming out, he wiped him- 
self with a sponge, his vestments of cloth of gold were 
brought him, which he put on, and then again he washed 
his hands and feet. They brought him the daily sacri- 
fice, the lamb offered morning and evening at nine 
o'clock and three p. i^r. He cut the lamb's throat, an- 
otlier priest finished the sacrifice in his presence. 

" He took up the blood, sprinkled it on the horns of 
the great altar. He went into the Holies and there 
offered the incense, trimmed the seven lamps of the gold 
candelabrum, and coming out he offered the head and 
members of the lamb, the things in pans and the bread 
and wine. 

» Numb. V. 12. 


" This day there were five services. The daily morn- 
ing sacrifice in vestments of cloth of gold, the service of 
the day in linen vestments, his ram and the people's ram 
in vestments of cloth of gold, the spoon, and censer in 
linen vestments, and the daily offerings in cloth of gold. 
Between each service, he had to change his vestments, 
and dive deep into the bath, washing his hands and feet 
before and after the bath, according to the words of the 
Lord to Moses regarding his brother Aaron.' 

" He made an incision in the throat of the next victim. 
Plow much ? Says UUa : The greater part of the windpipe 
and the gullet. Abyi ordered the services according to a 
tradition he had, and it agrees with that of Abbu Saul. 
The first great arrangement of wood precedes the second 
arrangement of wood on the southwestern corner of the 
altar, as will be explained in the Tamid. This preceded 
the two measures of wood, and they preceded the removal 
of the ashes from the inner altar, and this preceded the 
trimming of the five lamps. This preceded the sprinkling 
of the blood of the morning daily offering, and this pre- 
ceded the trimming of the two lamps, and this preceded 
the offering of incense, which came before the offering of 
the members, this was before the flour-offering, and this 
was before the things baked in pans. This preceded the 
drink oft'ering (the bread and wine), and this preceded 
the additional offerings for Sabbath or festival, and these 
were before the spoonfuls of frankincense. From the 
word Ilashlainin, 'Peace-offerings,' it can be inferred 
that they complete the service of the day." 

Now they lead the bullock into the priests' court, facing 
his body north and south, as he stands at the north of 
the great altar, they turn the animal's face to the west. 
P^or so faced Christ on the cross away from the city 
which killed him towards the western nations which 
would later receive his Gospel. The high priest stood 
towards the east, his face to the west. He placed his two 
hands, palms down, thumbs forming a cross, on the head 
of the victim, between the horns. "On this sin-offering 
he confessed the sins for which the sin-offering was 
brought, on the trespass-offering the sins corresponding 
to it, and on a burnt-offering sins of preventing the poor 

^ Levit. xvi. 23, 84, etc. See, Tract Yomah, p. 45, for details, etc. 



to gather, for forgetting the poor and not leaving cor- 
ners." ' 

" He put his two hands on him and confessed his sins 
in the following words : 

" I beseech Thee, O Jehovah, I have committed iniqui- 
ties, I have transgressed and have sinned before Thee, 
I and my house. I beseech Thee, O Jehovah, forgive, 
I pray, the iniquities, the transgressions, and the sins I 
}\ave committed, transgressed before Thee, I and my 
liouse, as it is written in the Law of ]Moses thy servant, 
" Upon this day shall be the expiation for you and the 
cleansing from all your sins, that you shall be cleansed 
from all your sins." - 

With a mighty wsound the whole congregation reply, 
" Blessed be the name of His kingdom's glory for ever." 

The lust of moricy was on them. Families had monop- 
olies of Temple duties, which brought them large revenues, 
and they would not tell the secrets of their crafts. 

" And the memories of the following were mentioned 
with blame : those of the house of Garmo, they were un- 
willing to teach the art of making the showbreads (the 
proposition bread foretelling the altar bread) ; those of 
the house of Abtinas, who did not Avant to teach the art 
of preparing the incense ; Hogros ben Levi who knew 
something in music, in which he was unwilling to in- 
struct others. Ben Kamstar did not want to teach the 
art of writing. 

"The house of Garmo was skilled in making the 
showbreads. The sages sent for workers from Alexan- 
dria, and they could bake it well, but could not take it 
from the oven for it got broken. Tliej^ heated the oven 
from the outside, Avliile the house of Garmo heated it 
from the inside. The showbreads of the Alexandi'ian 
bakers used to become mouldy, and that of the former 
never became so. So the Beth Garmo had to be invited 
to resume their post. The sages inquired of them : * Why 
are j^ou unwilling to instruct others?' 'Our family 
knows ])y tradition that this Temple Avill one day fall, 
and then if we should have tauglit it to an improper 
person, he may go and serve idols.' " 

"The house of Abtinas was skilled in preparing in- 

» ].ev'\i. x'w. •>, 10. = Levit. xvi. :',(), \'<iniali, vi. <>. 


cense, and were unwilling to teach it. The sages sent for 
workers from Alexandria, who could prepare the incense, 
but could not make it so the smoke would ascend. R. 
Ishmael said, ' I was once on the road, and I met one of 
their grandchildren, and said, ' Your ancestors wished to 
increase their own glory, and diminish that of the Lord.' 
K. Ishmael b. Luga said : * I and one of their grand- 
children went out into the fields to gather grass, and he 
wept, sajdng : " I see the herbs we used to put in the 
incense to make it smoke." " Point it out to me." " We 
are under an oath not to show it to any one." R. Johanan 
b. Nuri met- an old man of the family of Abtinas with a 
scroll, on which was a list of the names of the spices for 
incense. I said : ' Show it to me.' ' As long as our 
family lived, they did not show it any man. But now 
when they have all died, and the Temple no longer exists, 
I can give it to thee, but be careful with it.' ^ 

" Now the high priest comes to the front of the altar, 
and a priest holds out to him the gold box, wherein are 
the * lots,' on one is written : * For Jehovah,' on the 
other ' For Azazael.'^ The Segan is on his right, the head 
of the family of priests serving that week on his left. If 
that of Jehovah was taken out by his right hand, the 
Segan says to him : ' My Lord the high priest, raise thy 
right hand.' If that of Jehovah was taken out by his 
left hand, the head of the family says : ' My lord the 
high priest, raise thy left hand.' He placed the lots on 
the two goats saying : ' To Jehovah, a sin offering.* 
' For Azazael the scapegoat.' The whole assembly re- 
sponded with a mighty voice : ' Blessed be the name of 
Ilis Kingdom's glory forever.' 

" The Segan always walked or remained at the pontiff's 
right hand, that if he became unfit for the service he 
might take his place. He tore the scarlet cloth in two, 
tied one half to the rack and the tongue of crimson wool 
to the head of the goat that was to be sent away, the 
scape-goat, and placed him opposite the gate, through 
which he was to be led, and the one to be sacrificed oppo- 
site the place of its slaughtering." 

Formerly the crimson wool became white as a sign 

■* Yomah, chapter iii. 53-55. * Azazael means " Almighty Eloi," the Eternal 
Father ; for Christ, foretold by tli» scape-goat, offered nimseif on the cross to 
his i^^ather, with the sins of mankind on him. 


that God had forgiven their sins ; the western lamp al- 
ways burned, and remarkable miracles happened showing 
their sacrifices were received. 

"The Rabbis taught: Forty years before the Temple 
was destroyed, the lot never came into the right hand, 
the wool did not become white, the western light did not 
burn, the gates of the Temple opened of themselves, till 
the time that R. Johanan ben Zakki rebuked them, say- 
ing : Temple, Temple, why alarmest thou us ? We know 
that tliou art destined to be destroyed. For of thee hath 
prophesied Zacharias ben Iddo, ' Open thy gates, O Liba- 
nus, and let fire devour thy cedars.' " ' 

These prodigies took place the moment Christ died. 
Then the veil was torn from top to bottom, the earthquake 
shook down the two pillars sustaining the veil, shattered 
the walls, the dead rose and came into city and Temple. 
God showed that the services had fulfilled their mission 
in pointing to the Redeemer, and that he would receive 
no more the services of the Deicide nation. Another 
sacrifice, the Last Supper — the Mass fulfilling all these 
had been established the night before in the Cenacle as 
foretold. " I have no pleasure in you, saitli the Lord of 
hosts, and I will not receive a gift of your hands. For 
from the rising of tlie sun, even to the going down there- 
of, my name is great among the Gentiles, and in every 
place there is sacrifice, and there is offered to my name a 
clean oblation. For my name is great among the Gen- 
tiles, saith the Lord of hosts." ^ 

" Six times the high priest pronounced the name Jeho- 
vah during the Day of Atonement, three times in the 
first confession, and three times in the second confession, 
and the seventh time when he had drawn the lot. He 
went to the bull the second time, putting his hands on 
him and confessing in the same words given in the first 
confession. And all Israel responded as before." 

Then began the preparations for the sacrifices. A lay- 
man killed the animals ; for lay Romans crucified Christ 
delivered up by the priests. 

" Every day he scooped up the incense with a silver 
spoon, and emptied it into a gold vessel, but this day he 

* Zach. ii. 1. Yomah ix. 43-39-59. See Josephus, Wars, B. vi., x. 8, Antiq. iii., 
Ti. 7 ; Edersheim, Life of Christ, ii. 610. » Malaehy i. 10-11. 


used gold vessels. He gathered up the live coals from 
the altar of ever-burning fire, filling a vessel holding 3 
Kabs, and poured them into one holding 3 Kabs. Every 
day he filled one holding a Seah — 6 Kabs, but on this 
day he filled one of 3 Kabs. Every day it was a heavy 
vessel of yellow gold, but this day it was light made of 
red gold with a long handle. 

" Every day he used to offer half a Mina, fifty Dinars in 
weight of incense, half in the morning, and half in the 
evening, but this day he added a handful more. Each 
day it was finely pounded, but this day it was of the 
finest.^ Each day the priests went up the eastern stair- 
case of the altar, and came down on the western, but this 
day the high priest went up and came down the middle. 
Every day the high priest washed his hands from the 
laver, but this day from the golden pitcher the cyanthus. 
Every day there were four fires on the altar, but this 
day there were five. 

" When the bull was slaughtered, he received in a gold 
basin his blood, gave it to a priest, standing on the fourth 
row of marble steps, to be stirred. He took the censer, 
mounted to the top of the altar, cleared the coals on 
either hand. Taking a censerful of the glowing coals, he 
came down again, and placed the censer on the fourth 
row of stones in the forecourt." 

Although five hundred priests and five hundred Levites 
vested in Temple robes stand by in the Priests' Court 
and at the Nicanor Gate, while thousands of people 
throng the Temple, the high priest alone must carry on 
the service in the Holies ; no one must be with him ; to 
typify that the apostles ran away when Jesus alone passed 
through in his Passion, his atonement, when he opened 
the Holy of Holies of heaven to mankind. 

" They brought him the gold spoon and censer ; he 
took two handfuls of incense, and filled the spoon with 
it. He took the censer in his right hand and the spoon in 
the left." 

He is about to enter that holiest place of earth, image 
of that heaven closed by Adam's sin. Let the celebrant 
of the Mass learn the baptismal innocence, the purity of 
soul and the sinless life required to enter the sanctuary 

^ Levit. xvi. 13. 


to offer prayer and sacrifice the Lamb of God from the 

'' It once happened on the Da}^ of Atonement that the 
liigh priest spoke in a public place with an Arab whose 
saliva was sprinkled on the high priest's vestments. He 
became unclean ; tliis high priest was K. Israel, son of 
Qim'hith. Then his brother Jeshohab entered and took 
liis place, so his mother saw two high priests of her sons 
the same day. Another day the high priest spoke with 
a, Gentile nobleman, the same happened, then his brother 
Joseph took his place. ^ 

*' He bent his three middle fingers on his palm, and re- 
moved with the little finger and thumb the incense found 
outside the three, one of the most difficult service in the 
Temple. Pie took the handle of the spoon with his finger- 
tips, and moved his thumbs up the handle, being thus 
able not to spill the frankincense, till the handle fell near 
his armpits, and the head of the spoon was above his 
palms. He then overturned the spoon, thus emptying 
the frankincense into his hands, heaped the frankincense 
on the censer and spread it out upon tlie burning coals. 

" He walks through the Temple, holding the censer in 
his right hand, hanging from its chains, till he reaches 
the place between the two veils sejiarating the sanctuary 
from the Holy of Holies — one ell wide." 

They did not know whether the veil of Solomon's 
Temple was on the inside or outside of the wall dividing 
the Holy from the Holy of Holies, so in the second Tem- 
ple, they put up two veils one within the other without 
tlie dividing wall; the space between the two veils being 
called Debir. 

" The outer one was raised and looked to the southern 
wall, and the inner one to the northern. He walked be- 
tween them till he reached the northern wall, where he 
turned his face to the soutli, walked back with liis left 
hand to the veil and reached the ark, which was on his 
right in the Holy of Holies. Coming there he placed the 
censer between the staves, heaped the incense on the top 
of the coals so the whole place was filled with smoke of 
incensCc He departed in the same way as he had come, 
facing the Holy of Holies walking backward, and said a 

1 Yomah, iv. (30-70. 


short prayer in the Holies, but not making it long, so as 
not to alarm the Israelites about his delay lest they might 
think he had been killed by God." ^ 

A rope was tied to him so that if God struck him dead, 
they might pull his body out, for no one could ever enter 
that gold-walled room, with its dim religious light, where 
once God, the Shekina, the Holy Spirit, alone dwelled, 
showing forth that no member of mankind was in heaven. 

" The ark, with the cup of manna,'"^ the flask of oil for 
anointing priests and kings, Aaron's rod, with its almonds 
and buds, and the box the Philistines sent as a gift to the 
God of Israel with the gold vessels were not in the Holy 
of Holies." =^ 

Under Solomon Israel broke the covenant their fathers 
made with God agreeing to adore him alone, and wor- 
shiped the idols of King Solomon's wives on the Mount of 
Offense, where he built temples to them. In the time of 
the prophets they worshiped idols in the very Temple of 
Jehovah.* God directed the prophet Jeremy, and he took 
the ark of the covenant with its great winged cherubim, 
the mercy-seat of God, and hid them in a cave on Mount 
Nebo, where Moses died and was buried. They could not 
find the place and there they still rest, and will remain 
till Israel returns to the Messiah their fathers killed ^ 
when they shouted, " Crucify him." The magnificent 
Temple Herod spent forty-six years building, was not 
entirely finished when Christ adored his Eternal Father 
within its holy Courts. Its Holy of Holies was empty. 
The Shekina dwelled not in it. The nation had fallen 
from the supernatural state of grace of the days of Moses 
and the prophets. Scribes, Pharisees, Rabbis and infidel 
Sadducee priesthood had deceived them. But they lived 
in hope of the Messiah foretold to visit this Temple.*' 

" Wlieji the ark was taken away there was a stone from 
the time of the first prophets, Shethia " Foundation ", 
three fingers high above the ground. Thereupon he 
placed the censer. Going out, he took the blood from 
the one who stirred it, went back and stopped, where he 
had stopped in the Holy of Holies, and sprinkled from 
his position once upward and seven times downward,' 

* Yomah. iv. 73. * Exod. xvi. 33. * Deut. xxviii. ; II. Par. 35. * Ezechiel vi. 

* II. Machabees ii. ° ^lalach iii. 1. •' Levit. xvi. 14. 


holding the palm open, counting one, and one, down- 
wards, one and two, one and three, one and four, one and 
five, one and six, one and seven. 

" Bowing deeply he departed backward, and placed the 
basin on the gold stand in the Temple. They brought 
him the he-goat. When he was killed, he received its 
blood in a basin, he went to the former place, stopping 
where he stopped, and sprinkled once upwards and seven 
times downwards, holding his palm open counting one, 
one and two, etc. He came out, and placed the basin on 
the second stand in the Temple. He took up the bull's 
blood, and put down the he-goat's blood. He sprinkled 
the blood thereof at the veil, which was opposite to the ark 
outside, once upwards and seven times down, thus count- 
ing he lifted the blood-lilled basin of the he-goat, and put 
down that of the bull's blood, he sprinkled it on the veil 
opposite the ark outside, once upward and seven times 
downward. He emptied the bull's blood into the he- 
goat's blood, mixing them and transferred the contents 
into the empty basin." ^ . 

In mystic meaning the one sprinkling downward fore- 
told the Son of God in his one Personality, coming down 
from heaven and made man, the seven sprinklings showed 
him filled with the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit ^ pour- 
ing out his blood on the earth and showing it to his Eter- 
nal Father in the supernal sanctuary of heaven. Mixing 
the blood of bull and goat typified his double nature in 
the one Person of the divine Son, (jod and man united. 
The ark mentioned was the ark called " the Aaron," where- 
in the Scrolls of the Law were kept in the Temple as in 
the synagogue. The blood was sprinkled toward the ark, 
foretelling that the synagogue would later kill Christ. 

" When he sprinkled toward the veil, he sprinkled not 
upon it, but opposite to it, so the blood fell on the ground. 
R. Eliezer ben Jose said. " I have seen the veil in Rome 
with the marks of the blood of the bull and goat of the 
Day of Atonement. Then he went into the Holies 
through which he had passed each time he entered the 
Holy of Holies. 

" He then went out to the altar, which is before the 
Lord, which is the golden altar, and began to clean it 

» Yomah, ix. 76, 77, 79, 81. * Isaias ii. 1, 2, 3. 


downward. Whence does he begin? From the north- 
eastern corner or horn to the northwestern, southwestern, 
southeastern, where he begins to clean the outer altar, at 
that spot, he finishes cleaning the inner. Everywhere he 
sprinkled from below upward, except at the spot where 
he stood, thereat he sprinkled from above downward. 

" He sprinkled on the clean place of the altar, where the 
gold was to be seen, seven times; what remained of the 
blood he poured out at the western base of the outer altar, 
and what remained of the blood of the outer altar, he 
poured at the southern base. Both kinds of blood mingled 
in the trench, and flowed out into the brook Cedron. 

" It holds true of all the rites of the Day of Atonement, 
whose order is prescribed by the Bible, and stated in the 
above Mishnas, that if they are performed in the wrong 
order, one has done nothing, but of the ceremonies per- 
formed in white garments outside, that is the lots, 
emptying the remaining blood, or confessions, it is true, 
if he has done them out of order they are valid. * And 
this shall be an ordinance for ever, that you pray for the 
children of Israel, and for all their sins once a year.' * 

" Both he-goats for the Day of Atonement shall be 
equal in color, size and price, and both bought at the same 
time. If one die before the lots are drawn another is 
bought to make up the pair, if after the lots one die, 
another pair is bought, and the lots drawn again, the one 
belonging to the first pair is allowed to graze till it gets a 
blemish, when it is sold, and the money becomes a gift 
offering, for an animal designed to atone for the congre- 
gation is not put to death." ^ 

The two goats now stand before the altar in the sight 
of that vast congregation of Hebrews from all the nations. 
The high priest comes to the scapegoat, spreads out his 
hands over his head between the horns, and confesses his 
sins and the sins of all the people, using the words we 
have given over the bullock, closing with : " For on that 
day shall he make an atonement for you so that ye may 
be clean from all your sins before Jehovah."^ 

" And the priests and people who stood in the fore- 
courts hearing the name of God, that is, Jehovah, issuing 
from the mouth of the high priest, used to kneel, prostrate 

* Levit xvi. 34 ; Yomah, iv. 82-84. * Yomah, vi. 87 ; » Yomah, vi. 9. 


themselves, fall cm their faces and say : " Blessed be the 
name of His Kingdom's glory for ever." 

"They delivered the scapegoat to the pagan man who 
was to be his conductor. All were fit to perform this 
function. But the Israelites were not permitted to do it. 
An elevated walk had been constructed for the he-goat, 
for the Babylonian and Alexandrian Jews used to pull 
hiin by the hair saying : " Take the sins. Take and go." ^ 

There stood the scapegoat on the high platform with 
the sins of Israel on liim foretelling Christ delivered up 
to pagan Pilate when Jesus stood on the high platform of 
the Pretorium, the real Scape-Goat delivered up to death 
by the Temple priests Avith the sins of mankind on him 
when they cried : " Crucify him." 

" Even if the conductor becomes unclean he may enter 
the Temple and take the goat," to foretell that Pilate was 
not as guilty of the death of Christ as the members of the 
supreme court who sentenced the Saviour to the cross. 

" With shouts and imprecations, the vast crowds 
followed the goat led by his pagan conductor through the 
Shushan Gate, across the arched bridge built over the 
Cedron by the high priest." That was the very In-idge 
they led Christ across the night of his arrest. Later the 
multitude followed Ilim down the Via Doloroso, out the 
gate, and up the little hill of Calvary that fatal Friday of 
the crucifixion. 

" Some of the prominent men of Jerusalem used to ac- 
company the goat as far as the first booth of the ten 
supplied with refreshments for tlie conductor. There 
were ten booths between Jerusalem and Tsuk, " the rock," 
of its destination, a distance of ninety l^is (twelve miles). 
At each booth they said to the conductor: "Here is food 
and here is water." And the persons of the booth ac- 
companied him from booth to booth, excepting the last of 
them, for the rock was not reached by them, but they 
stood at a distance looking on what he, tlio conductor, did 
with the goat." 

The Jews did not nail Christ to the cross, but stood by 
looking on while the Romans crucified Him. The con- 
ductor foretold Pilate and the Koman soldiers, while 
the multitudes looking on from a distance at the goat 

* Yomah. xi. 94. 


prophesied the leading Jews, high priest and Levites, 
around Calvary, not allowed to enter Roman ranks while 
the Son of God was sacrificed. 

" The conductor divided the crimson wool tied between 
his horns " for they divided the purple garments worn by 
the Lord among them. " The half he tied to the rock, and 
the second half between the goat's horns," as David fore- 
told of Christ: "They parted my garments amongst them." ' 

"He pushed him down backward. He went rolling 
and falling down, lie did not reacti halfway down the 
mountain, before he became separated limb from limb." " 

Bloody, torn, mangled, smashed on the rocks far below, 
lay the sinless victim with the sins of Israel on him, a 
striking image of the bloody body of the dead Christ with 
the sins of all mankind on Him. 

" The conductor returned to the last booth, under which 
he sat till dark," image of Pilate in his palace, after his 
death sentence on the Christ had been put in execution. 
Before the death of Christ, each year the scarlet cloth on 
the rock and in the Temple after the death of the goat 
became white, and swift runners ran back to the city to 
tell the joyful news to the people. But after the cru- 
cifixion It changed no more. Jewish writers try many 
ways to explain the reason. 

" Formerly the tongue of crimson wool used to be tied 
to the door of the porch of the Temple outside, so all 
could see it. When it became white, all rejoiced. When 
it did not become white, all became out of spirits and 
ashamed. Then it was changed so that it was tied to the 
door of the porch inside. They used to look at it even 
then. It was then re-formed that half should be tied to 
the rock, another half to the horns. Tliey had another 
sign. A tongue of wool used to be tied to the gate of tlie 
Temple, and as the goat reached the desert, the wool by a 
miracle became Avhite, as it is said : " If your sins be as 
scarlet they shall be made white as snow, and if they be 
red as crimson they shall be white as avooL" ^ 

When i-unners brought the news to the Temple that 
the goat was killed, they began the morning services, the 
image of a pontifical High Mass we liave described in a 
former work (The Tragedy of Calvary, chapter viii). 

» Psalm xxi. 19. 2 Yomah, vi, \y.l. ^ Isaias i. 18 ; Yoiuah, vi. 95-97. 


The high priest vests in his magnificent vestments. His 
Sagan, as assistant priest stands at liis right, the twelve 
priests, images of the twelve sons of Jacol), fathers of the 
twelve Hebrew tribes, range, six on either side of the 
pontiff, as during the ceremonies morning and afternoon 
each day. This was the number of assistant priests in 
all Temple ceremonies, and this was the reason Christ 
chose apostles to the number of twelve. 

Five hundred vested priests and as many Levites took 
part in the services. First the priest chosen by " lot," 
assisted by two priests, like the deacon and subdeacon of 
the High Mass, entered the Holies and incensed the gold 
altar, as now we incense the altar at the beginning of 
Mass. Then the lamb is sacrificed, his blood thrown on 
the horns of the altar in the form of a cross, and his 
flesh placed to burn on the everlasting fire burning on 
the great sacrificial altar. 

Before the porch of the Holies was an ornamental 
ark called the " Aaron," in which reposed the five first 
books of the Old Testament. With the ceremonial we 
will give when we describe the synagogue, the holy 
Scrolls are taken out mid prayer, chant and anthem. 

" The high priest came to read. If he desired to read 
dressed in linen or white byssus vestments, he did so, 
otherwise he read in a white stole of his own. The 
Hazzan, " servant " or attendant, of the congregation takes 
the Scrolls of the Law from the ark and presents them to 
the president of the congregation, he gives them to the 
Sagan, and tlie latter presents them to the high priest." * 

This ceremony, modified but little, is seen when the 
the Gospel is sung at a High Mass. But when the bishop 
pontificates it is carefully followed. Tlie altar boy or 
one of the clergy hands the Missal to the subdeacon, who 
reads from it the Epistle, after which he gives it to the 
deacon, who lays it on the altar, as the scrolls were in 
the ark, and kneels in prayer. He takes it, and kneeling 
presents it to the celebrant, who blesses him. The book 
is carried by the deacon, the clergy going before him till 
they come to the place where tlie Gospel is sung. The 
Jews in their synagogues of our day carry the Scrolls of 
the Law with the same ceremonies. 

* Yomah, chapter xii 98. 


" The high priest rises and receives the Scrolls stand- 
ing. He reads the section. (The celebrant at a high 
Mass, standing at the altar, touches the Mass-book in the 
hands of the kneeling deacon.) " After the death of the 
two sons of Aaron, when they were slain for offering 
strange fire, etc.,' and the section : ' Upon the tenth day 
of this seventh month shall be the Day of Atonement,' 
etc.^ Then he rolls the Scrolls together, and keeps them 
on his knees and says : ' More than what I have read to 
you is written here.' 

" The section " Upon the tenth," etc., he reads by 
heart, and pronounces over it the eight blessings, namely 
over the Law, over the service, over the thanksgivings, 
the atonement of iniquity, the Temple by itself, Israel by 
themselves, Jerusalem by itself, the priests by them- 
selves and the rest of the prayers. He who sees the 
high priest reading does not witness the burning of the 
bullock and the he-goat, not because it was not allowed, 
but because a great distance intervened, and both were 
done at the same time." 

The Temple with its great cloisters, its courts open to 
the sky, its halls, chambers and rooms covered an area 
of about 1,000 feet square. It was the largest religious 
edifice perhaps ever built, and was so thronged with 
people that they could not all see every service. 

" If he read in linen garments, he washed his hands 
and feet, stripped himself and went down to bathe, came 
out and dried himself Avitli a sponge. Vestments of 
cloth of gold were brought him, he put them on, washed 
his hands and feet ; he went out and performed the rites 
over his ram, the ram of the people, and the seven un- 
blemished lambs of one year. They Avere offered with 
the daily sacrifice of the morning, and the bullock for 
the burnt-offering, and the he-goat used outside, were 
offered with the daily sacrifice of the evening." ^ 

" He washed his hands and feet, undressed, went down 
to bathe, came up and dried himself. White vestments 
were brought liim, he put them on, washed his hands 
and feet, he went in to fetch the spoon and censer. He 
washed his hands and feet again, stripped himself, went 
down to bathe, came out and dried himself. Vestments 

^ Levit. xvi. - Levit. xvi. 29, 30, 31, 32. 3 Yomah xii. 102. 


of cloth of gold were brought to him, he put them on, 
washed his hands and feet, and went in to offer the in- 
cense of the evening and to trim the lamps. He then 
washed his hands and feet, took off his vestments, put on 
his own clothes, which had been brought to him, and was 
accompanied to his own house. He used to keep the day 
as a holiday with his friends, when he came away from 
the Holy of Holies unhurt. 

" It is known to us by tradition that the high priest 
bathed five times and ten times washed his hands and 
feet. When the conductor of the scapegoat returned, if 
he met the high priest in the street, he said to him : 
^ ]My lord tlie high priest, we have done the commission 
of Him, who givetli life to all living. jNIay he wlio 
giveth life to all the living give thee a long, good and 
orderly life.' " 

What did this elaborate ceremonial of the destroyed 
Temple of Jehovah signify ? It pointed to the future, 
the atonement of the Cross, the entry into the heaven of 
heavens, of the Scape-Goat Christ with the world's sins 
on him, first after his sacrifice of the Last Supper and of 
the cross, and his entry again after each Mass. 

This world and all in it images the unseen spirits, and 
the abode of bliss beyond the skies where the Eternal 
dwells in glory. When the priest says Mass or when 
the bishop pontificates, as high priest of the newer and 
more perfect Church, surrounded by his ministers, 
clothed in purple, gold and fine linen, offering, not bloody 
victims, but the " Lamb of God slain from the foundations 
of the world," we look beyond the veil of this magnificent 
ceremonial and image that supernal sanctuary shown 
us thus in visible forms. St. Paul beautifully refers to 
the Day of Atonement, telling that the ceremonies fore- 
told Christ to the Jew, and now recalls him to the 

" For the first tabernacle was made, wherein was the 
candlestick, and the table, and the setting forth of loaves, 
which is called the Holy. And after tlie second veil, the 
tabernacle, which is called the Holy of Holies. Having 
the golden censer, and the ark of the covenant covered 
about on every part witii gold, in which was the golden 
urn that had the manna, and the rod of Aaron that had 


blossomed, and the tables of the Testament. And over it 
were the cherubims ('Those grasped' * Held fast') of 
glory overshadowing the propitiatory, of which it is not 
needful to speak now particularly. 

" Now these things being thus ordered, into the first 
tabernacle, the priest indeed always entered, accomplish- 
ing the offices of the sacrifices. But into the second, the 
high priest alone entered once a year, not without blood, 
which he offered for his own and the people's ignorance, 
the Holy Ghost signifying that the way into the sanc- 
tuary was not yet made manifest, while the former taber- 
nacle was yet standing, which is a parable of the time 
then present, according to which gifts and sacrifices are 
offered, which cannot as to the conscience make him per- 
fect, that serveth only in meats, and in drinks, and 
diverse washings, and justifications of the flesh laid on 
them until the time of correction. 

" But Christ being present, a high priest of the good 
things to come, by a greater and more perfect tabernacle 
not made with hands, that is, not of this creation, neither 
by the blood of goats and of calves, but by his own blood 
entered once into the sanctuary, having obtained eternal 

" For if the blood of goats, and of bulls, and the ashes 
of a heifer, being sprinkled, sanctify such as are defiled 
to the cleansing of the flesh, how much more shall the 
blood of Christ, who throagh the Holy Ghost offered him- 
self without spot to Gud, cleanse our conscience from 
dead works to serve the living God ? 

" And therefore he is the IMediator of the New Testa- 
ment, that by means of his death for the redemption of 
those transgressions, which were under the Old Testa- 
ment, they who are called may receive the promise of 
eternal inheritance. For where there is a testament 
(that is a will dividing property after death), the death 
of the testator must of necessity intervene. For a testa- 
ment is of force after men are dead, otherwise it is not 
yet of force whilst the testator lives. Whereupon 
neither was the first indeed dedicated without blood. 

" For when every command of the Law had been read 
by Moses to all the people, he took the blood of calves and 
goats, with water, and scarlet \>'ool, and hyssop, and 


sprinkled both the book itself and all the people, saying : 
' This is the blood of the Testament, which God hath en- 
joined unto you.' The tabernacle also, and all the 
vessels of the ministry, in like manner he sprinkled with 
blood. And almost all things according to the Law are 
cleansed with blood, and without the shedding of blood 
there is no remission. 

" It is necessary therefore that the patterns of heavenly 
things should be cleansed with these, but the heavenly 
things themselves with a better sacrifice than these. For 
Jesus hath not entered into the Holy Places made with 
hands, the patterns of the true, but into heaven itself, that 
he may appear now in the presence of God for us." * 

Let us look beyond the ceremonial of Temple and Mass 
to that heavenly sanctuary, where God reigns in glory 
mid millions of saints bought by his blood. Church 
chancel, copied from Temple Holy of Holies, has now no 
veil. The great veil closing the Holy of Holies was rent 
from top to bottom the moment Christ died, to tell how 
he opened heaven by his death. The Jewish high priest, 
that day in the Holy of Holies, holding out his hands 
dripping with blood, arms and body forming a cross, fore- 
told our High Priest Jesus in the heavenly Holy of 
Holies, holding out his bloody pierced hands before the 
throne of his Eternal Father, ottering there the Masses 
said by all his ministers on earth. 

For the agent binds the one who sends him to act for 
him. The ministers bind the governments who send 
them as representatives. In ordination the priest receives 
the power to act for Christ in the business of saving souls 
and offering sacrifice. Standing at the altar, sitting in the 
confessional, administering the sacraments, Christ acts 
through and by the priest. The priest may be learned or 
not, good or bad, cultured or crude, homely or handsome, 
but the Mass and sacraments are the same, for the Pontiff 
of mankind does all these through him, the same as 
though He in visible form performed the function.^ 

Now let us see our High Priest in heaven and the 
Liturgy of that celestial Church, of which that of the 
Temple, was, and ours is the image. John, born of Aaron's 
family, priest of tlie Temple, most beloved of the twelve, 

* Hebrews ix. - See S. Augustine, Tract \^. io John. 


SO dear as to lay his head on Jesus' breast, John was saved 
from martyrdom by a miracle, and banished to Patmos by 
the cruel emperor Domitian. As the steamer passes you 
see that rocky isle, bleak, barren, desert, rising from the 
Grecian Sea. He tells us that he saw the heavenly 
Sanctuary from which Temple and Church buildings were 

In sensible forms and images the last of the apostles 
saw the vision, but far below the reality of the spirit world : 
" Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it entered 
into the heart of man what things God hath prepared for 
them that love him." ^ No one while living here can see 
the three Persons of God, angels or disembodied souls of 
men. For as with the light we see material thing.s, so the 
light of glory streaming down from God the Son in bea- 
tific vision, shows us the world of spirits only after death. 
Under visible forms acting on his senses the beloved 
Apostle saw the opened heavens. 

On the high heavenly throne was the Eternal Father, 
before Him rose the altar with the souls of martyrs under 
it. There were the four writers of the Gospels in forms 
of animals Ezechiel saw.^ The twenty-four ancients, the 
great men of both Testaments sat on seats of glory. Be- 
cause of her higher powers over the other dioceses, from 
apostolic times the Roman diocese formed her presbytery 
of twenty-four priests, now the College of Cardinals, while 
the other diocese had only twelve members of the senate. 
There was the woman clothed with the sun, crowned with 
twelve stars — the apostles — while the heavenly hosts sang 
the celestial Liturgy. There was spread the table of the 
Lord, the great Eucharistic Banquet to which were in- 
vited ail the nations. The Son of man and Son of God, 
as High Priest of. mankind, the Lamb of God, " The 
Angel, ' stood at the heavenly altar offering to his Eternal 
Father the Masses his ministers said on earth. 

For these reasons, at every Mass the priest with 
closed hands resting on the edge of the altar prays, that 
Christ may offer the Oblation on the heavenly altar, be- 
fore the throne of his Eternal Father, amid the vast 
unnumbered angels and saints of that heavenly Jerusa- 
lem, saying : 

* I. Cor. ii. 9. * Ezechiel i. 


" We humbly beseech Thee, O Almighty God, that thou 
wouldst command these gifts to be carried by the hands 
of thy holy Angel to thy altar on high, before the sight of 
thy Divine Majesty, that all of us, who by partaking of this 
altar, shall receive the most holy Body *i* and Blood >J« of 
thy Son, may be enriched by every heavenly blessing 
and grace. Through the same Christ our Lord. Amen." 

" I was in Spirit on the Lord's Da}^ and heard behind 
me a great voice. And I turned to see the voice that 
spoke Avith me, and being turned, I saw seven golden 
candlesticks, and in the midst of the seven golden 
(iiuidlesticks, onc3 like unto tlie Son of man, clothed 
with a garment down to his feet, and girded about 
the breasts with a golden girdle.^ 

" After these things I saw, and behold a door opened 
in heaven. And behold there was a throne set in 
heaven, and one sitting on the throne. And he that sat 
was like to the jasper and the sardine-stone ; there was 
a rainbow round about the throne, in sight like unto an 

" And round about the throne were four and twenty 
seats, and upon the seats four and twenty ancients, 
clothed in white garments, and golden crowns on their 
heads. And from the throne proceeded lightnings, and 
voices, and thunderings. And there were seven lamps 
burning before the throne, which are the seven Spirits 
of God. And before the throne there was, as it were, a 
sea of glass, like crystal, and in the midst of the 
throne, and round about the throne, Avere four living 
creatures, full of ej^es before and behind. And tin; 
lirst living creature like a lion, and the second living 
creature like to a calf, and the third living creature, hav- 
ing the face, as it were of a man, and the fourth living 
creature was like to an eagle flying. 

"And the four living creatures had each of them six 
wings, and round about and within, they are full of eyes. 
And they rested not day and night, saying, " Holy, 
Tloly, Lord God Almighty, who was and who is and 
who is to come. And when these living creatures gave 
glory, and honor, and benediction tu Him that sitteth on 
the throne^ who liveth forever and ever, the four and 

' A>)oc. i. lU-M. ' Apuc. iv. 


twenty ancients fell clown before Ilim that sitteth on the 
throne, and adored Him that liveth for ever, and cast 
their crowns before the throne, saying : * Thou art 
worthy, O Lord, our God, to receive glory, and honor, 
and power, because thou hast created all things, and for 
thy will they were and have been created.' " 

In the right hand of the Eternal Father was a book 
written within and without, sealed with seven seals — 
the whole revelation the Holy Ghost gave man contained 
in the Bible of which Christ is the key. He shines 
forth from every page of both Testaments. Take him 
out, and no one can understand the Bible. 

" I saw, and behold in the midst of the throne and of 
the four living creatures, a Lamb standing, as it were, 
slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the 
seven spirits of God, sent forth into all the earth. And 
he came and took the book out of the right hand of Him 
that sat on the throne. And when he had opened the 
book, the four living creatures and the four and twenty 
ancients fell down before the Lamb, having every one of 
them harps, and golden vials full of odors, which are the 
prayers of the saints. And they sang a new canticle, 
saying : *■ Thou art worthy, O Lord, to take the book and 
to open the seals thereof because thou wast slain and 
hast redeemed us to God in thy blood, out of every 
tribe, and tongue, and people, and nation, and hast made 
us to our God, a kingdom and priests, and we shall reign 
on earth.' 

" And I saw and heard the voice of many angels 
round about the throne, and the living creatures, and the 
ancients, and the number of them was thousands and 
thousands, saying with a loud voice : * Worthy is the 
Lamb that w^as slain to receive power, and divinity, and 
wisdom, and strength, and honor, and benediction.' And 
every creature, which is in heaven and on earth, and 
under the earth, and such as are in the sea, and the 
things that are therein, I heard all saying : * To him that 
sitteth on the throne, and to the Lamb, benediction, and 
honor, and glory, and power, for ever and ever.' And 
the four living creatures said. Amen. And the four and 
twenty ancients fell down on their faces, and adored Him 
that liveth for ever and ever. 


" After this I saw a great multitude which no man can 
number, of all nations, and tribes, and peoples, and 
tongues, standing before the throne, and in the sight of 
the Lamb, clothed in white robes, and palms in their 
hands. And they cried with a loud voice saying : ' Salva- 
tion to our God and to the Lamb.' And all the angels 
stood round about the throne, and about tlie ancients, 
and about the four living creatures, and they fell before 
the throne upon their faces, and adored God, saying : 
' Amen. Benediction, and glory, and wisdom, and thanks- 
giving, and honor, and power, and strength to our God 
for ever and ever. Amen.' These are they who have 
come out of great tribulation, and have washed their 
robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. 
Therefore they are before the throne of God, and serve 
him day and night in his Temple, and he that sitteth on 
the throne shall dwell over them. They shall not hun- 
ger, nor thirst any more, neither shall the sun fall on 
them, nor any heat. For the Lamb, which is in the 
midst of the throne, shall rule them, and shall lead them 
to the fountains of the waters of life, and God shall wipe 
away all tears from their eyes. 

" And when he had opened the fifth seal, I saw under 
the altar the souls of them that were slain for the word 
of God, and for the testimony which they held. And 
they cried with a load voice saying : ' How long, O Lord, 
holy and true, dost thou not judge and revenge our blood 
on them that dwell on earth ? ' And white stoles were 
given to each of them one, and it was said to them, that 
they should rest yet for a little time, till their fellow 
servants their brethren, who were to be slain even as they, 
should be filled up.^ 

"And there appeared a great wonder in heaven, a 
woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her 
feet and on her head a crown of twelve stars. And I 
saw and behold a Lamb stood on mount Sion and with 
liim a hundred and forty-four thousand having his name, 
and the name of his Father written on their foreheads. 
And I heard a voice from heaven, as the voice of many 
waters, and as the voice of great thunder, and the voice 
which I heard was as of harpers harping on their harps. 

* Apoc. vi, 9, 11. 


And they sang as it were a new canticle before the throne, 
and before tlie four living creatures, and the ancients. 
And I saw as it were a sea of glass, mingled with fire, 
and them that had overcome the beast and his image and 
the number of his name, standing on the sea of glass, 
having the harps of God, and singing the canticle of 
Moses and the canticle of the Lamb, saying : ' Great and 
wonderful are thy works, O Lord God Almighty, true and 
just are thy works, O King of ages. Who shall not hear 
Thee, O Lord, and magnify thy name. For thou only art 
holy, for all nations shall come and shall adore in thy 
sight because thy judgments are manifest.' 

" I heard as it were the voice of many multitudes in 
heaven saying, ' Alleluia. Salvation, and glory, and power 
is to our God. For true and just are his judgments, who 
hath judged the great harlot, which corrupted the earth 
with her fornications, and hath revenged the blood of his 
servants at her hands.' And again they said, 'Alleluia.' 

" And the four and twenty ancients and the four living 
creatures fell down and adored God that sitteth upon the 
throne, saying, 'Amen, Alleluia,' And a voice came out 
from the throne saying. ' Praise ye our God, all his 
servants and you that fear Him little and great.' And I 
heard as it were the voice of many waters, and as the 
voice of great thunders saying ; ' Alleluia. For the Lord 
our God, the omnipotent hath reigned. Let us be glad 
and rejoice and give glory to Him, for the marriage of 
the Lamb has come, and his wife has prepared herself. 
And to her it hath been granted, that she should clothe 
herself with fine linen, glittering and white. For the fine 
linen is the justifications of saints." ^ 

^ Apoc. xiz. 4. 


The Jewish Temple was filled with numerous objects 
reminding the Hebrews of their religion, exciting them to 
prayer and devotion. These objects did not of themselves 
give grace. But aroused at the sight of them they per- 
formed their acts of religion in the faith, hope, and love of 
their foretold Redeemer. These religious objects were 
the sacramentals of the Old Law. At the Last Supper 
Christ raised the Jewish sacramentals, bread, wine mixed 
with water, and oil, with the imposition of hands, into the 
dignity of being the materials of the Eucharistic Sacrifice 
and of holy Orders. The general impression is that when 
Christ did this he took materials never used before in 
worship. But he did not make any sudden change. 
From prehistoric time, in days of xmtriarchs, of Moses and 
of the prophets, the Holy Ghost had chosen bread, Avine, 
water, oil, and incense, and in Passover and in Temple they 
came down in rite, history and religion of the Hebrews to 
the days of Christ. Let us see these images of the Mass 
and of the sacraments with their histories, for we will 
later find them in the Last Supper. 

First we will begin the story of bread, " the staff of 
life." When at the dispersion of the seventy-two families 
of mankind from the plains of Mesopotamia, when the lan- 
guage of our race Avas changed, the white men retired to 
the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, where they found 
growing the wheat, triticum vv If/are a species of the 
hordeicae or barley family. There soon after the flood 
but long before they emigrated to settle Europe, they 
cultivated this wheat, whence it spread over the world. 
It is mentioned as flourishing in Egypt in the days when 
the Hebrew captive Joseph became the Pharaoh's prime 

1 Gen. xli. 


Palestine produced great quantities of a superior wheat 
as soon as the Hebrews took possession of their " Promised 
Land." You will still find the hills of Palestine terraced 
to the tops. Long winding narrow fields, sometimes but 
a few feet wide, look like great steps, the soil upheld by 
stone walls, the labor of nearly 4,000 years, on which the 
wheat wi\s grown in those days when the Holy Land was 
densely populated. Thirty-five times the wheat is 
mentioned in the Old Testament. Why did the Holy 
Ghost inspire the patriarchs to bake unleaven cakes of 
wheaten flour for the Passover ? Why did the priests 
offer them in the Temple every Sabbath, and why did 
Christ change this bread nito His Body ? Let us see the 
deep reasons shown in the investigations of our day. 

According to scientific research, wheaten bread is the 
most nourishing of all foods. The human body requires 
heat to supply energy, and nourishment to repair the 
losses. Life could be sustained longer on bread alone 
than on any other food, its only deficiency being w^ant of 
nitrogenous matters. A pound of bread is more nourishing 
than a pound of meat. A man could live on two pounds 
of bread a day for an indefinite time, but not on any other 
one kind of food. Sugar is the next most valuable food, 
and this explains why children like bread with sw^eets. 
The sweets in wine, or grape sugar, supply what is want- 
ing in bread. For that reason bread and wine are the 
most nourishing foods known to man. The patriarchs, 
directed by the Holy Spirit, chose for their sacrifices, and 
the Passover, a food and drink founded on strictly scien- 
tific principles. 

People first ate grain without grinding. Passing 
through the fields, they rubbed the heads in their hands, 
separating the chaff and ate the grains, as the apostles 
did on the Sabbath.^ In ancient times Hebrews ate grain 
this way.'^ 

Later it was ground in a wooden or stone mortar, the 
flour was mixed with water and made into cakes and 
baked on the fire. They laid them on the live coals, as 
Abraham did when the Lord with two angels visited 
him.^ In Moses' demands to let the Hebrews go, we first 

» Matt. xii. 1. 3. « Levit xiv. 23 ; Pwuth ii. 2, 3, 17, 18 ; II. Kings, xvii. 28 etc. 
* Gen. xviii. G. 


find the mill mentioned ^ and seven times the Old Testa- 
ment mentions the flour mill. 

This ancient mill called in Hebrew recJiayim, still used 
in Palestine and the Orient, is made of two flat stones, 
about two feet in diameter. The upper, called the pelach, 
rested on a lower, the receh, united by a spindle through 
a hole in the middle ; women sitting on the ground turned 
the upper stone, the right hand grasping a handle, putting 
in the grain with the left. The stones were roughened 
on the lower and upper sides."^ 

In Christ's time, they sometimes used large stones 
turned by animals.^ Kings and nobles had special bakers.^ 
The law forbade one of the stones to be pledged for a debt, 
for then the family could not grind their grain.^ They 
ground all kinds of grain in these little mills, but as 
flour of wheat was used to make the Temple proposition 
bread of the last Supper, we will confine ourselves to 
wheaten bread. 

The word bread comes from the Hebrew harah " to eat," 
" to feed," " to nourish " ; in this sense God told Adam 
after his sin that he would eat his bread with the sweat of 
his brow all the days of his life,'' and many Bible texts 
show that bread meant all kinds of food. 

After the wheat was pounded or ground in the mill, 
the flour was mixed with water made into a dough, rolled 
into thin cakes and baked on live coals. The patriarchs 
thus made the unleaven cakes of only flour and water ; 
these were the Passover cakes, and in this way the 
breads have since been made for Mass in the Latin 

In the account of the flight from Egypt, we first find 
mentioned fermented bread. This is made by mixing 
the dough with yeast, " to foam," " to give off gas." The 
yeast is a microscopic fungus plant which feeds on the 
sugar and gives olt' gas, which makes the bread "rise." 
Numerous kinds of this fungus are used in the fermen- 
tation of wine, bear, etc., we find that the Egyptians made 
beer, and perhaps from them the Hebrews learned to 
make fermented bread. In Greek and Oriental Cliu relies 
fermented bread is used for the Mass, but this is not ac- 

1 Exod. ii. 5. 2 Dput. xxiv. 6 ; Job. xli. 15, IG ; 11. Kinprs xv. 21. 3 Matt, 
zviii. G. * Gen. xl. 2; Jer. xxxvii. 21 ; Osee vii. 4. ^ Deut. xxiv. G. ^Gen. iii.19. 


cording to the strict rules of the Hebrew Passover, the 
Last Supper, and the patriarchal custom. 

In the deserts wood is scarce, and Arabs now use dried 
dung, on which they lay the flattened unfermented cakes 
which they turn to bake both sides : the crust smells of 
the dung but the taste of the inside is pleasant. 

Large ovens were established in each town and village 
of Judea where the people brought the bread to be baked. 
Going over Mount Olivet, a little below the place of the 
Ascension was seen a round dome, about ten feet in 
diameter and six high, in which was a fire of dried 
dung. A woman inside, surrounded with smoke, was 
making cakes and placing them on the fire. She offered 
one, but it was declined with thanks. Such ovens may be 
still seen in all parts of the East, especially among the 
common people, who have not been changed by modern 

The housewife prepared and baked the bread.' Later 
this became the servants' work.^ After David's time, 
when the Hebrews began to devote themselves to busi- 
ness, each rich family had a baker.^ 

They used a wooden platter in which they mixed the 
dough made of flour and water, but later they put yeast 
in to make it rise by fermentation. The first kind, called 
Matzoth, " unleaven," was alone used at the Passover 
and in all the sacrifices of the Temple." The latter was 
named Chometz, " fermented." 

The cakes were round, from ten to twelve inches in 
diameter, the unfermented breads being as thin as a 
knife and the fermented about half an inch thick. They 
never cut bread with a knife, but broke it with their 
fingers.^ At Passover and feasts the master of the house 
always broke the bread and handed it to his guests. The 
master of the house on Sion during the Passover broke 
the bread and handed a piece to the writer. 

In the Church the celebrant breaks the Host before 
partaking, and if necessary he breaks the smaller Hosts 
when giving Communion. In the Latin Rite this Jewish 

* Gen. xviii, 6 ; Levit. xxvi. 26 ; II. Kingrs xiii. 6-8 ; Jer. vii. Ifl. ' I. Kings viii. 
8-13. ' Osee vii. 4-7 ; Jer. xxxvii. 20 ; Migue, Cursiis Comp. S. Scripturae, iii. 
1135, etc. * Gen. xviii. 6, xix. 3 ; Judg. vi. 11 ; III. Kings xvii. 12 ; Exod. xii. 15, 
85, xiii. 3, xvi. 3, 4, 8, 12 ; Levit. ii. 4, vii. 12-13, viii. 26, 31, 33 ; Deut. xvi. 3 ; Amos 
IV. 6. s Isaias Iviii. 7 ; Lam. iv. 4 ; Matt. xiv. 19, xv. 36, xxvi. 26. 


custom of breaking the bread or Hosts is always followed, 
and the unfermented bread of the Jewish Passover and 
the patriarchs only is used. In the Greek and sister 
Rites, with a long ceremony at the credence table during 
3fass, the celebrant with a little lance cuts from a loaf of 
fermented bread a large piece for the sacrifice, one for 
the Virgin, one for John the Baptist, and one each for the 
Apostles. Let us see the bread in Hebrew homes and 

Outside the house, they dug a hole like a ^vell, two or 
three feet wide, and from three to six deep,^ walled it up 
with stones, then plastered it with wet clay on the in- 
side, leaving little holes for the flames to pass 'up into the 
oven. When the oven became red-hot, they removed 
the fire and put in the dough, covering the whole outside 
of the oven with earth.^ When the cakes were baked on 
one side, they turned them over.-* This was the smoking 
furnace shown Abraham in which to bake Passover 
cakes,* when the Lord, with an angel each side of him, 
visited the patriarch's tent. In this kind of an oven Lot 
prepared unleaven bread for the angels who wai-ned him 
to flee from the wicked doomed Sodom and Gomorrah. 

Later they used a movable oven called tanni(i\ about 
three feet high, made of earthenware, glazed within and 
without with white potter's cla\% resting on a movable 
base forming the furnace. After heating it with a fire 
inside, they removed the coals and pasted the dough to 
the sides.^ In this oven they baked the proposition or 
" showbreads," of the Temple, type of the Eucharist.® 
It was the bread the raven brought Elias each day. Some 
writers say the raven was not a bird, but a member of 
the Jlaven tribe of Bedouin wanderers. The angel gave 
the great prophet this unleaven bread, which gave him 
strength to fast for forty days and nights, till he came to 
Horeb, foretelling the graces of Communion.'' 

Vessels of the same shape and materials were used to 
hold liquids. They also used an iron basket with three 
feet like a tripod, or rested it on three stones, built a fire 
under it and in it the dough w^as baked.* In this they 

1 Levit. xi. 35. 2 Levit. vii. 9, 12, S, etc. 'Oseevii.8. * Gen. xv. 17. ^ Levit. 
ii. 4 ; Ecr;l. x. 30 ; Jer. Hi. 18. « See Edersheim Temple, 152. ^ lU. Kings xix. G-8. 
• Levit. ii. 5, vi. 14-15 ; Exod, xxix. 2-3. 


baked not only the unleaven bread for the Passover, the 
leaven bread for daily use, but also other kinds of cakes 
and bread made of different grains. 

Unleaven bread, made before history opened, of only 
flour and water, is called in Hebrew Matzoth, in Greek 
.Vzymous, both meaning "unleaven," to distinguish it 
from Chometz, "leaven," which was made with yeast, 
was used at the Passover, offered in the Temple and eaten 
at all their religious feasts. Thirty-eight times this bread 
is found in the Old Testament, and hundreds of times in 
later Jewish writings. 

Jews of our &dj j)rei)are this bread, carefully following 
the customs of their fathers. The flour is ground of 
chosen wheat, it must not be musty, or mixed Avdth other 
flour, and it is carefully kept. Mixed with purest water, 
they make a dough, roll very thin cakes about a foot in 
diameter and bake at once, lest the dough ferment. When 
baked they keep them in a clean box or chest. They then 
ipAx the remaining dough with honey, eggs and sugar, etc., 
but not with yeast. These, called haschira^ " rich cakes," 
they send to friends, the sick, and to Christians. But strict 
Jews do not send the regular Passover bread to Gentiles. 

To the Hebrew this unleaven bread was the " staff of 
life," no meal was held without it ; it reminded them of 
the bread ]Melchisedech offered when he blessed their 
father Abraham ; it recalled the proposition bread of the 
Temple, the desert manna, and it was handed down that 
when the Messiah came he would in bread renew the 
miraculous manna. For these reasons the blessings at 
the table were always said over the bread ^ and wine, and 
these blessings sufficed for alt the other foods. 

Each Sabbath eve with a ceremonial we will later give, 
the priests laid twelve thin cakes of unfermented bread 
of the patriarchal Passover, and between and mingled in 
mystic meaning with them twelve gold flasks of wine 
mixed with water.^ These of purest gold were made like 
golden bo.ttles.^ The lamb sacrificed morning and evening 
every day foretold the crucifixion, and the bread and wine 
pointed to the Last Supper and the Mass. What was the 
Temple ceremony of the bread and wine ? 

1 See Edeisheim. Life of Christ, ii. p. 1200. etc. ^ E.^od. xxv. 29, 30, 

* L^xod. xxxvii. lU 10 ; xl -1 ; Kuinb. iv. 7; xxviji. O-l'J. 


Early Friday afternoon the " new course " of priests 
chosen for the function representing all the priests, and 
Levites typical of the tribe of Levi, with the " stationary 
men " emblematic of all Israel, came to the Temple to 
take their places for the following week. The men chosen 
by " lot " take their places for the ceremonial of the prop- 
osition bread and wine. 

When the sacrifice of the lamb begun at three p. m. 
had nearly ended, three blasts were blown from the silver 
trumpets to tell all in Temple and sacred city that the 
Sabbath was drawing near, for it began at sundown. 
Jacob, their last great patriarch, had established this hour 
of prayer, for it was the time when, later, Jesus died. 
The Roman emperor Augustus had issued a decree, that 
during this hour the Jews were exempt from attending 
the law courts, that they might attend the Sabbath wor- 

Lamps and candles are lighted to foretell the Messiah. 
Priests robed in rich vestments, wash the sacrificial altar 
from stains of blood, " lots " are drawn to see who was to 
perform the varied functions of priest and Levite. Those 
so chosen first began the preparation of the proposition, 
" show," or " Face bread " in one of the Temple chambers. 
The Kabbis call it the " Bread of the Face of God Al- 
mighty," the " Angel of the Face " the " Perpetual Bread," 
the " Bread of laying out " the " Angel of his Presence " 
etc. They held it in great honor. Its renewal each Sab- 
bath was an important Temple service, for it imaged the 
altar bread of the Last Supper and of the Mass. 

In the Holies, with walls covered with plates of purest 
gold, at the northern or most sacred side, stood the cred- 
ence table, three feet long, one and a half wide and high, 
made of purest solid gold, its feet, like those of animals, 
turned out, and connected in the middle with a magnifi- 
cent gold crown. The table of the tabernacle was made 
of sitim wood, the acacia tree of the Arabian deserts, and 
all the wood was covered with plates of pure gold. At 
the time of Christ, the Temple table was of solid gold, 
which had been given by the Machabees to replace the one 
Antiochus Epiplianes took away. Josephus writes of a 
larger table which Ptolemy Philadelphus gave.' 

1 Antiq. XH. ii. 8. 


From purest wheat grown in Judea, ground "with great 
ceremony, the flour was passed through eleven sieves, 
each with meshes one finer than the other. Mixed 
with the "water of precept," twelve cakes of unleaven 
bread were made, representing the twelve tribes of 
Israel. Each cake was made of two and a half quarts of 
flour and it was anointed with olive oil in the form of a 

" The House of Garmo," a family of the Kohathites, 
descendants of Levi's second son,^ had a monopoly of mak- 
ing these cakes, which they deposited on a marble table 
in the porch of the sanctuary, where they remained till 
the Sabbath service began. The Talmud tells us the 
ceremony of placing them on the gold table in the Holies 
the image of our sanctuary. 

" Four priests enter the Holies, two carrying each one 
of the piles of six breads, the others the two vases of in- 
cense Four priests went before them — two to take off 
the two rows of old breads, and two the old vases of in- 
cense. Those who brought in the bread and incense stood 
at the nortii side, facing southwards, they who were 
at the south side facing north, these lifted off, and those 
replaced the hands of those, being right over against the 
hands of those, as it is written, " Thou shalt set upon the 
table bread of the Presence before Me always." ^ 

Thus placing and removing the breads, the priests 
formed with their arms a cross, the sign of redemption 
found in all the Temple ceremonies to foretell the Re- 
deemer's sacrifice. 

" On a golden table in the porch of the sanctuary, the 
old breads were placed by two priests. Other priests 
then brought twenty-eight gold tubes, Icmg like bottles, 
filled with wine. These they placed on the gold table in 
the Holies beside the new breads." 

Then they removed the twelve golden flasks of wine, 
emptied them with mystic ceremony, filled them with 
new wine mixed with water, placed them on the credence 
table with the twelve breads before the Lord in his holy 
sanctuary, where they rested till the next Sabbath. This 
wine and water are mentioned many times in the Old 

» Edersheim, Temple, p. 155. 2 Qgp xlvi. 11 ; I, Par. ix. 32; Talmud, Sheka- 
lim. V. 1, ^ Talmud, Men. xi. 7. ' 


Testament under the name of "drink offerings." The 
priests drank this wine while eating the cakes.^ 

This bread and wine, the latter mixed with water, thus 
placed before the Lord in the Holies, foretold the bread 
and wine of the Last Supper and of the Mass. This is 
the reason the Avine is mixed with water, the lattei* fore- 
telling the water flowing from the pierced side of the 
dead Christ. 

Now the ministering priests of that " course " gather 
round the golden table in the Pj-iests' Court, whereon the 
bread and wine are placed and each receives his portion. 

"Three times a year all the twenty-four orders of 
priests were alike entitled to share the pieces of offerings 
of the festival, and in the proposition bread, and on the 
feast of Pentecost, the distributers say to each priest: 
" Here is leavened bread for thee," and " here is unleavened 
bread for thee." "If the festival falls before, or after 
Sabbath, all the twenty-four orders share alike in the 
proposition bread. But if a day intervenes between the 
Sabbath and the festival, the order, whose regular turn it 
was, received ten of the proposition breads, and the loiter- 
ers receive two In-eads. At other times of the year the 
order in which they entered on their duty received six." ^ 

The high priest passes by, and each priest hands to 
him a part of his bread, and they give him some of the 
wine in honor of his pontifical office. Then they stand 
b\" the table of gold and eat the bread and drink the wine 
held most sacred because for a week they had reposed 
before the Lord the Shekina in his Holies. Xo one but a 
priest could eat this bread, he must be free from all 
blemish * he must not have cohabited with his wife.* Thus 
they foretold our unmarried clergy and the weekly renewal 
of the Eucharist in our churches.^ 

Now let us see the wine of Temple, Last Supper and 
Mass. Writers say the vine was cultivated before the flood, 
that then they ate the grape like other fruits. The early 
Church fathers write that Noe was the first to press the 
grape and make wine, and that he did not know its in- 
toxicating effects when he took too much.'* 

1 Seo Edershelm, Temple, i:>8. 241, 212, 243 : Talnuul, etc. 2 Siiceah, 88 to 91. 

- See Heb. x. 1. * Kiugs. ' See S. Augustine, OontraFaustum, L. vi. ix.. L. 
xxxii. X. xl. « Geii ix Vl : Migiic- Cui-jua Complelus, G. Sciriptur§b tii 125H- 
1256, etc, 


Wine, in Hebrew yagin^ "pressed out," "grape juice," 
typified excessive sorrow and physical pains which make 
men stagger. Thus the Saviour speaking to his Father 
of his sufferings and death said : " Let this chalice pass 
from me." The Holy Ghost drew back the curtain hiding 
the future and revealed the Crucified when Noe blessed 
and cursed the nations — the races — in his three sons. 
The mighty movements of mankind then begun have 
continued till our day. 

uS^oe, the second Adam, father of mankind, high priest 
and image of Jesus Christ, planted a vineyard, pressed 
the grapes and made wine. Not knowing its effect he 
took too much, lay naked in his tent, an image of our 
High Priest stripped of his garments, crucified, dead on 
the cross. Ham, Noe's second son mocked his father as 
the Jews mocked the dying Christ. His two other sons, 
Sem and Japheth with a cloak, covered their father's 

Rising from his sacrifice, Noe blessed and cursed, as 
Christ was to rise from the tomb after his sacrifice and 
bless his followers with the gift of the Holy Ghost, while 
the curse of his blood rested on the Jewish nation. 

" Cursed be Canaan, a servant of servants shall he be 
unto his brethren." ^ He could not curse Ham, for God 
had blessed the three sons and the curse rested on Cana- 
an's children. Ham's sons settled Palestine, which they 
cursed with the sin of Sodom and Gomorrah. But 
Ham's tribes settled Africa, and find their vocation as 
slaves and servants waiting on the white men. Cursed 
in the passion their father mocked in Noe, the African 
race love to serve as servants to the other races. Living 
since in deepest degradation, among them never rose 
religion, literature, invention, genius, or progress. The 
other races will not receive on an equality one in whose 
veins flows their tainted blood. 

Prophetic words the Holy Ghost pronounced through 
Noe on the sons who covered him. "Blessed be the 
Lord God of Sem, let Canaan be his servant." Thus he 
determined that the " Lord God," Jesus Christ would be 
born of Sem's race, the Jews. Christ's genealogy shows 
him as son of Sem.* He is the glory of the Jewish 

^Gen. ix, 21. 2 Q^n, ix-. ' Gen. ix. 2'). < Luke Hi, 


Semites. The other Semitic nations settled Asia, where 
they have remained stagnant, conservative, unprogressive, 
hardly improving since the patriarchs, for they were not 
blessed with the grace of change. 

To Japheth : " The enlarging " or " The white man," 
Noe said " May God enlarge Japheth, and may he dwell in 
the tents of Sem, and Canaan be his servant." ^ The 
Hebrew has here for " God " the word " Shekina," the 
Holy Ghost, who spoke through Noe and gave Japhet's 
sons, the white races, that colonizing instinct, civilization, 
progress, advancement, invention, superiority — the unrest 
of bright minds which down the ages lifted them to the 
highest prosperity, culture and refinement. This is the 
reason the white men are so superior to the other races. 
God foresaw the Jews would reject Christ, that the white 
men would receive him, and thus he prepared them for 
their mission to receive the Gospel and carry on the 

Before this blessing Moses always mentioned these 
three brothers according to their age, Sem first and Japhet 
last ; after the benediction the last is given first as the 
leader of the others. God later blessed the Jews through 
Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and the patriarchs, gave them the 
instinct of money-making that they might use the power 
of wealth in missionary labors. They rejected the call to 
Christianity when they killed Christ. But God works 
without repentance, the blessing still rests on them while 
the white races receive and adnlinister the Church they 

This is the first lesson we read in wine Noe was the 
first to make. His son Sem, called Melchisedech, added 
bread and sacrificed the bread and wine of the Last 
Supper and the Mass on Sion. Now let us see that wine of 
patriarch, tabernacle, Temple and the Eucharistic Sacrifice. 

Palestine, stretching from the high Lebanon mountains 
in the north, their tops nearly always crowned Avith 
snow, to the deep valleys of the Dead Sea, 1,300 feet below 
the ocean, rejoices in varied climates, and produces dry 
wines of temperate climates, as well as the sweet wines 
of torrid zones. Hundreds of times the vine or the wine 
is mentioned in the Bible as flourishing in Palestine. 



Moses' law has special rules. The Hebrew farmer was 
forbidden to plant any other crop in his vineyard, he 
could not use the grapes, or make wine, before the vine- 
yard was five years old ; but the widow, the orphan, and 
the stranger passing could eat all they wanted, but it was 
against the law to take any away. Priests while serving 
in the Temple, Nazarites while their vow lasted, judges 
while on the bench, Essenes and Rechabites were for- 
bidden wine. Let us see the grape and the wine. 

The grape is a native of the Orient, where it grows as 
a shrub like a dwarf tree. It was cultivated from the 
days of Noe and wine spread among all ancient nations. 
It was in the beginning a desert plant, where it produces, 
when carefully cultivated, great crops, the fruit being in 
California more numerous than the leaves. It grows 
wood and leaves in cold climates, where it must be sus- 
tained with trellis and stake. But in its native climate 
it grows like a little tree. 

In Palestine, especially in the north, the vineyards were 
on the north side of the hills facing south. In the fall all 
the members of the family gathered the grapes with song 
Psalm and canticle, and carried them to the press, generally 
in the center of the vineyard. 

On steep hillside, of stone and cement, they built the 
press and receptacles for the grapes, so the "must" 
might floAV down into the lower receptacle, both being 
about six feet in diameter and four deep. Into the 
upper they threw the grapes mixed with the stems and 
barefooted men, sometimes naked, danced on them till all 
were crushed. When the grapes were of the red 
variety, of which the clarets are made, they looked as 
though they were covered with blood. 

Six centuries before he came, the prophet Isaias saw a 
vision of Jesus Christ in his agony in Gethsemane " The 
Winepress,'' when as the Scape -Goat of mankind, the 
world's sins were placed on him as though he himself 
had committed them. And ten thousand times deeper 
than we do he blushed with shame till his blood flowed 
out every pore, covering him with crimson gore, and the 
prophet thought he had treaded the red grape of the 
Winepress, Gethsemane.^ 

* Isaias Ixiii 1-6, etc. 


When the upper vat was filled with grapes and steins, 
thus the men, with psalm, and song, and jest, trampled 
them with their feet till every berry was broken, and 
the whole became a mass of grape-juice hulls and seeds. 
Then for about ten days it is left to ferment. It must be 
frequently mixed so all parts may come in contact with 
skins and stems, wliich bear the fermenting fungus yeast 
plant which floats in the air. 

In warm climates the grapes are very sweet, in cold 
regions the grape does not develop so much grape sugar, 
— the first produce the sweet and the latter the " dry " 
wine. The fermentation of the sweet wines ceases before 
all the sugar ferments and that is the reason they taste 
so sweet. In the '^dry " wine all the sugar changes into 
alcohol — hence these two great classes of wines, which 
divide into various families bearing different names ac- 
cording to climate, places where the}^ are grown, age, 
care, etc. 

Let us go a little deeper, for wine is one of the ele- 
ments of the Mass and few understand how it is made. 
The yeast plant we mentioned feeds on the grape sugar and 
changes it into ethel " noble " alcohol, formed of carbon, 2, 
oxygen, 2, and hydrogen 2, and Avhich when distilled be- 
comes brandy. Grape-Avine, is the oldest, finest and most 
harmless of all fermented beverages. Wine never forms a 
habit ; no matter how nuich a person drinks of it he will 
not crave it. It is soothing to tired nerves, it induces 
sleep. Hence it has been celebrated in all ages. 

Sugar of fruits, grains, etc., when fermented produce 
another kind of alcohol found in liquors, beers, etc., which 
acts on the nerves, cooks the albumen white so they can- 
not function, and develops into a mania for drink. It is a 
poison, slow but deadly. In modern days were dis- 
covered these fermented drinks which seem to ruin more 
]->eople than wars or famine. Among the wine-drinking 
nations you will hardly ever see an intoxicated person. 
The Mass wine nmst not be taken as composed of its 
varied chemical elements, but as one single fluid, as a 
human being is one person, although composed of soul 
and body, composed of many materials — the one living 
soul uniting the materials of the body, giving them its 
life. Thus the form of the wine united in one all the 


materials and fluids of which it is composed tiJl it was 
changed into the Blood of Christ at the Last Supper as 
it is now in the Mass. 

Let us return to the ancient world. When the He- 
brews had fermented their wine in the upper vat, they 
drew it into a lower vat, leaving skins, seeds, etc., in the 
higher fermenting receptacle. Here the wine was left 
for a time carefully covered till it was still more purified 
by depositing in the bottom the rough matters, which 
made it taste harsh and crude. Then it was put in large 
earthen or stone vessels. Spring and fall it worked 
again, throwing down deposits of muddy matters. After 
a year or more, the wine had purified itself and was ready 
for use. Wine poisoned Avith drugs never shows a de- 
posit, never changes. A sign of good wholesome wine is 
a dark deposit on the bottom of the vessel. 

Great vessels, called amphorae, were kept in wine cel- 
lars, but small farmers, dealers, and the poor, kept their 
wine in bottles made of goatskin taken whole from the 
body, cutting only around the feet and neck, which, after 
tanning, they tied with strings. AVine and water bottles 
made that way may be seen to-day in Mexico, Palestine 
and in the Orient. Wine working or fementing throws 
off carbonic acid gas which would burst such bottles, and 
that was w^hy Christ said new wine should be put in new 
bottles but old wine in old bottles.^ 

Sweet grapes, when dried are called raisins.' The 
latter soaked in water make "new wine." ^ Frequently 
in our day Jews make wine for the Passover from raisins, 
especially Avhen they are not sure of the purity of wine 
on the market. Strict Jews do not like to use Passover 
wine bought from or made by Gentiles. 

Ancient receptacles for wine made of skins are almost 
as old as wine itself, and are frequently mentioned in 
Scripture. The Iliad tells us servants bore wine in 
bottles of sheepskin on their shoulders to banquets, from 
which the guests' goblets were filled. Herodotus writes 
that wme in pig or goat skins was carried from place to 
place. The Romans used leathern bottles large enough 
to hold a man, and Pompeii shows a mural picture of an 

1 Job. xxxii. 19; Matt. ix. 17 ; Mark ii. 22. 

2 II. Kings xvi. 1 ; I. Far. xii. 40. *» Acts ii. 13. 


enormous leather bag like a boat on a wine cart, while 
two men draw off the wine into amphorae. Roman poli- 
ticians used to deal out wine wholesale to their clients. 

Leather bottles are still used in Spain, Portugal, 
Greece, Mexico, etc., linking modern wine-making with 
the dim past. The road from Athens to Petros winds for 
miles through great Grecian vineyards stretching along 
the gulf which ends in Corinth where the canal begins, 
and to whose people St. Paul sent his famous Epistles. 

Famous feasts, where wine flowed as water, are given 
in history. The coronation of Ptolemy Philadelphus ex- 
celled in pomp and pageantry every procession recorded 
in history. Ptolemy wanted to dazzle his subjects that 
they might forget the domestic crimes with which lie as- 
cended the throne. For that reason the feast cost over 
$500,000, opening with the figure of the morning star, 
and closing with that of Hesperus — the evening star. 

The beautiful Egyptian climate furnished abundance 
of grapes and wine. Eighty thousand troops — infantry 
and cavalry — clad in gorgeous uniforms, marched to 
sound of flute and song, while sixty satyrs, under Silenus, 
bore the symbolic chalice, the great cantharus, in which 
men treaded out the grapes flooding the streets with 
must. A car, thirty-seven by twenty-one feet, bore a 
gigantic uter of leopard skins, holding 24,000 gallons, 
filled with wine, the hides strengthened with bronze rods. 
From this colossal receptacle the populace filled their ves- 
sels and drank as the car passed. 

The scholastic name of the wine uter was butis, and a 
small one the diminutive buticula, from which came our 
word bottle. A black leathern bottle called a " black-jack " 
was used in England, sometimes being lined with silver, 
the origin of covering flasks with leather. Some of them 
were formed like a boot, and French prisoners said " the 
English drank out of their boots." 

As arts advanced, bottles were made of clay, glass, etc. 
In Pompeii you will find great earthenware amphorae, 
large, enough to hold more than a barrel used by the un- 
fortunate people to hold wine, oil, etc. These great vessels 
were coated within andwithout with pitch to prevent leaks, 
and to keep the liquids sound. Large ones were made in pits 
baked within with a fire, while the smaller ones were made 


on a potter's wheel. The largest sometimes held as much 
us a hundred gallons. When wooden round barrels were 
made we know not. In wine countries great round vats 
hold the wine. In wineries of California you will see 
some holding nearly 100,000 gallons. One was formed of 
cement, in the side of a hill, holding 500,000 gallons, 
and when finished, they held a dance in it. 

Grape juice called " must " was drunk in the vineyard by 
the workmen. The Hebrews sometimes became intoxi- 
cated.^ The Passover service states that each guest 
must drink four chalices of wine to fulfil the law. Some- 
times this was too much, and they mixed the wine with 
water — when this began we cannot find, but thus began 
the custom of mixing wine with water. Although Moham- 
med forbade his followers to drink intoxicating bever- 
ages, still when they do, they mix them with water, say- 
ing a prayer as did the Jews. 

Vinegar, " sour " or " black wine," was also called 
wine.^ and mixed with water it was drunk.^ It was 
offered Christ on the cross, but he refused it because 
being a Nazarite, he was forbidden by the Law to take it.* 

Wine, water, oil and fluids the Jews kept in large 
earthen vessels the Romans called ampulse, sometimes 
holding a barrelful. When filled with wine, they were 
sealed with clay, a cloth was stretched over the mouth 
of those holding oil, but when filled with water some 
aromatic herbs were scattered over the surface to keep 
it sweet. Later the mouth of the ampula was made 
smaller, and became our jug. The water Christ changed 
into wine was poured into six large ampulse. 

The first drinking vessel was a simple cup, later a 
handle was added at the side. A large cup found in the 
ruins of Troy, now in the museum of Athens, once be- 
longing to Agamemnon is of massive solid gold. Wine- 
cups, shaped like the calyx of a lily are seen on the monu- 
ments of Persepolis and other places, showing that the 
chalice was used in very olden times.^ Arabs of our 
day use drinking vessels of red earthenware like a vase, 
four holes being in the bottom of the deep lip so the 

* Deut. xxxii. 42 ; Psalm Ixiv. 10 ; Isaias v. 11, 22 ; xxviii. 1, xxix. 9, xlix. 26; 
Jer. viii. 14, xxv. 27. '' Ruth ii. 14. » Numb. vi. 3, 4. * Numb. vi. 3-20 ; Matt, 
xxvii. 48. ^in. Kings vii. 26. 


fluid will not flow faster than 3^011 can drink. The 
chalice now used at Mass is about the size and form of 
the vessel used at the Last Supper. 

In Scripture the chalice is lirst found as tiie wine-cup 
into which Pharaoh's butler pressed grapes and handed 
to the king.' No doubt Xoe used such a chalice, when 
he did not know the elfects of fermented Avine. 

The chalice of Temple and Passover used in the former 
to catch the victim's blood, and at the latter to hold the 
wine, was called in Hebrew the cos. At Passover a large 
chalice, called the Gabia, was at the place of the master 
of the feast, while the guests used the cos. When each 
one had taken his three chalices of wine mixed with water, 
the master filled again his large chalice with wine. Then 
with a blessing over the vessel of water he said a prayer 
and mixed his wine with water. Whence the blessing and 
prayer are over the water at Mass and not over the wine. 

Then the master drank from his large chalice, and 
handed it round to each guest who drank from it. This 
was the end of the Passover. After this fourth chalice 
of wine was partaken of there was no other ceremony, 
and the Talmud states that a dessert was forbidden. 
This was the chalice Christ consecrated into his Blood 
and gave to his Apostles the night of the Last Supper, as 
we will describe later. 

Following the Last Supper, in the early Church, the 
consecrated chalice was passed to the clergy to drink 
from, and the deacon brought it to the laity. The custom 
is still seen in the Oriental churches. In Greek and Ilus- 
sian rites it is even given to infants. Because of abuses 
this was forbidden in the liatiu Church and our present 
discipline obtained. 

New let us see how honored was the water mixed with 
wine in the Temple ceremonial, foretelling the water 
mixed with Mass wine. 

" There was not a court in Jerusalem that was not 
illuminated by the lights of the water-drawing. Pious 
and distinguished men danced before the people with 
lighted candles in their hands, and sang hymns and lauds 
before them, and the Levites accompanied them with 
harps, psalteries, cymbals and numberless musical instru- 

> Gen. XL 11. 


nients. Od the fifteen steps, wtiich led into the women's 
court, corresponding to the fifteen Psahns of Degrees, 
stood the Levites with their musical instruments and sang. 
At the upper gate, whicli leads down from the court of 
Israel to the women's court, stood two priests with 

"When the cock first crowed, they blew a blast, a long 
note, and a blast. This they repeated when they reached 
the tenth step, and again the third time when they got 
into the court. They went on blowing their trumpets as 
they went, until they reached the gate that leads out to 
the east, when they turned westward with their faces 
towards the Temple and said : ' Our ancestors, who w^ere 
in this place, turned their backs on the Temple of the 
Lord, and their faces towards the east, for they worshiped 
the sun towards the east, but we lift our eyes to God. 
We belong to God and raise our eyes to God.' * 

" A golden pitcher that held three logs was filled with 
water from the brook Siloh. (It is now called Si loam, a 
little village at the south of Jerusalem) . When they came 
with it to the water-gate, they blew a blast, a long note, 
and again a blast. The priest then ascended the stair of 
the altar, and turned to the left. Two silver basins stood 
there. R. Jehudah said they were of gipsum, but had a 
dark appearance from the wine. Each was perforated 
with a small hole at the bottom like a nostril, the one for 
the wine somewhat wider, the one for water narrower, 
that both might be emptied at once. The one to the 
west was used for water, the other to the east for the 
wine." - 

" He who has not witnessed the rejoicings at tlie water- 
drawing lias through his whole life witnessed no real 
rejoicing. At the expiration of the first holiday of the 
festival, they descended into the women's court, where a 
great transformation was made. Golden candelabra were 
placed there, with four basins at the top of each, and four 
ladders were put to each candelabra, on which stood four 
lads from the rising youth of tbe priesthood, holding jars 
of oil containing a hundred and twenty logs, with which 
they replenished each basin." 

The Talmud says the Hebrew maidens used to give a 

> Babyl, Talmud, Tract Succah. 77. 2 Babyl, Talmud, Tract Succah, 73. 


dance in the vineyards, and the young men went to see 
them and choose their future wives. " Never were there 
any more joyous festivals in Israel than the 15th of Abib 
(the day Christ was crucified) and the Day of Atonement, 
for on them the maidens of Jerusalem used to go out 
dressed in white garments — borrowed ones, however, in 
order not to cause shame to those who had none of their 
own. The king's daughter borrowed from the daughter 
of the high priest, the daughter of the latter would borrow 
from the daughter of the Segan, assistant high priest, the 
Segan's daughter borrowed from the daughter of the 
priest who was anointed for w\ar,^ and she in turn would 
borrow from the daughter of an ordinary priest. The 
daughter of the ordinary Israelites would borrow one from 
another, in order not to put to shame those who had no 
clothes of their own.^ 

" These clothes were to be previously washed, and thus 
the maidens went out and danced in the vineyards, saying : 

* Young men, look and observe well whom you are about 
to choose as a spouse, regard not beauty alone but rather 
look to a virtuous family, 'for false is grace, and vain is 
beauty, a woman that feareth the Lord shall be praised.' * 

" The pretty ones among the maidens would say : 

* Regard but beauty alone, because a woman is made for 
beauty alone.' Those who were of good family would 
say : ' Rather look to a good family, for women are made 
but to bear children, and those of good family produce 
good children.' The homely ones would say : ' Make 
your selections only for the glory of heaven, but provide 
liberally for us.' " * 

The Talmud says that to this dance in the vineyards, 
when the wine finished fermenting, made by men treading 
the grapes red with must or grape juice, relate the words 
of Solomon foretelling Christ in his scourging all covered 
with blood and crowned with thorns: "Go forth ye 
daughters of Sion, and see the King, * The Peaceful ' ^ in 
the diadem wherewith his mother ** crowned him in the 
day of his espousals." ' 

The Mosaic law forbade members of different tribes to 

» Deut xxi. 2. « See Babylonian Talmud. Taanith, iv. 80-81. » Prov. xxxi. 30. 
* Babylonian Talmud, Tract Taanith, Feasting, near end. ^ Solomon in He- 
brew is " The Peaceful." " The .Jewish people. ' Cant, of Cant. iii. 11. 


intermarry, but on this day of the dance the prohibition 
was removed, says the Talmud/ At a dance the 15th of 
Abib, in the vineyard, one of Christ's ancestors, Joachim, 
married into Aaron's family, for he who was to be sacrificed 
this 15th day of Abib was not onl}^ a Prince of David's 
royal race, but also a Temple priest. He therefore 
combined in his personality royalty, priesthood, and 
united the glories of the Temple with the dynasty of 
Hebrew kings. 

Rabbi Simeon, son of that Gamaliel, who was St. Paul's 
teacher, in a Mishna of the Talmud, gives the following 
as a fragment of the maidens' song : ^ 

" Around in circle gay, the Hebrew maidens see 
From tliem our happy youths their partners choose. 
Remember, beauty soon its charms must loose 
And seek to win a maid of fair degree. 

When fading grace and beauty low are laid, 
Then praise shall her who fears the Lord await. 
God doth bless her handiwork — and in the gate 
Her works do follow her, it shall be said." 

Now let us see the origin and history of the holy oil 
with which Christ anointed the apostles at the Last 
Supper, and which is used in the administration of the 

From remotest times came down the custom of anoint- 
ing with oil persons, objects and religious articles. When 
Jacob saw the ladder like a cross, reaching from earth to 
heaven, God resting at the top— a vision of the Crucified 
he set up the stone pillow as a monument " pouring oil 
on it." '' 

When God blessed him, foretelling that from him 
would be born races and kings, Jacob " set up a monu- 
ment of stone, in the place where God spoke to him pour- 
ing drink-offerings upon it, wine and water, and pouring 
oil thereon, and called the place Bethel " House of 
God." ' 

God told Moses to anoint the tabernacle with all its 
utensils. With a special holy oil Aaron, his sons and 
priests of his family were ordained to the priesthood. 
With oil Samuel anointed Saul and David to be rulers 

1 See Babyl. Talmud, Taanith iv. 91. * qqq Migne, Cursus Comp. S. Scrip- 
turae, iii. 1163, on Hebrew poetry. ' Gen. xxviii. 18. * Gen. xxxv. 14-15. 

106 MYRRH. 

over Israel. Every official of church or state — priest, 
Levite, rabbi, or judge was inducted into his office with 
laying on of hands and anointed with oil, in Christ's day. 

These officials foretold the Messiah ; Christ " the 
Anointed," Jesus "Jehovah will Save," the "Hope of 
Israel, the " Expectation of the nations," who was to 
come and built an empire of religion spreading over all 
the earth. 

From far beyond historic times oils, unguents, pomades, 
or perfumed mixtures had been used to anoint the body,^ 
beautify the complexion and cure blemishes. But these 
differed from the holy mixture Moses made by God's 

The Temple sacred oil was composed of myrrh, cin- 
namon, cassia and olive oil mixed in mystic manner. 
With it priest, king, and all Temple furniture were 
anointed. In Greek this mixture was called chrism from 
the word chrio, " to anoint," foretelling the Saviour, in 
Greek the Christ, in Hebrew the Messiah, "The An- 
ointed," not with oil but with the sevenfold gifts of the 
Holy Spirit.^ 

This holy mixture was so sacred, that they were for- 
bidden to use it except as laid down in the law, and the 
one who would give it to the stranger would be killed.'' 
A hundred and eighty times it is mentioned in the Old 
Testament. Let us see the materials of this chrism.* 

Myrrh, in Hebrew mor, eleven times found in the Old 
Testament, was one of the gifts the Persian high priests 
olfered Christ to foretell his death,^ as its Greek name, 
Smyrna, shows us. The prophecy was fulfilled when the 
soldiers offered him, on the cross wine mixed with myrrh,* 
and when it was used to embalm his body.' Herodotus 
writes the Egyptians when embalming used to fiJl the 
abdomen of the dead with mj'rrh.'* 

According to Herodotus,^ the tree producing myrrh, 
both wild and cultivated, grows in Arabia. In Egypt it 
was called bed,, in the Sanscrit bola,, in India 5o/, in Arabia 
myrrh ; showing how ancient was the use of myrrh. 

Travellers in Arabia describe the gum exuding from 

> Mierne, Cursns Comp. iii. 1131 ; Edersheim, Sketches, 47 ; Life of Christ. 1, 
.*)65. 566. » Isaias ii. 2. » Exod. xxx. 83. « Migne, Cursiis Comp. ii. 1341. 
CMatt. ii. 11. « Mark XV. 23. ^johnxix. 39. * Euterpe ii. 86. * III. 107; 
Dioscorides, 1. 77; Theophrastus, ix. 4, Sec. 1; Diodorus II. 49; Strabo, Pliny, etc. 


the bark of the JBalsamodendron myrrha^ a low thorny 
ragged-looking tree, with bright trifoliated leaves like an 
acacia tree of the desert. The tree is related to the 
citrous family on one side, and to the spruces on the 

The yellow soft gum exudes through the bark, 
especially when wounded, dries and becomes dark red- 
dish, brittle or brown according to age. It has an 
aromatic scent, easily dissolves in alcohol, and may be 
triturated in water. From remotest times it was used 
internally as a medicine, and externally for skin diseases, 
sores and ulcers. Powdered and mixed with wine, it be- 
came a soporific, deadened pain, and w^as given criminals 
about to be executed to ease their pains. This was the 
reason the soldiers offered it to Christ, who refused it 
because he would not deaden his sufferings with 2iwy 
angssthetic, and because he was a N'azarite, and forbidden 

Balm, or balsam, "medicinal gum,'' or according to 
the Hebrew tsor% " royal oil," was one of the articles the 
Ismaelite caravan was bringing to Egypt, when his 
brothers sold Joseph to them.^ Jacob sent a present of 
balm, storax, myrrh, turpentine, etc., to Joseph prime 
minister of Egypt, not knowing he was his son.^ This 
balm grew in Galaad, and was used as a medicine by the 
Hebrews. Jeremias, foretelling the calamities which will 
fall on the Jews, asks : " Is there no balm in Galaad, or 
is there no physician there? Why then is not the 
wound of my daughter closed ? " •'' 

This balm, used as a medicine, was imported into 
Egypt, Tyre and along the coasts of the Mediterranian 
Sea. Luther translated the word by " salve," " ointment," 
" mastic." The Jewish rabbis Junius and Tremellius use 
the words balm or balsam, and say its Hebrew word, 
tsori^ means the mastic tree of which the botanic name is 
Pistacia lentiscus. Others hold it is the Amyris opohal- 
sanmm — the balsam of Mecca. Dr. Hooker identifies it 
with the Balanites, he saw growing at Jericho.* 

When in the spring of 1903 the writer visited Jericho, 
now a little village, with its four hotels, he saw the shrub 

* Gen. rxxvi!. 25, ^ Q^n. xlii. 11. ^ Jf^remiaa viii. 22. See xlvi. 11 ; EocL 
xxiv, 20: Ezenli. xxvii. IT. * See Ederslieim, f.ife of Christ, vol. ii., p. 350. 


growing in the gardens irrigated by the waters of the great 
spring higher up, to the west, bursting from the desert, 
under the Lenten Mountain, where Christ fasted forty 
days. You will also notice there the Rhamnus, a low 
shrub covered with long sharp thorns with which they 
made the thorny crown for Christ. 

In the desert round the Dead Sea, and down through 
Arabia grows the Balanites Egyptiaca, a low evergreen 
shrub with numerous branches and a few small leaves. 
These desert plants, in place of sap, have gum like the 
desert plants of western America. This plant was culti- 
vated in Palestine at Jericho " Fragrant", at Engaddi 
"the Goat's-spring," in the ravines to the west of the 
Dead Sea, in the Arabian deserts, but especially around 
Mecca and Medina. 

Wood and leaves are filled with balm. The flowers 
have a sweet scent, the fruit is like a little unripe walnut 
covered with a dry skin, but filled with a fluid as thick 
as honey, with a sharp and bitter taste. The Arabs 
gather these nuts, pound them in a mortar, and put the 
pulp into boiling water. When the oil rises to the top, it 
is skimmed off, and used internally for disease, and exter- 
nally for wounds and skin troubles. This is the best and 
purest Balm. 

During the summer season, they cut the bark with glass 
or flint, for steel knives kill the shrub. The white gum 
oozes out, soon turns green, then like amber, and finally 
becomes like solidified honey. It has a strong, but agree- 
able odor, and a bitter and astringent taste. When burned 
its smell is strikingly sweet and penetrating, filling the 
whole place Avith its agreeable perfume. It is the basis of 
the incense used in Church functions. 

These " principal and chosen spices," ^ as St. Jerome 
says the Chaldaic and Septuagint versions of the Bible 
mean, distilled with all the science then known, mixed 
with olive oil, formed the chrism, with which in Moses' 
day all the ministers, the tabernacle and its furniture 
were anointed. 

The priesthood of the Temple of the time of Christ 
Avere looked on as inferior in honor among the people to 
the priests of the days of David and Solomon. The syna- 

1 Ezod. XXX. 23. 


gogue Rabbis were held in higher esteem by some than 
Temple priests. The second Temple had not the flask of 
holy chrism handed down from Aaron's day in Solomon's 
Temple, for Jeremias had hid the ark in a cave on Mount 
Nebo, where Moses died, which they could not find/ 
Priests were set apart for their ministry by vesting 
them in their sacerdotal robes and imposing hands on 
their heads — they claimed that the anointment of their 
fathers with the holy oil in the first Temple was suf- 
ficient for their sons in the priesthood.^ 

Jewish physicians used to anoint the sick with olive oil 
mixed with wine. R. Simeon Ben Elieser says : " R. Meir 
permitted the mingling of wine and oil and to anoint the 
sick on the Sabbath. But when once he was sick and we 
would do the same to him he would not allow it." ^ They 
anointed the head for headache * and they still use oil in 
the East for boils, etc.^ We see that when St. James ® 
gave the doctrine of the sacrament of extreme-unction, 
anointing the sick was not unknown to the early Chris- 
tians converted from Judaism. 

After imposing their hands on the head of the high 
priest to be consecrated as we have described, they poured 
the holy chrism on his head which was to wear the Aaronic 
miter. The Machabee priest-kings had made the miter 
into the form of a tiara with triple crown from which 
came the Pope's tiara. They poured the holy oil on his 
head so the ointment might flow down on his beard, to 
honor that mark of manhood, they incensed at the Pass- 
over."' From that ceremonial comes down to us the rite 
of anointing the bishop on his head when he is conse- 

The first blessing God gave mankind was on marriage.^ 
Afterwards the patriarchs blessed with the laying on of 
hands. Later oil and chrism were added to the imposi- 
tion of hands, to more clearly signify the Holy Spirit on 
Christ. Priest, Levite, king, prophet. Judge of the San- 
hedrin, and rabbi were thus ordained, set apart, or 
inducted into office. 

In his last sickness, Jacob laid his hands on the heads 

» Mach. ii. 4. 2 See Geikie, Life of Christ, i. 81. ^ Talmud in Hor. Heb. II. 415. 
* Pliny, xxiii. 38, ^ Russeger's Travels, I. 347. « v. J13--15. ^ jPsalm cxxxii, 2. 
«Gen. i. 28. 


of his two grandsons, his arms forming a cross.^ Moses 
extending his hands over Egypt, brought signs and 
plagues, which forced proud Pharao to let the Hebrews 
depart. The laying on of hands by which spiritual power 
is given was carried out in the ordination of the Temple 
priesthood . 

In the days of David from Eleasar, Aaron''s son, had 
descended sixteen courses of priests,- and from his 
brother Ithamar, eight families came. These David 
divided into the twenty-four " courses " of the Temple. 
From these families the priests were chosen with greatest 
care lest the young man might have a blemish of body or 
defect of mind. 

The young candidate, chosen in his thirtieth year, 
bathed, shaved and anointed with olive oil, brought his 
two goats to the Temple, stood before the Holies, having 
two cakes of unfermented bread in his hands. The high 
priest sprinkled him with water. He prostrated himself 
on the ground before the Shekina of his fathers, his face 
to the earth. Three times he makes the prostration. 
This was the reason Christ prostrated himself in the 
garden before he offered his sacrifice of the cross. This 
is why the clergy prostrate themselves during the cere- 
mony of ordination in our churches. 

The young priest rises to his knees, crosses his arms 
on his breast and the Temple priests impose their hands 
on him their arms crossed like Jacob blessing Joseph's 
sons.-" He puts his sins on the two goats, the priests 
sacrifice them and splash their blood on the horns of the 
altar to foretell the cross. They take the flesh to be 
burned outside the walls, to foretell Christ sacrificed and 
buried outside Jerusalem.* 

They put the blood of the victims on the young priest's 
right ear, thumb and great toe. They mix the blood to 
show the two natures of Christ, and with it they sprinkle 
liim and his vestments.'* They anoint him on the head 
Avith the holy chrism, place in his hands the flesh of the 
siicrifice dripping with blood, and cakes of unfermented 
bread .•^ 

» Gen. xlviii. 13. ^ Numb. 60. ' Gen. xlviii. 13. « Exod xxix. 10-14; Levlfc. 
viii. 2, 3, 11, 17. • Levit. iv. 8, 5, ]G, vi. 13 ; Psalm cxxxii. 2. " Exod, xxix. 
19-34; Levit, vjii. 3v'-36, etc. 


To the young Levite they gave the symbols of his 
ministry, the sacrificial vessels, and the keys of the 
Temple gates. The latter he placed over a stone flag in 
the Beth ha Mocked each night on which a priest slept. 
These are the reasons, the keys, chalice, etc., are handed 
to the candidates for minor orders and subdeaeonship 
while receiving these orders. 

The Lord was anointed in an invisible manner by the 
Holy Spirit with his sevenfold gifts.^ But was he 
anointed with oil as Avere king, priest, rabbi and judge 
who foretold him in ceremonial and office? He was 
anointed in this very visible manner, and he anointed his 
apostles the same way at the Last Supper when he conse- 
crated them bishops. 

On the fertile westei'n shores of the Sea of Galilee, so 
rich as to be called the " Udder of the Land," at a place 
where then rose an ancient watch-tower called Migdol-El, 
" God's Tower," around which spread fertile fields where 
they raised wheat for the proposition Temple bread, was 
born to a wealthy Jewish family, Lazarus, Martha, and 
Mary, the latter being called the Magdalen from Magdala, 
the Greek name of the tower. 

She married a strict Pharisee, Paphus, who devorced 
her because of adultery with a soldier Pandira, and with 
the latter she took up her residence in the neighboring 
city Herod had built on the site of an ancient cemetery 
on the shores of that Lake, seven hundred feet below the 
ocean level, which he called Tiberias, after the then reign- 
ing Roman emperor. There she lived in sin with soldiers 
of the garrison, till as the woman taken in adultery, she 
AA'as brouglit before Clu-ist avIio drove seven demons out 
of her and told her to sin no more.^ 

Healed and repentant she went back to her liome in 
Bethany, and lived vvdth her brother and sister. When 
the Sabbath before the Passion ended with sunset, Simon 
gave a banquet in Christ's honor in his house, a few blocks 
west of Lazarus' house. With the other guests the Lord 
reclined at the table on the couch, his feet stretched out 
as was the custom at feasts. Mary Magdalen came to 
anoint him. What kind of anointment was it ? 

The spikenard of olive oil mixed with many rare per- 

^ Isaias xi. 1, etc. ^ Soo Talmud, John viii. 8, 4. 


fumes was for sale in costly carved alabaster flasks in 
cities of the Roman empire, but at such a price that only 
members of royal families and wealthy people could buy 
it. Mary being of a rich noble family, some writers say 
she was of royal stock, bought a " box " holding about a 
pound of this ointment and came to Jesus' feet, which 
first she Avashed with bitter tears for her sins, and wiped 
with her hair hanging down, sign of the harlot among 
the Hebrews. 

The strict Pharisees found fault for they knew her. 
Judas complained of the price ,^ Christ reproved them 
because they did not anoint his head as was the custom 
at formal feasts,^ and Mary poured the precious ointment 
on his head,'* and the whole house was filled with the 
odor of the ointment.* 

Thus as priest and king, and rabbi, and judge in 
Israel were anointed,^ so was the Lord anointed by the 
woman Avho was a great sinner. And Jesus said : " Let 
her alone that she may keep it against the day of my 
burial." ^ They prepared the Lord's body for the grave 
with spices, myrrh, aloes, balsamodendron, resin of aqui- 
laria, agallochum and perfumes, and this preparation the 
Greeks called migma^ the Jews chana% or chunetto^ mean- 
ing to become " red like tanned leather." 

During the feasts of Israel, especially at the Passover, 
the chamber was perfumed with myrrh, aloes and cin- 
namon.'' Precious unguents were poured on the heads of 
guests. Anointing guests at these banquets, became such 
an abuse in the days of the prophets, that Amos de- 
nounced them.^ Twenty-seven times in the Old, and 
fourteen time in the New Testament, ointment will be 

From apostolic times down the centuries in all the 
Liturgies the bishop blesses the holy oils at Mass on Holy 
Thursday. In the Greek and kindred Rites tlie oil is 
mixed with thirty-two perfumes. He is attended by the 
lower clergy or altar boys, seven subdeacons, seven 
deacons and twelve priests. From Jewish customs, Ori- 
ental Rites and the unchanging Roman Church, we are 

» Luke vii. 3G-4G ^ Luke vii. 40. » Mark xiv. 3. * Jolin xii. 3. '^ Mignft, 
Cursus Completus, S. Scriptura3, iii, '.)23-",)34. " John xii. 7. ^ Proverbs vii, 
10-17. " Amos vi. 4, 5, 0, 7. 


forced to conclude that Christ blessed the oils at the Last 
Supper. There is no other way of explaining that rite, 
so old and universal. 

" And the Lord said to Moses. Take unto thee spices, 
stacte, and oncha, galbanuna of sweet savor, and the 
clearest of frankincense, all shall be of equal weight,* 
and thou shall make incense compounded by the work of 
the perfumer." That was the way they made the incense 
mentioned seventy-three times in the Bible. Let us see 
the materials of which it was compounded.^ 

Stacte, or storax, is a liquid, resinous, fatty matter, 
very odoriferous, of the nature of liquid myrrh and of 
great value. It comes from the officinalis tree of the styra- 
ceous family of plants related to the Canadian, Peruvian 
and Mecca balsams. It belongs to the same family and 
looks like the balsam spruces of America. This tree 
grows in Arabfa and Asia Minor. Quantities of this 
balsam are shipped from Triste and ports of the Orient. 
It has a vanilla odor, and is closely related to benzoin. 
It was one of the spices the Ismaelite caravan was carry- 
ing to Egypt when they bought Joseph ^ and is translated 
myrrh in the Bible. 

Onycha is a product of India, as Dioscorus says. It * 
gives forth a strong sweet perfume, which when burned 
fills the whole building with beautiful fragrance. 

The cassia, or stacta, " a drop," in Hebrew hiddah^ " to 
cleave," " to tear lengthwise," is the product of a reed 
growing in shallow waters. Twice Herodotus uses the 
word, and says the Arabs gather it in shallow lakes.^ 

Dioscorus mentions several kinds of cassia, and Avrites 
that they are produced in " Spicy Arabia." One kind, 
known under the name of mosyletis, or mosylos, is so 
called from the ancient city of Mosyllon, on the coast of 
Africa, near the present Cape Guardafui, from which it 
originally came. Much has been written regarding the 
plant and its products, entailing considerable confusion. 

The plant belongs to the family of the leguminosa, is 
related to senna, and resembles the flag called " cat-tail." 
It grows in wet places and resembles " sweet flag." The 
root is aromatic, with a pleasant taste and a beautiful 

» Exod. XXX. 34. 2 Geikie, Life of Christ, i. 91 ; Migne, ii. 869. » Gen. xxxvii. 
25. * Lib. ii. ch. 8. ^ Herodotus II., 86, III. 110. 


perfume. From remote times it was used as a cathartic, 
but the species called fistula furnishes the medicine. 

Cinnamon, mentioned live times in the Bible, comes 
from a native tree of Ceylon. The bark yields an oil 
Avith a strong perfume and it was used as a medicine. 
This oil is very strong. God told Moses to use only half 
as much as myrrh. From beyond historic times caravans 
from India brought all kinds of perfumes and spices to 
the west of Asia, Egyi)t and Europe.^ 

The calamus Acorus calamus called " sweet-flag " in 
this country, mentioned eight times in the Old Testa- 
ment, is "the bruised reed Christ was foretold not to 
break." ^ It grows in marshy places, has aromatic roots, 
w^hich bruised yields the calamus of commerce. In the 
middle ages, they strewed the floors of the cathedrals 
and churches with the flags, and Avove them into mats, 
rugs and carpets. The calamus has a strong aromatic 
taste, is slightly acrid and from early time has been used 
as a stimulant and for indigestion. It is still mixed with 
candy and perfumers use it. 

Galbanum is a resin-gum of the Ferula tree, belonging 
to the umbellifera species of plants, growing in India and 
the Orient. Its gum oozes out like yellowish brown, or 
blue tears, or white drops like tears. In Moses' day it 
was used as a medicine, internally to stimulate, and ex- 
ternally as a plaster. When burned it produces a 
pungent, agreeal^le odor. 

Frankincense, called in medicine olibanum, is a I'csinous 
gum produced by the JSoswellia serrala of India and the 
East. It is shipped now from Calcutta in round lumps, 
or tears, of a pale yellowish color. The grains are trans- 
lueent, bat covered with a whitish powder, caused by 
friction. It has an acrid bitter taste, and softens when 
chewed. It burns with a fragrant odor. Maimonides 
says it was used in the Temple as incense to conceal the 
smell of the sacrificed flesh. These, mentioned thirty- 
four times iu the Old l^estament, when mixed formed tlie 
incense used in tabernacle and Temple. They have 
been used in Christian churches from the time of the 

The smoke of incense ascending up before the Lord in 

' Geu. xxxvii. ?~o. ' I^siiius xlii. o. 


the Temple at Passover, and in the Church, typified tlie 
prayers of Christ, and of his saints, offered up unto the 
eternal Father. "Incense ground to finest powder is, 
like our good works, ground in our hearts as in a mortar.* 

" Incense we make of aromatics, which we offer at the 
altar, showing forth a multitude of works of virtue." ^ 

" Incense is the body made holy through temperance, 
a bridle for reason, and in our body formed of four 
elements. Stacte referred to water. Oncha typified 
earth dried up in desert lands, that is, mankind without 
grace ; galbanum burning with fire, the scorching sun 
drying up the desert. " ^ 

"And there was given him much incense that he 
should offer of the prayers of the saints upon the golden 
altar, which is before the throne of God." " And golden 
vials full of odors which are the prayers of the saints." * 

The Temple incense was prepared of the four ingre- 
dients mentioned,^ with which, the Rabbis say, seven 
other materials were added, and a smaller quantity of the 
herb " Ambra " to give out a dense smoke — 368 pounds 
of this mixture being made at once, and half a pound 
was used at the morning and evening services. The 
formula of mixing this incense Avas a secret of the 
Abtinas family. 

While the lamb was being slain, they played the 
Magrephah, and priests and Levites hastened to their 
places for their service of sacred song. The priest 
chosen to offer incense in the Holies, who could ofliciate 
only once in his life, with the gold censer hanging from 
its chains, mounts to great sacrificial altar, fills it with 
burning coals, takes more live coals in a gold dish, with 
an assistant on each side, like the deacon and subdeacon 
with the priest ascending to our altar ; vested in magnifi- 
cent vestments, they slowly mount the marble steps to the 
Holies, and enter behind the veil. 

The priest chosen by " lot " for that function, most sacred 
Temple ceremony except that of the high priest the Day 
of Atonement, with his two ministers, one on either side, 
like the deacon and subdeacon at a high Mass, enter the 
Holies, reverently spread the live coals on the altar of 

» St. Gres:ory. in fine, I. Moral. - St. Greg-ory, Lib. Moral, 39. » St. Basil, in 
Isaias, C I. * Apoc. v. 8. ^ Exod. xxx. 34. 


gold, sprinkle it on the censer, and the two ministers 
retire, leaving the priest alone in the sacred sanctuary of 
the Lord of hosts.^ 

The lone priest, image of the Priest of mankind, Jesus 
Christ, offering prayer while on earth to his heavenly 
Father before his death, swings the censer three times to 
the west, over the smoking altar, towards the Holy of 
Holies, dwelling-place of the Shekina, the Holy Spirit, 
and then over each side, and at the two ends of the 
altar, each movement with mystic meaning, saying : 

" Let my prayer be directed as incense in thy sight, 
Tlie lifting up of my hands as evening sacrifice. 
Set watch, O Lord, before my mouth, 
And a door round about my Hps, 
Incline not my heart to evil words 
To make excuses in sins." * 

The Jewish priest thus prayed alone in the Holy of 
Holies, and no one for him prayed, for he figured Jesus 
Christ, who wants no prayers, for he had no sin,^ as St. 
Augustine says, " He is the Lord Jesus Christ, the only 
Priest and the only Mediator between God and men," * 

On that altar of gold within the gold- walled Holies, 
image of the sanctuary of our Church from which Christ 
through his priest offers the Kucharistic Sacrifice, only 
incense was offered, the animals were sacrificed without, 
in the Priests' Court, for Christ is not slain now in our 
Church in a painful and bloody manner, as he was that 
fatal Friday by the Jewish priesthood. But on the Day 
of Atonement, the high priest reddened the horns of that 
gold altar with the blood of the victims, to foretell that 
the sacrifice of Calvary and of the ]\Iass are identical. 

Let us now describe a scene which took place in the 
Holies when the Jewish Church was about to pass into 
the glories of the Catholic Church. 

Early morning of the 24th of September, six months 
before Gabriel " God is mighty " appeared in the holy 
house of Nazareth to the Virgin espoused to Joseph, to 
announce the Incarnation, the "lot" draAvn by the 
Temple superintendent fell on Zachary " Jehovah is re- 

» See Edersheim, Life of Christ, vol i. 137, 138; Oeikie, Life of Christ, i. 91, 
92, 210, etc. • Psalm cxl. 2 to 4. * I. Kings, ii. 25. * St. Augustine, Enar, ii. iu 
Ps. xxxvi.. Ser. ii. u. xs.. 


nowned," son of that Barachias Christ said the Jews had 
killed between the altar and the Temple.^ For the first 
and last time he was to offer that sacred incense. He 
was of the course Abia, " the eighth " of the twenty-four 
divisions of the priests. He had married Elizabeth " God 
of the covenant ; " his home was about four miles north- 
west of Jerusalem, down in the valley on the side hill 
facing north, just beyond the little village now called St. 

They were both old and childless, a great disgrace in 
these days, when every mother hoped and prayed that 
she might bring forth the long-looked for Saviour. 
Zachary had just returned from a three months' retreat, 
spent with the Essenes, at their house built under the 
cliff on the north side of the ravine, about a mile up from 
Jericho, in the side of the Lenten mountain, where later 
Christ fasted. There he had spent his days praying 
for an heir. He had returned to the city, for it was 
the time his course of Abia was to go on duty in the 

Early in the morning from the tower on Olivet's top, 
the priests announced that the sun illumined the tombs 
of the patriarchs at Hebron, then that the sun was rising 
over Nebo, where Moses' body reposed. The high priest 
ordered the lamb brought from the Beth-Moked chamber, 
where they had kept it for four days ; others bring the gold 
and silver vessels, ninety-three in number, they examine 
the lamb again for blemishes, water it out of a gold cup — 
all this to foretell there would be no stain of sin on Christ, 
and also to foretell the vinegar and gall they gave to drink 
to Him the Jewish court had condemned to death four 
days before that fatal crucifixion Friday. They fasten the 
lamb to the second row of hooks on the pillar at the north 
of the altar, his feet tied with a cord to make a cross, his 
head to the south, its face to the west, for so faced Christ 
when sacrificed. Tlie sign is given to open the great 
gates with three blasts on the silver trumpets which had 
replaced the ram's horns of the tabernacle, and vast 
crowds of people fill the Courts. The lamb is slain, its 
blood put on the horns of the outside altar in the form 
of a cross, and the priest Zachary was about to offer the 

^ Matt, zxiii. 35 ; Luke xi. 51. 


daily incense in the Holies. He represented the fore- 
told Christ, who was once to offer himself for mankind's 

Zachary, clothed in magnificent vestments, went up the 
inclined passage on the south side to the great altar, 
holding in his right hand the censer with its three chains. 
He scraped up the burning coals in a gold vessel called 
the ten% put them in the censer and came down. While 
he did this his two assistants trimmed the lamps of the 
great golden candlestick, poured into each olive oil, fixed 
the wicks made from worn-out vestments and lighted 
them. But the central middle lamp which bent towards 
the Holy of Holies could be lighted only from the ever- 
burning fire on the sacrificial altar. 

The great organ, the Magrephah, began the music, the 
priests and Levites took their places — the first on the 
steps leading up to the Holies, the second on the steps of 
the Nicanor Gate, as Zacharj'" with his two assistants as- 
cend the steps preceded by the two priests who had dressed 
the gold altar, and the candlestick, and who had removed 
the vessels of their ministry and returned. One of the 
assistants spread the live coals on the altar, the other ar- 
ranged the incense, and all retired leaving Zachary alone 
within that sanctuary before the altar, imaging the priest 
standing before our altar offering the Mass with its 
prayers, ceremonies and incense. 

As the high priest without gives the sign, deep silence 
fell on the vast throng of priests and Levites while people 
prostrated themselves, fell down on their faces and bent 
the body down to the pavement. Zachary spread the in- 
cense on the burning coals, and the smoke ascended up 
before the Lord of hosts, prophesying the prayers and 
sacrifice of Jesus and his Saints.^ 

Thus Zachary offered the incense,^ most holy and 
solemn Temple function.^ " When therefore," says S. 
Augustine, the " father priest, trembling, stood at the 
divine altar, Gabriel the angel suddenly cleaving the air 
stood beside him, now trembling when he saw the vision 
standing at the right side of the altar of incense. And 
Zachary seeing him was troubled and fear fell upon 

^ Se« Apoc. viii. 1 to 4. « Luke i. 5 to 33. » Edersheirn, Temple, 183 to 139. 


But the angel said to him : " Fear not, Zachary, for thy 
prayer is heard, and thy wife Elizabeth shall bear thee a 
son, and thou shalt call his name John. And thou shalt 
have joy and gladness and many shall rejoice at his 
birth." ' The angel called him John " The Pius." 

St. Augustine tells us that Zachary was a faded, withered 
up old man, and that was the reason he did not believe 
the words of Gabriel " God is mighty," who in all Jewish 
history was in God's ministry to comfort Hebrews with 
revelations of the Incarnation.^ 

Thus in the Holies, the golden sanctuary with its mas- 
sive gold altar foretelling the sanctuary of our churches, 
was revealed the birth of John the Baptist, last of the 
great men of the Old Testament and first Evangelist of 
the New Testament. He was, said Christ, the greatest 
man born of woman,^ prophet, priest, preacher, rabbi and 
martyr, who like the great men of olden days prepared 
the way for Christ preached the forgiveness of sins, and 
baptized the, Lord. 

When Herod killed the Bethlehem infants, all Judea 
was in a ferment of fear for her children, and they hid 
John in a cave they show under the house where his 
parents lived. When John was in his twelfth year 
they brought him to the Temple, priests imposed their 
hands on him with the Taleth vestments and confirmed 
him, the ceremony admitting him into the ranks of the 
men. Then he retired to the desert west of his home 
where he lived on locusts and wild honey as a hermit in 
watchings, prayers and fastings, clothed in one garment of 
camel's hair. 

When John was thirty he came forth from his solitude 
to preach. As was the custom of the Rabbis of that day he 
gathered twelve disciples round him — one being that Simon 
who wished to buy the Holy Ghost with money and who 
later opposed Peter in his travels and at Rome. To 
Jordan's banks he came in the form and spirit of Elias 
who centuries before had ascended to heaven on the fiery 
chariot of the Lord from that very spot. 

Before beginning his public ministry at the age of thirty 

* Luke i. 12, IS, 14, etc. ' St. Augustin, Serrn. LX. in Nat. Joan. Bap., i., n. 
Ix ; Dutripon, Con. S. Scripturae; Smith's Diet. Gabriel, John the Baptist, etc. 
» Luke vii. 28. 


Jesus came to John at Galgal, " the Circle," where the 
Hebrews crossed to take possession of the Promised 
Land, where Josue built the monument of twelve stones 
in memory of the miracle of the waters sweeping 
south toward the Dead Sea turning back to let them 

There where the river sweeps round in a half circle, 
amid the tamarisks lining its desert shores, Jesus passed 
through the throngs, went down into the waters. John 
baptized him and told his disciples he was the " Lamb of 
God who would take away the sins of the world," * and 
John's disciples followed from that time the Lord and be- 
came the apostles. 

John still continued to preach. One day Herod Agrippa, 
passing from his capital, Tiberias, nestling on the western 
shores of Galilee, going on his way to his winter home 
east of the Dead Sea, passed where John was preaching. 
He had seduced the wife of his half brother Philip, then 
living in retirement in Jerusalem, divorced his own wife, 
daughter of Aretis the Arabian king, and was then living 
with that base woman, Herodias, in adultery. 

Before the multitude John said it was against the law 
of Moses to live with his brother's wife. Stung to the 
quick before the people Herod had him arrested and 
carried to his fortress Macarius, Josephus so minutely 
describes as having been built in the desert where the 
sulphur springs burst forth from desert sands. 

At Macarius Herod celebrated his birthday with a 
great feast for his nobles and officers,' and during the 
banquet his half-niece Salome, daughter of the woman he 
was living with and his half brother Philip, half clothed 
danced the immodest suggestive Egyptian dance, and 
Herod half drunk, charmed with her graces promised her, 
before his guests, whatever she would ask, even half his 
kingdom. Prompted by her adulterous mother Herodias, 
she asked the head of John the Baptist on a salver. 

Pretending to be saddened that the banquet should be 
the scene of such a bloody murder, but remembering his 
oath before his guests, he gave the sign to his guards 
standing round the banquet hall. They went down to 
the deep dungeon, cut off John's head, brought the ghastly 

J John i. 29. « Mark vi. 21, 22. 


trophy to the wicked woman Salome and she gave it to 
her mother. 

All orientals honored the beard, called in Hebrew 
zaqan^ a word found seven times in the Old Testament. 
God forbade the Hebrews to shave. " Nor shall you cut 
your hair roundwise, nor shave your beard." ^ This law 
was for all the people, but a special rule was laid down 
for priests, " Neither shall they shave their head, nor their 
beard, nor make incisions in their flesh." ^ 

All Hebrews wore long beards, which they might trim, 
but not shave all off, nor trim in peculiar shapes like the 
heathens of that time. Egyptian priests cut their hair 
round. Pagans, when dedicated to their gods, cut the 
hair in peculiar shapes, sometimes forming a circle, as 
Empedocles said ; " God is a circle, his center is every- 
where without a circumference." To express that idea 
they often built their temples round, like the Pantheon, 
the vestals' shrine Numa built, and many other temples 
of that time. 

Heathens dedicated their hair to idols or demons, and 
Hebrews dedicated their hair and beard to God. Many 
ancient religious ceremonies we find among the heathens 
relating to the beard. To preserve the Hebrews from 
these superstitions God forbade them to shave head or 

The leper shaved his whole body,' as a sign of his 
disease, while the Hebrew wore a long beard as a mark of 
manhood, virtue, perfection, strength and wisdom. 

The Nazarite " Separated " never cut his hair or beard, 
to show that he was dedicated to God. His hair and 
beard were trimmed at the door of the tabernacle, at 
the Nicanor Gate when his vow ended."* This was the 
origin of the tonsure, a ceremony which admits a man 
into the ranks of the clergy of our day. Christ was the 
Nazarite foretold by the prophets.^ On Monday of 
Passion week, he came to the Temple and received the 
tonsure. From apostolic custom comes down the clerical 
tonsure. In the early Church all the clergy wore beards, 
as we learn in the fathers' writings.® The Fourth Coun- 

* Levit. xix. 27. 2 Levit. xxi. 5. ^ Levit. xiv. 9. * Numb. vi. 18. ^ Gen. x!ix. 
26 ; Deut xxxiii. 46 ; Lament, iv. 7, etc. « Clem. Alex. L. III. Pedag. C. 3. Cyp- 
rian, L. 3 ad Quirin. Epiph. Haeres, 80, 


cil of Carthage ^ rules '' A cleric Avill not foster his hair 
nor shave his beard." 

Among the Hebrews the beard was so honored that no 
one ever dared to touch it except to kiss manhood's great- 
est ornament as a sign of honor. Joab took Amasa by 
the beard to kiss it, when he stabbed him. Hamon 
shaved the heads and beards of David's ambassadors sent 
to comfort him at his father's death, and that disgrace 
brought on a war.^ Arabs in ancient days shaved their 
beards, and cut their hair in round forms, when they ded- 
icated themselves to Bacchus, god of drunkenness,^ and on 
all these people of the Orient, for their superstitions, God's 
condemnation was foretold.* 

Following the Mosaic law, the beard was sacred to the 
Jew, and at the time of Christ all wore beards. The 
Jerusalem Jews of our day wear long ringlets of hair 
hanging down before their ears, even boys after their 
confirmation at twelve, conform to this custom. But as 
a sign of sorrow they shave off the beard and cut their 

Arabs, sons of Abraham through Ismael, have the 
greatest respect for the beard, which they say God gave 
to distinguish men from women. They never shave. The 
greatest insult offered an Arabian is to cut off his beard. 
The longer the beard the more learned and venerable the 
man. Wives and children still kiss the beard as a sign 
of respect. They swear and make contracts by the beard ; 
and when they ask a favor they say, " By your beard. 
By the life of your beard grant me this.'* "May God 
deign to guard your blessed beard." "May God pour 
out his blessings on j^our beard." 

An Arab having received a serious wound in the jaw, 
said he would rather die than allow the doctor to shave 
off his beard, so the wound could be better attended. 
When Peter the Great of Russia ordered all his subjects 
to shave, he roused much opposition, and many asked 
their friends to bury their beard with them. Polish Jews 
looked on one who cut off his beard as having renounced 
Judaism, and the rabbis preached against shaving. Moors 
of Africa kiss the beard when they meet. 

' Caput IV. » I. Par. xix. 4 : IT. Kings x. 4. » Herodotus, Thalia, III. n. 8. 
* Jereiuias ix. 2G, xxv. ~'3, xiix. 3x2. 


In our day when ceremonial visits are made in the 
East, a servant sprays scented water, like cologne, on the 
beard of the visitor.^ When the Hebrews attended ban- 
quets at the time of Christ, a servant holding a censer in 
his right hand, went from one guest to another and in- 
censed the beard of each guest, swinging the censer up 
and down before him, so the smoke rose up through his 
beard. When this custom first arose we cannot find, but it 
was customary at all banquets and at the Passover in the 
time of Christ. This was the origin of the ceremony of 
of incensing the clergy at a High Mass. 

* D'Arvieux, Moeui-s des Arabes. 




At the Last Supper, Christ celebrated the Passover 
according to the historic Hebrew rite coming down from 
patriarchal days, Moses and the prophets, and changed it 
into the Mass. Let us therefore see the history of the 

The word in our translations of the Bible given as 
phase, pascha, means the Jewish Passover. The word 
comes from the Hebrew pesac/i, " to pass over," because the 
Lord " passed over " the Israelites' houses in Egypt signed 
with the blood of the paschal lambs, when he killed the 
first-born of every family and animal the night they were 
delivered from slavery ^ Sts. Augustine and Jerome held 
it means " to suffer," ^ and foretold Christ's Passion. 

Our Bible says, " It is the victim of the passage of the 
Lord, when he passed over the houses of the children of 
Israel."^ The Hebrew word means "he leaped over" or 
" did not tread on." * But it has another meaning : " to 
spare " or " to show mercy to," for the Divine Son that 
night " spared " and " showed mercy " to the Hebrews.^ 
The word Passover is given forty-seven times in the Old 
Testament ' 

The Passover, still held by the Jews as their greatest 
religious feast — the anniversary of the delivery of their 
fathers from Egyptian bondage, falls each year on the 
evening of the 14th moon of the lunar month of Ab, or 
Nisan " sprouting." The Rabbis call it the Tecupha 

' Exod xii, 29. St. Augustine, Enar. I. in Psal. Ixviii. Ser. I. n. ii. Enar. 
in Psal. cxx. n. v. Enar. in Psal. cxxxvii. n. viii. * In Joan T. Iv., n. I. etc. 

Sermo xxxi. De Pascha, xi. n. I. ' Exod. xii, 27. * St. Augustine, ibidem. 

''St. Augustine, Enar. I. in Psal. Ixviii., Sermo i. n. ii. iii. Sermo vii. De 
Pascha, n. i. etc. 

* See Migne's Cursus Comp. S. Scripturae, vol. ii., p. 182 ; vol. iii. 1141, etc. 



" Equinox ; " the month corresponds to the last of March 
and the first days of April/ It is their Easter, the key of 
their calendar, and regulates all their movable feasts and 
fasts, as our Easter, to which it gave rise, governs our 
feasts, fasts, and movable seasons of the Church year. 

Far beyond history, in prehistoric times, the patriarchs 
with roasted lamb and bread and wine celebrated the 
Passover. But the night of the flight from Egypt, when 
the Hebrews became a nation, God gave more minute 
details typical of the Redeemer's Passion, the crucifixion 
and the Mass. The prophets and holy seers of the Old 
Testament, directed by the Holy Ghost in Shekina form, 
added to the Passover ceremonial, till at the time of Christ 
it had become an elaborate and strikingly symbolic rite. 

We must keep before our minds, that in Biblical writ- 
ings, three chief objects were seen at the feast : the first 
night paschal lamb, the bread, the wine, and at the feast 
of unleaven bread, which lasted for a week, only the bread 
and wine. This first feast fell on Thursday the day be- 
fore the crucifixion, and is forever enshrined in Christian 
writings under the name of the Last Supper or the Lord's 
Supper, which he fulfilled and changed into the Mass.^ 

As the Last Supper was that Hebrew Passover with all 
its elaborate ceremonial, we will first see its history, trace 
it down the ages, and then describe how the Samaritans 
and Jerusalem Jews hold the solemnity in our day. 

First the Bible gives a full account of the feast,^ as it 
was held in Egypt. Then the unleavened bread is men- 
tioned with the consecration of the first-born.* Under 
the name of feast of unleaven bread, it is united with the 
two other great feasts of Pentecost and the Sabbath, in 
which the lamb, in Hebrew taleh^ is called " My Sacrifice." ^ 
The festival is brought into relation with the redemption 
of the first-born, and the words specifying the Easter lamb ^ 
are repeated.'' The same is again given regarding the 
days of convocation, and laws regarding the ofi'ering of 
the first-fruits, the Biccurim, with the ofterings accom- 
panying it when the Hebrews passed into the Promised 
Land.® Again the Shekina " The Divine Presence " 

* Zanolini, De Festis Judaeorum, C. 4. 

* See S. Thomas, Sum., iii., q. 46, Art. 9 ad 1 et q. 74, Art. 4 ad 1, etc.. etc. 
» Exod. xii. 1-51. ♦ xiii. 3-10. ^ xxiii. 14-19. « Exod.'xxiii. 18. 
' xxxiv. 18-26. • Levit. xxiii. 4-14. 


repeats the law regarding the Passover at the beginning 
of the seeond year after going out of Egypt,^ and the 
second Passover, a month later, is ordered for those who 
could not hold the first. Rules are revealed regarding 
offerings made on each of the seven days of the festival.'^ 
The last divinely given direction states the place of sacri- 
fice the Lord will later chose in the " Land of Promise," 
that is where the ark rested till placed in the Temple in 
Jerusalem where the Passover was celebrated in Christ's 
time.^ Ilero more minute details of the festal ceremonial 
are given. 

On the tenth day of the month of Nisan, the Hebrews 
Avere to select the lamb, for on this day Christ was con- 
denmed to death by the Sandhedrin at Jerusalem.* The}^ 
were told to choose a little ram and keep it till the four- 
teenth day of the same month, in the evening, for at mid- 
night, following that day, 1300 years later, Christ was 
arrested. The paschal festival lasted a week, because 
during Passion week, Christ was sacrificed, lay in the 
tomb and rose from the dead.^ 

They sacrificed it in the afternoon, the Hebrew text 
having " between the two vespers." The "first vespers " 
among the Jews meant from noon till three, and the 
"second vespers" from three till night. At three in 
the afternoon, they were told to sacrifice the lamb, for, 
ages afterwards, at three o'clock, Jesus Christ, whom the 
lamb represented, died on the cross. 

We find these two vespers mentioned in the Gospel, by 
the word "evening."® According to Hebrew ways of 
counting days, at sunset the next day began, and not at 
midnight." This was the law relating to the feasts.^ 
" From evening to evening you shall celebrate your sab- 

By the sacrifice and blood of the paschal lamb of the 
patriarchs, the Hebrews were delivered from Egyptian 
slavery. God himself laid down the ceremony of that 
sacrifice. The kind of lamb, the time, the place, the rite, 
the person to kill it, and the persons who could eat it, 
are all given with minute details.' 

1 Numb. \x. 1-11. 2 Numb, xxviii. 16-25. » Dout. xvi. 1-8. 

*Exod.xii. 8. »Exod. xli. 6. « Matt. 3:iv. 15-23. 

^ See Levjt. xxiii. 5, fj. * Levit. xTiii. 32. " F.zod. xii 


Three directions God gives regarding the victim. It 
must be a male, for Christ was of that sex ; it must be a 
year old, to tell that the Lord was sacrificed in the flower 
of his manhood ; it must be without spot, stain, or blem- 
ish, to foretell the sinless Christ.^ During night they 
fled from Egypt ; then they were delivered from Egyptian 
slavery, to tell how in the last age of the Hebrew nation- 
ality in Palestine the Lord was arrested at night to be 
sacrificed, to deliver the world from demoniac slavery. 

It was spring, the tenth day after the full moon, after 
the vernal equinox, when the eartli is between sun and 
moon, so all could see, that the darkening of the sun 
when the Lord was dying was not caused by an eclipse ; 
and the darkness of that EgyjDtian night when the 
Hebrews became a nation foretold the darkness at the 

Although a lamb was ordered inunolated to foretell the 
sinless Christ, they were allowed to sacrifice a kid as a 
victim for sin to shadow forth the Lord bearing the sins 
of the world. He was thus typified by Jacob clothed in 
kidskin, emblem of sin, when his father blessed him. ^ 
But the kid must also be a year old and without blemish.^ 
The first night of the Passover these animals only could 
be offered. But the solemnity lasted from the 14th to 
the 21st day of the month of Xisan and sheep and oxen 
might be eaten the remaining days.* Each evening of 
that week, they held the feast in their houses and syna- 
gogues. That was the reason they would not enter 
Pilate's hall lest they might be defiled, and could not 
celebrate the remaining days of the Passover. They had 
all celebrated the ceremony of the paschal lamb the night 
before, and each night that week they were to offer the 
victims of peace-offerings, with Avine and the unfermented 
bread. This week was called the feast of unleaven 

" Seven days you shall eat unleaven bread . . . The first 
day shall be holy and solemn, and the seventh day shall 
be kept with the like solemnity, you shall do no work in 
them, except those things that belong to eating." ^ Thus 
was the great Easter, a week lasting from the 14th to the 

» Exod. xii, 3-5. 2 Qen. xxvii. 16. ' Exod. xii. 5 ; Levit. xxii. 19, 20, 21, 22. 
* Deut. svi, 2. Numb. x.>;viii. 16, etc. ^ Exod. xii. Ifi, 16. 


21st, kept by the Jews in all their generations, to pro- 
phesy our Christian Easter. The first and last days were 
like our solemn Sundays of Eastertide holiest time of the 
Church year.^ 

The law was so strict, that the one who would not 
keep the Passover was to be put to death. " Whosoever 
shall eat anything leaven from the first day until the 
seventh day, that soul shall perish out of Israel." ^ " He 
that eat leaven bread his soul shall perish out of the as- 
sembly of Israel, whether he be a stranger or born in the 
land."^ In Christ's day the j)enalty was excommunica- 

Circumcision was a type of baptism. Only the cir- 
cumcised Hebrew could eat the lamb which pointed to 
Christ, and only the baptized should receive Communion.* 

If a Hebrew were unclean, he could not partake of the 
feast. He went through the ceremony of being cleansed, 
and on the tenth day of the following month he could eat 
the lamb, for the Christian in mortal sin must not receive 
till he has been cleansed from sin by the sacrament of 

Four places the lamb was sacrificed. The night the 
Hebrews went out of Egypt, the head of the family slew 
the lamb at the house, for the Hebrew priesthood had 
not yet been established, and, as in patriarchal days, the 
father of the family was then the priest.'^ 

They ofi'ered the next paschal lamb in the desert of 
Sinai, the second year after leaving Egypt.^ Again, they 
offered it after passing the Jordan at Galgal " the Circuit," 
as they lay camped in the deep desert valley, with the 
tamarisks lining the shores of the historical river where 
Christ was baptized, to foretell Christians partaking of 

After they conquered Palestine, they were told to 
sacrifice the lamb only in tabernacle and Temple. 
" Thou may est not immolate the phase in any one of thy 
cities, which the Lord thy God will give thee, but in the 
place which the Lord thy God (the word translated here 
as God is the Shekina in the original Hebrew) shall 
choose that his name may dwell there. Thou shalt im- 

» Exod. xii. 17. » Exod. xii. 15. ^ Esod. xii. 19. * Exod. xii. 43, 44,48. 
^ Exod. xii. 3. • Numb. ix. 


molate the phase in the evening, at the going down of 
the sun, at which time thou earnest out of Egypt." ^ 
This command was given because the real Lamb of God, 
ages later, was to be sacrificed in Jerusalem, where the 
Temple stood. Till David chose Mount Moriah, in Jeru- 
salem, for the site of the Temple, the tabernacle and ark 
of the covenant at different epochs rested at Galgal, Silo, 
Nobe, and Gabaon. 

The night they went out of Egypt, this was the cere- 
monial : They cut the lamb's throat, caught the blood, 
" and put it on both the side-posts, and on the upper door- 
posts of the houses, wherein they shall eat, and they 
shall eat the flesh that night roasted at the fire, and 
unleavened bread and wild lettuce. You shall not eat 
anything thereof raw, nor boiled in water, but only 
roasted at the fire ; you shall eat the head, with the feet, 
and the entrails thereof. Neither shall there remain 
anything of it until the morning. If there be anything 
left you shall burn it with fire, and thus shall you eat it, 
you shall gird your reins, and you shall have shoes on 
your feet, holding staves in your hands, and you shall 
eat it in haste, for it is the Phase, that is the Passover of 
the Lord. And I will pass through the land of Egypt 
that night, and will kill every first-born, both man and 
beast. I am the Lord, and against all the gods of Egypt 
I will execute judgment. I am the Lord. 

" And the blood shall be unto you for a sign in the 
houses where you shall be, and I shall see the blood and 
shall pass over you, and the plague shall not be upon 
you, to destroy j'ou, when I shall strike the land of 
Egypt. And this day shall be for a memorial to you, and 
you shall keep it a feast to the Lord in your generations, 
with an everlasting observance. Seven days you shall 
eat unleaven bread," ^ etc. 

When Moses delivered the divine message to the 
Hebrews, they bowed their heads and worshiped. They 
followed the instructions, killed, ate the lambs, and 
sprinkled the blood. At midnight, the hour Christ was 
arrested centuries later, when he began his Passion to 
deliver the human race, the first-born of every family, 
and of every animal in Egypt was killed, as a prophecy 

» Peut, wl 5^ 6, 2 Exod. xii. 7-15. 



of the death of the Virgin's First-born on the cross. 
This is the reason that Christ is called the " first-born " 
seven times in the New Testament. 

The general impressicwn is that God sent an angel, 
called the "angel of death," to kill, that night. But 
this is not so. For the text reads : " I am the Lord . . . 
I shall see the blood, and shall pass over you, and the 
plague shall not be upon you, when I shall strike the 
land of Egypt." ^ 

Jewish writers, as well as these Avords, show that God 
himself killed the first-born. And reading carefully their 
writings, we see that it was the Divine Sou who passed 
through Egypt that night, when he delivered the 
Hebrews as a prophecy of the time when he, made flesh, 
by his death, delivered the whole human race from 
demoniac error, sin, and slavery. 

The Hebrews celebrated the feast in Egypt on the 
fourteenth moon of Abib, or Kisan,^ and the next day 
went out of Egypt. Then their slavery ended. "Now 
the children of Israel departed from Ramesses the first 
month, on the fifteenth day of the first month, the day 
after the Phase, with a mighty hand, in the sight of all 
the Egyptians.*' ^ Following, then, the history of his 
forefathers and customs coming down the ages, the Lord 
and his disciples held the Passover on the fourteenth day 
of the month, and he died on tlie fifteenth to deliver the 
human race from the slavery of the devil and of sin rep- 
i-esented by the Egyptian bondage. 

The Hebrews did not go out the niglit they held the 
Passover, for they were told to remain within their 
houses. " Let none of you go out of the door of this 
house till morning." * The next day they began the 
march. All this foretold how, c-enturies later, Jesus 
Christ would celebrate the Passover with his disciples ; 
that he would be arrested nt niglit, and the next day, as 
the first-born, he died to deliver mankind from the bonds 
of sin, and slavery of the devil. 

During the Passover ^ God gave directions they could 
not carry out that night ; they related to future Pass- 
overs". They could not keep the next day, the fifteenth, 

1 Exod. xii. 12, 13. 2 Exod. xii. 0. » Numb, xxxili. 3. * Exod. xii. 22. 
• Exod. xii. and xiii. 


as a feast, for they were then on their journey.^ They 
could not offer the " first-fruits, the Omer,^ for they were 
then traveling in the desert where nothing grows. They 
could not immolate the special sacrifices mentioned later,^ 
nor sprinkle the blood on the altar in place of the door- 

For these reasons Jewish writers carefully distinguish 
between the " Egyptian Passover," held the night of the 
flight from Egypt, and the "j)erpetual Passover," cele- 
brated later in their history. Both clean and unclean 
celebrated the feast that night, but afterwards God gave 
them special regulations,^ and restricted the feast to men 
alone.® Thus it came to pass that Christ with his 
apostles, no woman being present, held the feast in the 
Cenacle, and there he ordained only men, and from that 
came the doctrine that only men are valid subjects for 
the priesthood. The Psalms forming the Hallel were 
not sung that night, for only in David's day were they 

Birth and death, origin and end of life, were most un- 
clean to the Jew. The first reminded them of the fall of 
man, that children are born in original sin ; the latter 
that from the gates of Eden death with his icy hand 
strikes down every member of our race.^ During the 
wilderness wandering, the second year after leaving 
Egypt some men touched a dead body, became defiled, 
and c(juld not celebrate the Passover.® God told Moses to 
institute a second Passover on the fourteenth of the fol- 
lowing month, giving a like ceremonial as for the first, 
and these men purified themselves and held the feast. 
As the first Passover foretold our Easter Communion, so 
the latter imaged the time to come, when Christians, 
who, because of sin, cannot make their ''Easter duty," 
can confess and later receive the " Lamb of God." 

Jewish writers name the first " the greater Passover," 
and the latter "the little Passover," this lasting but a 
day, the Hallel Psalms being sung while the lamb was 
being sacrificed, but not during the supper, nor was the 
leaven searched for.^ 

^ Exod. xii. 16-51, ' Levit. xxiii. 10-14. » Numb, xxviii. 1&-25. 

* Deut. xvi. 1-16. * Numb, xviii. 11. ' Exod. xxiii. 17; Deut. xvi. 16. 

^ Gen. iii. 16-19, » Numb. ix. ^ Tal., Pesachim, ix. 3 : Lex Tal., col. 1766. 
See S. Augustine, Ques. In Exod. 1. ii., Ques. xlii,, Ques. in Num. I. ix,, Ques. xv. 


Down the Hebrew history, they followed the law God 
himself, laid down. " Thou shalt keep this thing as a 
law for thee and thy children forever." ^ " This is the 
observable night of the Lord when he brought them out 
of the land of Egypt, this night all the children of Israel 
iimst observe in their generations." ^ In the desert of 
Sinai, when God commanded them to hold the Easter 
feast, he said : " Let the children of Israel make the 
Phase in its due time, the fourteenth day of this month 
in the evening, according to all the ceremonies and justi- 
fications thereof." ^ For the third time the Lord repeated 
the rule relating to breaking a bone of the lamb, or 
leaving any part till morning, and ends with these words. 
" They shall observe all the ceremonies of the Phase." * 

The Hebrews could not again celebrate the feast of the 
Passover till they camped round Sinai, the second year 
after leaving Egypt, because they could not be circum- 
cised while on the march. After being circumcised and 
receiving the Law and the Ten Commandments from the 
fiery Shekina,^ the Holy Spirit, covering Mount Sinai, 
God renewed the command regarding the Passover,*"' to 
foretell how Christ first preached his Gospel and then 
was sacrificed. They did not keep the Passover for the 
next thirty-three years in their march through the Ara- 
bian deserts, for the males could not be circumcised 
during their continual wanderings. But when they 
crossed the dry Jordan and camped at Galgal within the 
Promised Land, Josue ordered the rite of circumcision, 
and then they held the Passover.'^ 

Under the Judges they seldom held the Passover, be- 
cause they were continually at war with surrounding 
heathens. But when peace came they held the feast 
with great solemnity each Easter. As the ages passed 
new rites and ceremonies were added to the Passover, 
each being a revelation of the sacrifice of Calvary and the 
Mass. Let us describe the most striking. 

When the good king Josias brought back the Jews 
from idolatry, begun under Solomon, he commanded the 
people saying : " Keep the Phase to the Lord your God, 
according as it is written in the book of this covenant." * 

» Exod. xil. 24. « Exod. xii. 42. » Numb. ix. 3. * Numb. ix. 12. 

' Exod. XX. " Numb. ix. 9. " Josue, v. 2. ■ IV. Kings xxiii. 21. 


At a later date, " King Ezechias sent to all Israel and 
Juda, and he wrote letters to Ephraim and Manasses, that 
they should come to the house of the Lord in Jerusalem 
and keep the Phase to the Lord, the God of Israel." ^ The 
account says the priests received the blood which was 
poured out from the hands of the Levites,^ showing that 
only priests could sacrifice the lamb in the days of Jewish 
kings. " And the Phase was immolated, and the priests 
sprinkled the blood with their hand, and the Levites 
flayed the holocausts." ^ 

After the Captivity, king Darius of Persia gave orders 
to search in the library for the holy books, and decreed 
the renewal of the sacrifices. " And the children of Israel 
of the Captivity kept the Phase on the fourteenth day of 
the first month."* 

Again the Lord renewed the command of the Passover 
through the prophet Ezechiel, after Herod's temple was 
shown him in vision.^ 

HebreAV writings show that during the Passover the 
chief event of the history of the Israelites happened like 
the morning light of Christianity rising over the world 
before the Incarnation of the Sun of justice. At mid- 
night of Passover, Abraham divided his forces, and 
conquered his enemies;^ Sodom with all the Avicked 
people were destroyed, while Lot, who, in the city filled 
with sinners, baked the paschal unleaven cakes, only 
was saved.'' To Abraham, during the feast, appeared the 
Son of God, with an angel each side of him.^ During 
Passover, Jacob wrestled with and overcame an angel ; ^ 
Prince Haroseth's army was destroyed ; ^" Bel's idol was 
overthronw, and dreams revealed the future to Joseph. 

Passover night, proud Belshasser, king of Babylon, 
celebrated his feast in the great palace on the banks of 
the Euphrates ; within the city's impregnable walls, 
praised his idols, mocked the God of Israel, called for the 
sacred vessels of Solomon's Temple, and from them drank 
to the glory of his kingdom and the gods of Babylon. 

On the wall of the great banquet hall appeared the 
hand of light, wrote the sentence of doom on him and on 

* II. Par. XXX. 1-5. * II. Par. xxx. 16. ' II. Par. xxxv. 11. 

* I. Esdras vi. 19-23. ° Ezechiel xl v. 21. « Gen. xiv. 15. '' Gen. xix. 3. 

* Gen. xviii. ^ Gen. xxxii. '" Judg. iv. 


his kingdom, which only Daniel could read to the horror- 
stricken king, satraps, rulers and concubines, while Cyrus' 
armies marched into the doomed city along the dry bed of 
the river whi(;h they had turned out of its course. That 
Passover night, Babylon was captured, king and nobles 
slain. Later, Cyrus, seeing his very name foretold by 
Isaias, sent back the Jews to rebuild the destroyed city 
and Temple.' 

At the Passover the lands of Moph and Noph were 
swept of idolatry, Esther directed the Hebrews to fast 
and Haman was crucified. All the miracles God per- 
formed for the Hebrews took place at the feast to foretell 
the delivery of mankind by Christ, who was to be cruci- 
fied the second day of this feast. 

This was the order of Passover at the time of Christ as 
laid down in Scripture. The tenth day ^ the lamb was 
selected, washed, and tied to a stake till the 14th day of 
the moon,'^ the day they searched the house for leaven.* 
During this their great Holy Week, they were to eat only 
unleaven bread, foretelling our Easter Week and the 
reception of the sacraments.^ 

Every male Hebrew, not laboring under a legal im- 
purity, under pain of death was to appear at the national 
sanctuary, the holy Temple,^ bringing an offering in 
proportion to his means, foretelling Easter offerings in 
our churches. An offering was brought to every feast, 
but this was the oldest and greatest festival, and numerous 
costly gifts w^ero brought. Part of these offerings was 
spent for burnt offerings and the rest for the Chagigah as 
the Talmud says.* Special rules related to the first- 

Women went up to Jerusalem with the men," but they 
did not then eat the Passover with the men,'** preach or 
take part as leaders in the synagogue. The feast was held 
in the evening of the fourteenth of the month to remind 
them that their fathers in Egypt celebrated it at night. 

God commanded them to sacrifice a lamb, because from 
the days of Abel the patriarchs sacrificed it to foretell 
*' the Lamb of God sacrificed from the foundations of the 

» Daniel V. « Exorl. xii. 3. 'Exod.xii. 6. « Exod. xii. 15. 

» Exod. xii. 15. * Deut. xvi. lG-17. ^ Clm^igab 1,2 etc. 

• Exod. xiii. 15. » I. Kines i. 7 ; Luke ii. 41-42. 

^^ Exod. xxiii. 17 ; xxxiv. 23 ; Deut. xvi. 10, etc 


world." The lamb was a type and emblem of Him who 
was to come and bear the sins of mankind, who was 
" Like a lamb led to the sacrifice." ^ The sacrifice of the 
lamb in patriarchal times degenerated into pagan rites 
when Adam's religion had become dim, and in Egypt 
and other places Jupiter was adored under the form of a 
ram. The beasts first offered to God had become the 
gods of paganism. 

A striking figure of Christ was that paschal lamb. 
Its immolation, by which the Hebrews were delivered, 
foretold the delivery of the whole human race by the 
sacrifice of Christ. Its blood, sprinkled on the door-posts, 
pointed to the Lord's blood sprinkled on the cross by 
which we are redeemed from sin and hell. The " Angel 
of death," God the Son striking the Egyptians, tells of 
the death of the soul by sin when not delivered by the 
Redeemer's blood. The lamb killed in the night typified 
the Lamb of God arrested at midnight, sacrificed in the 
darkness of infidelity at the end of the Hebrew nationality, 
typified by the darkness on Egypt and at the crucifixion. 

As the lamb was sacrificed by the whole people, it 
pointed to that later time when the whole nation cried 
out : " Crucify him." " His blood be on us and on our 
children." The lamb was to be without spot or blemish 
to shadow forth the sinless Saviour. A kid might be 
sacrificed at the Passover in place of a lamb, for the goat 
represented Christ loaded with the world's sins as the 
scapegoat bore the sins of Israel. Jacob clothed in hairy 
kid-skins when his father blessed him foretold the Lord 
carrying our sins. The kid was prepared and roasted 
the same as the lamb. 

The little lamb Avas to be not more than a year old, to' 
foretell Christ sacrificed in the flower of his manhood, 
and without blemish, emblem of the sinless Christ. He 
was separated from the flock on the tenth day of Nisan, 
or Abib, because on this Monday the local Sanhedrin or 
Law Court of Jerusalem were to condemn the Lord to 
death, and that evening Christ hid in the Grotto on Olivet. 
These details we find in Moses' LaWv Later the prophets 
and great Seers of Israel, following the Shekina's direc- 
tions, added more details to the ceremonial. The leader 

* See St. Augustin, Contra Littera. Petil, L. ii. n. Ixxxvii. Isaias Uii. 7. 


of the band of Jews select the lamb ; the women wash it, 
as Christ took a bath before the Passover. They sent it 
with perfume to shadoAV forth the odor of good works of 
the Lord's humanity. They tie it to a colored stake, as 
Christ was fastened to his cross. They called it after its 
selection the " Lamb of God," the name John the Baptist 
called the Saviour.^ They anointed it with oil as the 
Lord was anointed by the Holy Spirit to be the INIessiah. 
" The Anointed Jehovah," in Greek : " The Christ." For 
high priest, king, judge, and ruler of Israel were anointed 
and hands of ordination imposed on him.^ 

The lamb was the most striking image of Christ among 
all the various Temple sacrifices. Therefore morning 
and evening with an elaborate ceremonial like a pontifical 
High Mass, the high priest presiding, a lamb was sacri- 
ficed in the Temple. The daily immolation of the lamb 
in the Temple and the eating of its flesh, then took the 
place of what is now the Consecration and Communion 
during Mass. But the sacrifice of the paschal lamb was 
a still more strikingly typical of Christ. 

The lamb was killed by the priests in the Temple to 
foretell how the Jewish priesthood would later demand 
of Pilate the execution of the Saviour. The blood was 
sprinkled on the great sacrificial altar, as the blood of 
Christ was sprinkled on his cross. The lamb was skinned 
as Christ was scourged. Then the dead lamb was brought 
to the house of the Jewish family. 

There they drove a pomegranate stick down through 
its body, and out into the tendons of its hind feet. They 
were forbidden to use a metal spit, for the Lord was to 
be crucified on a wooden cross. They carefully opened 
out its body, and drove a pomegranate stick through the 
tendons of its fore-feet, as butchers do to-day. They 
called this operation "The crucifying of the lamb," to 
foretell Christ with his hands and feet nailed to the cross. 
The victim they now named the " Body of the Lamb " to 
which Christ alluded at the Last Supper when he said 
" This is my Body." This was the way the lamb was 
prepared centuries before Christ. 

Roasting was the original way of cooking meat, and 
the shepherd patriarchs stuck the flesh on the ends of 

» John i. 29. » See Migne, Cursus Comp., S. Scripturse, vol. ii., 8G3, 873. 


sticks, drove the other ends into the ground so the meat 
would roast over the fire before their tent. Thus they 
used to roast whole lambs, chickens and animals. In 
Arabia, Egypt and in the Orient, you will see the Bedouin 
roasting meat in this way. 

The crucified lamb was then placed in the oven resting 
on his cross, the flesh not being allowed to touch the 
oven, to foretell how Christ completely hung from the 
cross. Thus the lamb was roasted that its body might be 
penetrated by the fire, as the fire of the Shekina, the 
Holy Spirit, filled Christ with the love of mankind, mov- 
ing him to die for our salvation. When cooked, the 
lamb was placed on the table, still resting on his cross, 
and was a striking prophetic portrait of the body of the 
dead Christ on the cross, his skin all torn off in the 
flagellation, the yellow serum oozing out and dried, made 
him look as though he had been roasted. 

The flesh could be eaten only in the house, no part 
could be carried out,^ for Communion is received only in 
the Catholic Church, and not in sects which have not holy 
orders — an ordained priesthood. Not less than ten, or 
more than twenty members, formed a " band " to eat the 
lamb, to image the congregation assembled for the cele- 
bration of the Eucharist. The tenth day of Nisan,^ when 
the Hebrews celebrated their first Passover, they sacri- 
ficed the lamb on the Sabbath to foretell that on Sunday, 
the Christian Sabbath, the real Lamb of God would be 
sacrificed in our churches. 

The waters of the Nile were turned into blood; 
in the ceremonial of tabernacle and Temple, the victims' 
blood was poured out on the altar ; they were forbidden 
to eat meat with the blood. Even in our days, Jews 
complain that the " kosher " meat, completely drained of 
blood, tastes insipid. What did these rites of the Jewish 
religion mean ? They Avere to bring before their minds 
the value of human life. They forgot all these that fatal 
Friday, when the whole nation cried out, " Crucify 
him ! " " His blood be on us and our children ! " ^ 

The blood of the paschal lamb Avas sprinkled on the 
door-posts of their houses, as a type, a prophecy, of the 
blood of Christ sprinkled on his cross. The first-born of 

» Exod, xii. 46, * Exod. xii. 3. » Luke xxiii. 31 ; Matt, xxvii. 25. 


the families living in the houses marked with the blood 
were saved that night. And Moses with the lamb's 
blood sprinkled Aaron, his sons, and all the utensils of 
the tabernacle. " What did you any, Moses V Can the 
blood of a lamb deliver a man? It is true, he said, not 
because it is blood, but because it was an example of the 
Lord's blood." • Beautifully, in his eloquent words, the 
Archbishop of Constantinople explains the great mystery 
of the blood. 

The Hebrews were forbidden to eat any raw part of 
the Lamb, for the fire of the Holy Ghost completely 
filled the whole body of Christ. If they broke a bone in 
the lamb in the preparation, they were punished at the 
time of Christ with thirty-nine stripes on bare back and 
shoulders. This was to foretell that the soldiers would 
not break Christ's limbs when the}^ came to remove the 
bodies of the crucified that day within the Passover.^ 
Only circumcised Hebrews could eat the paschal lamb, 
as only baptized Christians should receive communion. 
Only in Jerusalem was the lamb sacrificed, so in the 
Church is the Lamb of God sacrificed and eaten. The 
lamb was eaten with unleaven bread, lilce the altar 
breads used to show forth the sinless Christ, on whom 
was no sin, prefigured by fermenting yeast. It was 
eaten with wild lettuce dipped in vinegar, to remind us 
of the bitterness of sin, and with Avhat sorrow for our 
sins we should approach the table of the Lord. 

The whole lamb was eaten, with its head, feet, entrails, 
etc., to tell us that under the appearance of bread and 
wine we partake in the whole Christ, receiving both his 
Divinity and human nature. What remained after the 
feast must not be taken out of the house, but was to be 
burned that night,*"' to foretell how the Lord's body was 
removed that afterjioon ho died. 

The lamb was eaten by the Jews with loins bound up, 
shoes on their feet, staffs in their hands, clothed as for a 
journey, for as priests we partake of Communion clothed 
in vestments on a journey to our home, not in Palestine, 
like Jews, but in heaven, the Christian's real home. 

On the fifteenth, the next day, in the time of Christ, 
the Hebrews gathered in the Temple to assist in the 

iSt. Chrystom, Horn. 48, in Joan.C n. 2 johnxix. 33. s Exod. xii. 8. 9, 10. 


gvent celebration, held holy meetings in their syna- 
gogues, kept the day like a Sabbath, and did no work 
except what was required for preparing food.^ This day 
and the six following days, two young bullocks, a ram, and 
seven lambs, a year old, were offered in the Temple.^ 
With flour seasoned with oil, they made cakes of unleaveu 
bread, and offered them in the Temple to foretell the 
Mass. On the sixteenth took place the ceremony of the 
Ouier, a striking ligure of Christ's arrest the night he 
was betrayed. 

In the history of Abraham and his " Seed," the " Seed 
of the woman wlio was to crush the serpent's head," 
God bound up in prophetic history the future of the 
nations. Nature, history, blessings, symbols, ceremonies 
and graces combine to give a special meaning to the feast. 
The New Testament is filled with allusions to the going 
out from Egypt, the feast appearing under the names of 
pascha, phase, the paschal lamb, the bread and wine, the 
Last Supper, the Eucharistic Sacrifice. 

In countries bordering deserts, like Palestine, they plant 
crops in the fall and harvest in the spring-time, as God 
gathered Israel to himself from slavery in the Nile Land, 
and to foretell when Christ would rescue mankind from 
perdition, so Passover fell in the middle of the month 
Abib, later called Nisan, both words meaning " sprout- 
ing," " green ears." * It was the " beginning of months, 
the seventh month. — the ^sacred month, reminding us of 
the seven gifts of the Ploly Spirit,* the seven sacraments. 
All through the Bible runs the sacred symbol seven, and 
in sevens the Gospels were written in the original Greek. 
In the most astonishing way they are interwoven as 
though the first Evangelist wrote last, and the last first, 
and altogether i-un in^ and out, one with the other under 
the same divine inspiring Spirit. From the days of the 
Apostles, the Gospels have i)roven impervious to attacks 
of infidels. 

From Adam down, in Bible Books the spring feast of 
Passover was celebrated by the patriarchs with the lamb, 
the bread and wine. When God established the Hebrev/ 
ceremonial, he enlarged the Passover rite into the grand 
ceremonial of the tabernacle and of Solomon's Temple. 

^ Exud. xii> IG. » Xuinb. xxviii. 1(i-;2K ^ I'.s! bcr iii, 7, * Isiiias ii. 3, 3, 


The stately Liturgy and service of the Temple of Christ's 
day were but an extension of the patriarchs' Passover. 

The patriarchal Passover with the roasted lamb fore- 
telling the crucifixion, and the unleaven bread of the 
Last Supper and the Mass, had come down from prehis- 
toric times to the Hebrews living in Egyptian bondage. 
But the night of their delivery God ordered bitter herbs 
to be added to the rite to remind them of the bitter 
slavery the race had suffered in the Nile-land. Later 
God revealed to them his laws, established the taber- 
nacle ceremonial built on the simpler ceremonial of their 
fathers, the patriarchs. But as ages passed over the 
world, inspired prophets added new rites, new objects, 
and a wealth of details to the Passover and the Temple 
worship, each filled with types, figures and emblems of 
the crucifixion and the Mass. 

The unleaven bread developed into the feast of un- 
leaven bread celebrated for a week. But to show that 
the crucifixion and the Mass are one and the same sacri- 
fice, this series of festivals was interwoven into the Pass- 
over held the first night. Thus Passover and feast of 
unleaven bread, often called by the same name, were 
never separated, always intermingled one with another.^ 
Now let us see the other foods eaten at Passover and 
their mystic meaning, remarking that history is silent 
regarding the epoch wlien they were introduced. 

The behemoth " a large beast " ^ represented during 
the Passover by a dish of meat, meant either the hip- 
popotomus, " river horse," or the elephant, '' chief animal." 
The former is a large species of the cow family like the 
buffalo, and the Fathers say it foretold the demon con- 
quered, not by Job with his skin-disease, but by Christ in 
his Passion and death. 

Jewish writers, the Talmud and other works give most 
exaggerated descriptions and stories relating to this beast. 
According to them, he was the greatest of the fourfooted 
animals which God made in tlie beginning, male and 
female. He killed the female, preserved her flesh for 
the elect at the coming of the Messiah; the male still 
lives and will be slaughtered for the Hebrew race, when 
they rise from the dead at the end of the world. They 

1 EaersUeiin, Temple, p. 178. « Job xl. 10. 


have many wild dreams of that kind regarding this 

The Lord spoke to Job of the leviathan ^ called in 
Hebrew Ivyathan "great water animal," the whale or 
other marine animal, which Job could not catch with a 

The flesh meat and the fishes on the Passover table 
figured the elephant and whale, signifying to the Hebrews 
one Assyria, the other Egypt, both ancient enemies of 
their fathers. But a careful reading of Job ^ shows that 
not only are these countries meant, but the demons, 
enemies of the human race. Job with his terrible skin 
disease, and his patience in sufferings, did not conquer 
the demons, who brought on him in his innocence all 
these sufferings, but he points to Christ, his skin torn off 
in his flagellation, dead for mankind, for he was to con- 
quer the demons represented by these great Scripture 
beasts. In this sense Isaias foretells that " The Lord 
with his hard and great sword shall visit Leviathan, the 
bar-serpent, and Leviathan, the crooked serpent, and 
shall slay tlie whale which is in the sea " * showing that 
even with his strength and wicked wiles with which he 
deceived mankind in the Eden-serpent, he would be over- 
thrown by the Redeemer, that is, his power broken. 

At the time of Christ every act, every rite, every ob- 
ject and each ceremony brighter and clearer brought be- 
fore them their Messiah foretold to come and die to 
atone for the world's wickedness, and bring back our 
race to innocence lost in Eden. But beyond the cruci- 
fixion, while lives our race, the story Avas to be continued 
in the Mass with its elaborate rite and ceremonial. 

Christ's Last Supper and his death the next day were 
to fulfil, end, seal up Passover, Temple, Old Testament 
and all they foretold. But the last of the Hebrew in- 
spired seers had revealed the rejection of the Jewish 
Temple and sacrifices because the Jewish priesthood 
would reject Christ, then he passed to the calling of the 
heathens, the offerings of the Christian priesthood, the 
Mass among the nations. 

" I have no pleasure in you, saith the Lord of hosts, 
and I will not receive a gift from your hand. For from 

^ Job xl. 41. 2 J0I3 xl. 20. 3 Chap. xl. * Isaias xxvii. 1. 


the rising of the sun even to the going down, my name 
is great among the Gentiles, and in every place there is 
sacrifice, and there is offered to my name a clean oblation, 
for my name is great among the Gentiles, saith the Lord* 
of hosts." ' 

Now let us see what the celebrated Jewish historian 
says about the Passover. 

Josephus writes as follows : " When God had signified, 
that with one more plague, he would compel the Egyp- 
tians to let the Hebrews go, he commanded Moses to tell 
the people that they should have a sacrifice ready, and 
that they should prepare themselves on the tenth day of 
the month Xanthus against the fourteenth, which month 
is called by the Egyptians Pharmuth, and Nisan by the 
Hebrews, but the Macedonians call it Xanthicus ; and 
that he should carry away the Hebrews with all they 
had. Accordingly, having got the Hebrews ready for 
their departure, and having sorted the people into tribes, 
he kept them together in one place. But when the four- 
teenth was come, and all were ready to depart, they 
offered the sacrifice, and purified the houses with the 
blood, using bunches of hyssop for that purpose, and 
when they had supped they burnt the remainder of the 
flesh as just ready to depart. Whence it is that Ave still 
offer this sacrifice in like manner to this day, and call 
this festival Pascha, Avhich signifies the feast of the Pass- 
over, because on that day God passed over us, and sent 
the plagues upon tlie Egyptians, l^^or the destruction of 
the first-born came on the Egyptians that night, so that 
inany of the Egyptians, who lived near the king's i)alace, 
persuaded Pharaoh to let the Hebrews go.- 

" In the month of Xanthus, which by us is called 
Nisan, and is the beginning of our year, on the fourteenth 
day of the lunar month, when tlie sun is in Aries, for it 
Avas in this month we were delivered from bondage under 
the Egyptians, the law ordained that we should every 
year slay that sacrifice, which I before told you avc 
sleAV, when we came out of Egypt, and Avhich Avas called 
the Passover. And so Ave celebrate this l^assoA^er in 
companies, leaving nothing of what we sacrifice till the 
day following. The feast of unlea\'en bread succeeds 

* Malachias i. 10-11. * J^-iephus, Antiq., B. ii., chapter xiv. n, fji 


that of the Passover, and falls on the fifteenth of the 
month, and continues seven days, Avherein they feed on 
unleaven hread, on every one of which days two hulls 
are killed, and one ram and seven lambs," etc.^ 

"So these high j^riests, upon the coming of their feast, 
which is called the Passover, wdien they slay their sacri- 
fices from the ninth hour to the eleventh, but that the 
company be not less than ten belong to every sacrifice, 
for it is not lawful for them to feast singly by them- 
selves, and many of us are twenty in a company, found 
the number of sacrifices was two hundred and fifty-six 
thousand, five hundred, which upon the allowance of no 
]nore than ten that feast together, amounts to two 
millions, seven hundred thousand and two hundred per- 
sons, that Avere pure and holy. For as to those who 
have leprosy, or the gonorrhea, or women that have their 
monthly courses, or such as are otherwise polluted, it is 
not lawful for them to be partakers of this sacrifice, nor 
indeed for any foreigners neither, who come hither to 
worship." ^ 

Now Ave will see how the Hebrew, of our day celebrate 
the Passover. 

Rebelling against the threatened tyranny of Solomon's 
son, Roboam, more than a thousand years before Christ, 
the Samaritans separated from the Jcavs and worshiped 
in a temple of their own they built on Mt. Gerizim, in 
Samaria. It rivaled the hoi 3^ Temple at Jerusalem. 
Separated in creed and religious matters from the Jcavs, 
looked on by the latter as " lower than pigs," a mutual 
hostility existed betAveen the two religions all doAA-n the 
centuries to the time of Christ, and even doAvn to our 
day. Last year (in 190o) the last family of pure Sama- 
ritan blood died out, about 250 members of mixed blood re- 
main. This is the Avay the Samaritans held the Passover 
in modern times. Visiting Nablous in 1861, George 
Grove Avrites : 

" The lambs, they require six noAV for the community, 
are roasted all together by stuffing them vertically, head 
downwards into an oven, Avhich is like a small Avell about 
three feet in diameter and four or five feet deep, roughly 

* Josephus Antiq., B. iii.. chapter x. n. 5 ; B. xiv., chapter il- n. 2, etc. 

* Josephus, Wars. B. vi , chapter ix. u. 3, 


seamed, in which a fire has been kept up for several 
hours. After the lambs are thrust in, the top of the hole 
is covered with bushes and earth to continue the heat till 
they are done. Each lamb has a stake or spit run through 
him to draw him up by. To prevent the spit from tear- 
ing away through the roasted flesh, a cross-piece is put 
through the lower end of it." ^ The writer did not observe 
that the two sticks formed a cross. The cross-stick 
opened out the ribs as seen to-day in butcher-shops all 
over the world. 

With King Edward VII., then Prince of Wales, in 
1862, at the Passover, Dean Stanley came to Samaria. On 
the top of Gerizim had assembled 152 persons, last of the 
Samaritans. The women were shut up in tents, the men 
assembled near the summit of the rocky heights of their 
sacred mountain. Fifteen men and six youths, priests 
and Levites, were clothed in sacred vestments, the other 
men were dressed in holiday attire. 

" Half an hour before sunset they all gathered about a 
long trench, assumed the oriental posture of prayer, and 
led by a priest began the devotions, reciting in loud 
voices the Passover service and the account of the Pass- 
over given in the Bible. 

" The six young men mentioned before came driving 
six sheep into the assembly. When the sun had nearly 
set, the recitation became more violent, and the history 
of the Hebrews going out of Egypt, the slaying of the 
lamb as given in Exochis, were sung more rapidly, and in 
a higher key. As soon as the sun had touched the 
western hills, the youths paused, threw the sheep on 
their backs, and with sacrificial knives cut their throats. 
They dipped their fingers in the blood, put it on their 
own noses and foreheads, and on all the others, including 
the children. The wool was then taken oft" and the 
bodies of the lambs washed in boiling water, the recita- 
tion continuing all the time. 

" They wrapped bitter herbs in strips of unleaven 
bread, and passed tlie morsels to each in the meeting. 
After a short prayer, the young men skinned the lambs, 
they took off the right fore legs, and with the entrails 
burned them. They put back the liver into the carcase. 

1 Smith Die. of Bible, Vol. Ill, p. 2344, note. 


Then down along the backbone they ran a stake, and with 
another stick opened out the ribs forming a cross. They 
carried the victims to an oven-like hole in the ground, in 
which a fire had been kindled, thrust the bodies of the 
lambs into this, sealed up the mouth with hurdles, sticks 
and wet earth, and left them for five hours to roast. 

" Sometime before midnight, they assembled again 
for the feast. The hole being suddenly opened, a cloud 
of steam and smoke burst out, and they took out the 
roasted lambs each still impaled, each one on his cross. 
Rolling them in mats, they carried them to the first 
trench, between the two lines of Samaritans. 

" The fifteen priests and youths clothed in vestments, 
now provided themselves with shoes, gird their waists 
with ropes for girdles, and hold staffs in their hands. 
Then all began the prayers. Suddenly they sat on the 
ground beside the trench, the roasted lambs between 
them. They tore away the flesh with their fingers, and 
rapidly and silently they consumed it, sending portions 
to the absent. In ten minutes the flesh was all eaten. 
Then they gathered the remains, all the bones and 
leavings, into the mats and burned them, searching care- 
fully for every morsel. Then they returned to their 

Three thousand years ago Samaritans separated from 
Hebrew monarchy and religion and founded their own 
schismatic synagogue. Down these ages, mutual hatred 
between Jerusalem and Samaria was so deep they would 
hardly speak to each other. The woman at the well was 
surprised when Christ asked her for a drink of water.^ 
From the Samaritan Passover we have described, although 
it seems grotesque and peculiar, we can judge how they 
celebrated it in the days of David and Solomon. 

The place is chosen outside the gates.^ Many were 
the sacrifices they offered outside the camp to foretell 
Christ crucified outside the walls of the city. 

The men alone, the women excluded, offered the lambs,' 
for men only were to be ordained to the priesthood.' The 
time the lamb was killed was in the evening at the going 
down of the sun,* for at that time Christ died. The 
Passover was held at night, before the midnight hour, 

* John iv. 9. * Levit. ix. 11, etc. ^ Deut. xvi, 16. * Deut. xvi. 6. 



then Christ celebrated the Last Supper, and just hefore 
midnight he was arrested.' 

They ate it with unleaven bread and bitter herbs the 
Hebrews call wild lettuce.^ The way it was roasted,^ the 
careful exclusion of foreigners and the women,"* the haste 
Avith which the supper was eaten,^ and the vestments, 
heads covered, staffs in their hands, the care to consume 
all, the burning of the leavings and bones that night,^ 
the return to their dwellings before morning " show us 
how it was celebrated in days of Hebrew kings. 

The Levites, the young men, sacrificed the lamb and 
gave the blood to the priests.'^ They skinned theanhnal," 
the crucifixion of the lambs, the recitation of the Pass- 
over historj^ in Exodus, prayers and liturgy — all show 
they come down from times before the separation of the 
Samaritans from the Hebrews. 

In the square before the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, 
on Holy Saturday in 1903, the writer sat, talking with an 
Englishman and his guide about their journey down to 
Jericho and the Dead Sea. The guide remarked : " The 
Jews are going to celel)rato their Passover to-night." 
" Yes, I will come for you at the Caza Xova about six." 
But he did not come. Engaging another "dragoman" 
we started for the store of an American born Jew, for- 
merly an officer in our army, who had resigned and went 
to the land of his forefathers. " I know where he lives," 
said the guide. We started in a carriage out the Joppa 
Gate, down to the west, through new streets, where 
dwells nearly as large a population as that within the 
walls of Jerusalem ; we found the American in the act of 
lockhig his house on his way to attend the feast. 

" Yes, I will take j'ou to see the Passover," he said 
after the introduction. " Why did I leave the States and 
come. here? Well, there is something about this land 
that attracts me. The old associations. The history of 
my people is wonderful in my eyes. But I don't like the 
way they do things — the deep divisions, prejudices, relig- 
ious hatred, which divide Jews and Gentiles. There is 
something I cannot understand. A man crucified nearly 

^ Dent xi\.2'j-'.i7. « Exod. xii 8. » Exod. xii. 8-9. « Exod. xiil 4'^. 

6 Exod. xli. n. « Exoi. xli. lu. ' Exod. xlt. ^2. « II. Par. xxx. 10. 

'■'11. Par. xxiv. 11. 


2,000 years ngo has cliAided the religious world ever since. 
Here we find it in all its intensity. How one man could 
do that we cannot see. There is something mysterious 
in the whole thing. Come." 

We hurried to the house of the chief Rabbi of Jeru- 
salem. He did not live in a grand palace, as did Joseph 
Caiphas that fatal night when Jesus Christ was brought 
before him. His home was a hovel — it was a rookery in 
the Jewish quarters outside the walls. The Jews are 
poor and persecuted ih the land of their fathers. All the 
glory of Israel has passed away as the prophets foretold. 

But we forgot the surroundings, when we stood in the 
presence of this venerable personage. Tall, well-built, 
thin, of fine features, intellect written in every lineament, 
the blood of kings, prophets and seers of the chosen race 
flowing in his veins — he looked like another Abraham. 
With patriarchal welcome, he met us at the door clothed 
in flowing robes of light mauve, the exact cut and form 
of the Catholic priest's cassock. A kind and gentle dig- 
nity flowed from his form, lighted up by candles still 
burning on the table, as he told us in fine French that he 
had just finished the Passover. He would be pleased to 
let us see the feast, but it was now over, and all the 
guests had gone. 

We went to another house. No, he would not let us 
see the Passover. He did not object himself, but his wife 
did. The table was all prepared, they were just going to 
sit down. We talked with his wife, offered any amount 
of money, used every argument. " No. The Christians 
of Port Said, Egypt, reported last year, that the Jews 
killed a Christian girl, and used her blood at the feast, 
and the story created a riot, in which Jews were killed, 
and she had made a vow that never would she allow a 
Christian at her table." We went to the Jerusalem Hotel 
kept by Jews and they refused. 

It was getting late ; the American Jew would not ride 
in the carriage, but walked along beside, for they will 
not ride on the Sabbath. After it got dark when the 
Sabbath ended, he got in, and we hurried back to the 
city, drove up the long David Street, by David's Tower, 
and stopped at the street leading between two houses, 
where on one corner St. James lived while bishop of Jeru- 


salem, the other corner being the site of the house of St. 
Thomas the apostle. Here we dismissed the carriage and 
went through the narrow street east about two blocks. 
We were on the top of Sion, not far from the Cenacle. 

Mounting outside stone steps like those leading up to 
the Cenacle, we found ourselves in a large room about 
twenty by fifteen feet, with a long table in the center 
covered with a white table-cloth. The dish of roasted 
lamb, bitter herbs, three cakes of unfermented bread, and 
other things for the Passover were on the table. 

" Yes," said the master in French after the intro- 
duction. " I like Americans. I have a brother in busi- 
ness on Broadway, New York. The Americans do not 
persecute the Hebrews. You are welcome. Keep on 
your hats. Come and sit at the table. You say you 
cannot take part in a religious feast, but as a guest of the 
house. You want to see the ceremonial Moses established 
— all riglit, we are glad you came." 

He was a young man of about thirty-three or thirty- 
five years of age, and twelve Jews sat with him at the 
table. The American-born Jew sat at the writer's right 
hand instructing him while taking notes. The master of 
the house sat at the head of the table. At his riglit sat 
his wife next to him, then the writer with the ex-officer. 
The other guests took their places at both sides of the 
table. The men held the Liturgy of the Passover in 
their hands. While the master sung tlie words they 
followed him, repeating the words with him, as the priests 
when being ordained do when the bishop says the Mass 
of ordination. 

On the table burned fifteen candles and lamps. Two 
vases held flowers, a plate with the three unleaven cakes 
was at the master's right hand, near by were two bottles 
of Palestine wine, one having white and the other red. 
At each guest's place was a glass- tumbler for the wine. 
In the middle of the table, but in front of the master, 
was a dish of roasted laml) and beef with little fishes. 
Other dishes had bitter herbs, vinegar mixed with salt, 
the chaggiah, cucumber, eggs and other dishes of the 

Sitting at the table, each rested the left elbow on a 
little cushion in remembrance of the reclining position of 


the time of Christ. While reading the Liturgy, they 
swayed their bodies back and forth, as customary with 
Jews during synagogue service. The feast began at 8.30 
and lasted till 10.45, having three sections — that is, two 
intervals of rest, during which the conversation became 
general, the master smoking cigarettes and talking to the 

They first washed their hands, and then filled their 
glasses with wine, the w^omen performing this function. 
The master sang the prayers of blessing over the wine 
while all held their glasses, after which they drank the 
first cup. Then the master blessed the lights. The 
master cuts the cucumber with blessing, dips the bitter 
herbs in the vinegar, and passes them to all the guests. 
Then they again wash their hands, and recite the prayer 
of blessing over the fruit of the earth. 

Taking up the bread, the master says : " This is the 
bread of affliction our fathers ate in Egypt," etc. The 
words are shouted, as back and forth they sway, the 
words coming like an explosion, a sing-song of sounds, 
the last words of each sentence being prolonged. 

" The Liturgy," said the Jew beside the writer, " comes 
down from the Second Temple, from the time of Zede- 
kiah.^ It is written in the old Hebrew of Esdras, as that 
of Moses was lost. But the ceremony goes back to the 
time of Moses." 

At this part of the ceremony the master broke off a 
piece of the unfermented bread, rolled it around some 
bitter herbs, dipped the morsel in the vinegar, and 
handed it to the writer, saying, " Take this as a mark of 
friendship." This was always done when a stranger sat 
at the table, down from the time of Moses. This was the 
"sop" the Lord handed to Judas. When John asked, 
" Lord, who is it ? " Jesus answered, " He it is to whom I 
shall reach bread dipped, and when he had dipped he 
gave it to Judas Iscariot." ^ 

When they read that part relating to the ten plagues 
God sent on the Egyptians, each guest dips his finger in 
the wine, and lets a drop fall on the floor. Then they 
drank the second cup of wine, the first section ends, and 
the conversation becomes general. 

* Jeremy xxxviii. 2 joim xiii. 25, 26. 


The first part of the second section begins by washing 
the hands, using the water from a flagon on the table. 
They bring on the dish of fishes. The master takes the 
cake from the plate before him, and breaks it into two 
equal parts, as the celebrant of the Mass breaks the Host, 
while the Jew says to the writer : " Tiiese cakes must be 
made of purest fiour, ground of \^heat sowed for that 
purpose, gathered during day-time, thrashed and ground 
by Jews with great care, and made into unleaven cakes." 

Soup, with unleaven cakes broken into it, is now 
passed around, each guest having a plate of it placed 
before him, while from the Liturgy forming the Hallel 
they sing the Psalms.' The master then covered the 
cakes with a napkin, as the celebrant covers the patin 
with the purificator during Mass. He placed a prayer- 
shawl on the shoulders of the youngest guest, handed 
him the plate holding the broken half cake, and this 
young man held the plate with the bread covered with 
the end of the shawl till towards the end of the feast, 
when he brought it to the master as the subdeacon holds 
the paten covered with the benediction veil during a 
High Mass. This ended the second section. 

The third section opened with the prayers of thanks. 
All begin the chant together, the master leading, the 
twelve Jews becoming more vociferous, all united in the 
one mighty thanksgiving unto God. At the end of this 
prayer, they all drank the third cup of wine. One went 
and opened the closed door, which remained opened the 
rest of the service. A Jew took a filled glass of wine and 
placed it on the threshold for Elias, the forerunner of 
the Messiah,'' while the prayer for the coming of the 
Redeemer was recited. This cup of wine remained on 
the doorstep till the end. They did not know that John 
the Baptist, filled with the spirit of the foretold Elias, 
had already come as the forerunner of the Christ. 

The swaying of the bodies, the singing of the prayers, 
the shouting of the words, become still more vehement as 
they together say the thanksgiving prayers of the 
Liturgy. Back and forth, from side to side, they move 
in a kind of movement imparted to the whole body, as 
they said, so that even their " bones might praise the 

* Psalms cxiii., cxiv,, cxv., cxvii. = Malach. iv. 5. 


Lord." The}^ sing^, " We beseech Thee, O Lord, to sav& 
us, ' like riosanna, and " Bless Jerusalem," which word 
they pronounced as though spelled Barushlaym. 

The master made a motion, took the cake hidden by 
the prayer-shawl on the shoulders of the young man, 
broke off and ate a part, and gave a portion to each 
guest. He drank some wine, handed his cup of wine to 
each at the table, " and they all drank from it." Then 
they sang the hymn mentioned in the Gospel sung by 
Christ and his Apostles.* This hymn, which will be 
found in the Passover Service, was more regular and 
musical than the other prayers. They seemed to throw 
their whole soul into it. The Hebrew, in which it is 
written, is as regular as a mathematical table. The 
master first intoned the hymn, following more regular 
musical notes, and the company responded in the nasal 
intonation peculiar to the Oriental, with rising and 
falling intonation. This closed the feast. 

We rose, thanked them all, shook hands, and passed 
out into the night. Thoughts went back to that Last 
Supper in the upper chamber of the Cenacle, but a little 
distance from where we were then in this upper chamber 
of Sion, when the Lord and his Apostles celebrated the 
Passover according to this ceremonial, and changed this 
Jewish rite into the Mass. " And when they had sung a 
hymn, they went forth to the Mount of Olives." ^ We 
have given the ceremonial of the Passover as followed to- 
day in Samaria and Jerusalem, let us now see what that 
peculiar work, the Talmud, says of the feast at the time 
of Christ. 

» Matt. xxvi. 30 ; Mark xiv. SG. ' Mark xi?. 36. 



Many a time in his young days St. Paul, a strict Pliar- 
isee, had sat at Passover. When converted he saw in 
the Hebrew house-cleaning, the search for the unleaven 
bread, the preparations for the feast, the confession of 
sins and the symbolic ceremonies, the types and images 
of Christianity and of the Eucharistic Sacrifice. 

Therefore he wrote : " Now these things were done in 
a figure of us . . . and they were written for our correc- 
tion."^ "To rouse us from dead works to serve the 
living God." ^ " Know ye not that a little leaven cor- 
rupteth the whole mass ? Purge out the old leaven, that 
you may be a new mass, as you are unleaven. For 
Christ our Passover is sacrificed. Therefore let us feast, 
not with the old leaven of malice and wickedness, but 
with the unleaven bread of sincerity and truth." ^ 

The reader will see a deeper meaning in these words 
when he reads the following pages. For here we Avill 
open the Tract of the Talmud called the Pesachim : 
" Passover," forming a volume of 264 pages in quarto, 
giving minute details of the feast we call the Last Supper. 
We will take the texts relating to our subject, and give 
explanations as we go along. These details, rites and 
ceremonies, the Jews claim, came down from the days of 
the Hebrew kings. They were written about the year 
150 after Christ: They show the Jewish Passover at 
least in the time they were written. 

The Jews are a Semitic race, and have the conservatism 
of all Asiatic peoples. The orthodox Jew has preserved 
pure his religion since the Temple stood. The synagogue 
in belief and practice has hardly changed since the days 
of Christ. The love of Moses and of his Books, the first 
five Books of the Old Testament, made the Hebrew cling 

» I. Cor. X. 11. » Heb. ix. 14. » I. Cor. 5, 6, 7, 8. 



with a death-grasp to the most minute details of his re- 
ligion, preserved them as a peculiar people among the 
nations and prevented their conversion, in spite of poverty, 
persecution, and wretchedness. 

When the Romans destroyed their city and Temple 
their misfortunes bound them closer to their traditions 
till they wrote them in the Talmud. We look there- 
fore in this work for the details of the Passover as 
celebrated in the days of Christ. This work, little known 
among the Gentiles, is now, perhaps for the first time, 
laid before Christian readers. The descriptions, rites 
and ceremonies in the following pages seem like revela- 
tions from a vanished world now brought forth into the 
light to show how wonderfully the Mass with its elaborate 
ceremonial was foretold in the Passover of Moses, patri- 
arch, prophet and Hebrew seers. 

" At Or, ' light,' * twilight,' ' daybreak,' on the four- 
teenth of Nisan, search should be made for leavened 
bread by the light of a candle, but it is not necessary to 
search all places in which it is not usual to put leaven."* 

" Or," the Hebrew word for " light," was the name of 
the city where Abraham lived in Babylonia, before God 
called him into Palestine.^ The Babylonians called it 
Ur, " light," of the moon, which they worshiped. The 
ruined city near the mouth of the Euphrates is now named 
Mughier, " The Betumined." 

Thus at daybreak, to foretell that the twilight of his 
redemption from sins he has committed and which 
darken his mind, the sinner rises from sleep roused by 
the light of the Holy Spirit in qualms of conscience, to pre- 
pare and search his memory for his -sins, and get rid of 
them by confession, when he is to receive the Lamb of 
God in Communion. It signified the light of the Holy 
Spirit in the sinner's soul, which shows him the way to 
forgiveness in the darkness of mind soiled by sin. 

Thus with a candle the Jew searched his house for 
leaven. The Liturgy of the Passover has the following 

" On the evening preceding the fourteenth day of the 
month Nisan, it is requisite for the master of every 

» See Babyl. Talmud, whole Tract Pesachim, " Passover." * Gen. ii. 28-81 ; 
XV, 7. ' See Zanolini, De Festis Judaeorum, chapter 4. 


family to search after leavened bread, in every place 
where it is kept, gathering all leaven lying in his way. 
The following is said previous to the search. 

" Blessed art thou, O Lord, our God, King of the Uni- 
verse, who hast sanctified us with thy commandments, 
and commanded us to reserve the leaven." 

It is not enough to confess our sins and be sorry for 
them. We must hate and detest all sin, even those we 
have overlooked or forgotten. We must have no attach- 
ment to mortal sin, even for those we have forgotten, 
Avhich are forgiven with the others we have told.^ To 
foretell that the Jewish Liturgy continues.'^ 

" After the leaven is all gathered, the following is said : 
* All manner of leaven that I have in my possession, 
which I have not seen nor removed, shall be null, and 
accounted as the dust of the earth.' " 

Sin is burned up in our souls witU the fire of the Holy 
Spirit, who came on the Apostles in fiery tongues burning 
with the warmth of charity, the love of God above all. 
To foretell this the Jew burned the leaven in the early 
morning, saying : 

" All manner of leaven — that is in my possession, 
which I have seen, and which I have not seen, which I 
removed, and which I have not removed, shall be null 
and accounted as the dust of the earth." ^ 

Then follow long explanations, opinions and discus- 
sions of rules relating to the search for leaven bread, 
called in Hebrew Chometz, while the unleaven is Matzoth. 

" One who leaves his house to go to sea, or to go with 
a caravan prior to thirty days before the Passover, need 
not search for leaven bread, but if he go away within the 
thirty days preceding the Passover, he must burn the 
leaven bread in his house. Said Abayi : ' A man who 
leaves his house within thirty days preceding the Pass- 
over, must burn the leaven bread, if his intention is to 
return on the Passover, but if such is not his intention, 
he need not do this.' * 

" Why are thirty days particularly specified ? It is as 
we have learned in the Boraitha,^ viz., One may inquire 

' See I. Cor. v. 7 ; John i. 17. * See Pesachim, cap. i. p. 8, etc. ' Form of 
Service for the Two First Nights of the Feast of Passover, p. 3. * Ibidem, p. 7. 
* A Boraitha means in Hebrew " The Teachings of tlae Sages." 


and preach concerning the laws of the Passover thirty 
days before that festival, R. Simeon ben Gamaliel.' (Tliis 
Gamaliel was St. Paul's teacher, a famous Pharisee wlio 
presided over a school in Jerusalem ^) said " two weeks 
before." Because Moses at the time of the first Passover 
already made the regulations concerning the second 
Passover, as it is written.* 

"Let the man then renounce the use of the bread at 
the fourth or fifth hour, as that is not the time either of 
searching or for burning ; there is fear lest a man forget 
to do this at that time. Let him renounce its use at the 
sixth hour, when he is about to burn it." 

The sixth hour is noon, six hours after sunrise, that 
was the way they counted the hours of the day. They 
searched for the leaven at break of daj^, gathered and 
burned it at noon, usually beginning at eleven, and finish- 
ing before the Temple prayers at noon. It was done 
with blessings and prayers given in the Ritual. 

*' All agree, however, that the benediction must precede 
the act. Whence do Ave adduce this? Because R. Jehudah 
(he was the famous president of the college at Tiberias 
we have mentioned who wrote the Mishna) said in the 
name of Samuel: 'Benedictions must be performed prior 
to the performance of every religious duty.' And the 
disciple of Rabh (Rabbi Ilisda) said: "In all cases, with 
the exception of bathing, in this instance the benediction 
should be pronounced after the act.' " 

" The Rabbis taught search for leavened bread must 
not be made by the liglit of the sun, of the moon, or of a 
flame of fire, but only b}^ the light of a candle, because 
the light of a candle is efficient for search, and although 
we have no foundation for this regulation, still vve arc 
given a hint to that effect in the passage: * *■ And it shall 
come to pass at that time, that I will search Jerusalem 
with lights.'^ *The spirit of man is the lamp of the 
Lord, which searcheth all the hidden things of tlie 
bowels.' " '^ 

Why does the Jew search his house with the light of a 
candle and why was he forbidden to make the search 

^ These Hebrew words in English are as follows: Riibbi (My Tfacht-ii. 
Simeon (Hearing), ben (son) Qainaliel (God is Rewarder). * Acf: v 34 ana 
xxii. 8. * Numb. ix. 2, 10, 11. * Exod. xii. 9. Gen. xxxiv. V4. « Cttudies, 
-ijophonias i. !«. ' Frov. xx. !J7. 


with any other light? In a former chapter the reader 
will see that in the symbolism of Scripture and Catholic 
Church the candle signifies Christ enlightening the mind 
with his teachings. From him, the Son, proceeds the 
Holy Spirit who enlightens the sinner's mind, dispels the 
darkness of sin, shows the state of wickedness in which 
he lives in spiritual laziness, and rouses him to burn up 
his sins with the fire of love of God and hatred of wicked- 
ness. The Spirit of God therefore enlightens the sinner, 
spurs him on to go to confession and Communion. 

" When was this search for fermented bread made? R. 
Jehudah said search for Chometz (leaven bread) should 
be made in the evening. " Or " (light), before the 14th, or 
during early morning of that day. But the sages said: 
* If the search had not been made on that day; if neglected 
on that day, it may be made on the festival, and if omitted 
then, it must be done after the festival, and whatever 
Chometz is left over must be kept in a well-guarded 
place, in order that no further search may become 

" No guilt is incurred unless the man slaughtering the 
lamb, or the one sprinkling the blood, or one of those 
who are to partake thereof have leaven in his possession. 
*Thou shalt not ofi:er the blood of my sacrifice with 
leaven.' ^ If any man slaughter the paschal lamb with 
leaven, he thereby transgresses a negative command, 
provided he himself, or the one who sprinkles the blood, 
or one of the congregation, which is to partake of the 
lamb, have leaven in their possession. 

" R. Jehudah also taught: 'Formerly during the exist- 
ence of the Temple, two cakes of thanksgiving-offerings, 
(these were cakes of the unleaven proposition bread, of 
which twelve cakes were placed each Sabbath in the 
Holies of the Temple, with the metal flasks of wine, to 
foretell the bread and wine of the Mass,) which had 
been desecrated, were exposed on a bench of the Temple. 
As long as the two cakes remained, all the people still 
ate the leavened bread. When one of them was removed 
they abstained from eating it, but did not yet burn it, 
when both were removed, all the people began burning 
the Chometz.' Rabbon Gamaliel says : * Ordinary Cho- 

1 Exod. xxxiv. 25. 


metz may eaten during the first four hours, but heave- 
offerings may still be eaten during the fifth hour, both 
however must be burned at the commencement of the 
sixth hour.' ^ 

" If the fourteenth of Nisan fall on a Sabbath, all leaven 
must be removed before the Sabbath. On the mount of 
the Temple there was a double arched seat. It was called 
Istavanith " Columns," because a roof surmounted the 
seat, and the seat was composed of two arches, one within 
the other. Because the cakes were such as had been 
brought with the thanksgiving offerings, and there being 
so many of them, they could not be consumed within the 
statutory time, hence they became desecrated by being 
left over. When both were on the benches, all the people 
ate leaven bread, when one was removed, eating was ab- 
stained from, when both were removed the leaven was 
burned. There was another sign : Two cows were plow- 
ing on the Mount of Olives. While both cows were seen 
all the people ate leaven bread, when one of them was 
taken away, the people abstained from eating, and as soon 
as the other was taken away, they began to burn the 

" Gemara : We see thus, that at the commencement of 
the sixth hour all agree Chometz must be burned. 
* Seven days no leaven shall be found in your houses. ' 
But on the first day you shall put away leaven out of 
your houses.' * In the morning leaven may be eaten, 
while in the afternoon it must not. And by the first day, 
is meant the day preceding the festival. ' Thou shalt 
not offer the blood of my sacrifice with leaven, neither 
shall there remain in the morning anything of the victim 
of the solemnity of the Passover.' " ^ 

The first foretold the regulation which forbids the 
celebrant of the Mass to offer the victim of the Passover, 
Christ the Lord, at our altars in a state of mortal sin, as 
St. Paul says : ' Whosoever shall eat this bread or drink 
the chalice of the Lord unworthily shall be guilty of the 
Body and of the Blood of the Lord.' ® 

" As long as it is lawful to eat leaven bread, one may 
also give it to domestics, wild animals, or fowls. He may 

^ Passover, cap. i., p. 19-25. 2 Pesachim, p. 25. ' Exod, xii. 19, * Exod. xii. 15, 
' Exod. xxxiv. 25, « I. Cor. ii. 27. 


also sell it to strangers, or derive benefit therefrom in 
any other way. When that time is passed, however, it 
is unlawful to derive any benefit from it whatever, not 
even use it for fuel, or to light therewith an oven or 
stove.' R. Jehudah said: 'The removal of the leaven 
cannot be affected except by burning.' From the verse 
just quoted, R. Simeon decrees in another Boraitha. 

" A Boraitha is a section of the teaching of the Sages ^ 
that all things of sanctity ^ that which become desecrated, 
i. e. flesh of sacrifices, which had been left over must be 
burned. * And if there remain of the consecrated flesh, 
or of the bread till the morning. Thou shalt burn the 
remainder with fire. They shalt not be eaten because 
they are sanctified.' " ^ 

Thus pieces of the sacrificed bread left over from one 
Sabbath to another, when they were removed as well as 
the leavings of the Passover feast, if not eaten by the 
priests, were burned to foretell how Christ's body, the 
real * Lamb of God,' was buried the day he died. If they 
did not burn them, they were punished with thirty-nine 
stipes. The Text gives many positive and negative com- 
mands, which if any one broke he was punished with 
" stripes." Severe laws were enforced by the pain of 
Kareth " Cut off " from Israel, excommunication, which 
St. Paul mentions to have been enforced in the early 
Church, and which comes down to us in the laws relating 
tu excommunication. 

" Rabh said : ' Earthenware pots, which had been used 
during the year must be destroyed before Passover.' For 
what reason ? Let them be left over until after the Pass- 
over, and then used for other kinds of food, as formerly. 
This is a precautionary measure, in order to prevent the 
possibility of their being used for the same kinds of food 
as formerly. Samuel holds to his individual theory, for 
he said to the venders of earthenware pots for the Pass- 
over : ' Lower the price of your pots for the Passover, 
otherwise, I shall decree that the law prevails according 
to R. Simeon.' 

" An oven w\is greased with fat immediately after it 
had been heated. Rabha bar Ahilayi forbade the eating 

1 See Edershelm. Life of Chri=;t, I 103-10* » ThinRS or sanctity were thinprs- 
offered to Ood In the Ternple. » Exod. xxtx.. 34. Ba byl. Talmud, cap. i. p. 30, etc, 


of the bread baked therein, even with salt, lest it be eaten 
with Kutach." ' 

Long discussions follow as to how kettles, pots, dishes, 
plates, etc., must be cleaned by being heated with fire. 
Two days before the feast they began tlie preparations in 
the houses. They first cleaned all the cooking utensils, 
so the smell of Chomatz, "fermented bread," could not be 
perceived. Metal vessels they held over the fire till red 
hot and wooden ware they scalded in boiling water. Some 
destroyed the earthenware vessels called circenth. The 
upper stone of the flour-mill, called ^:>e/«c'A, and the under 
stone named receb^ they dressed with iron tools till they 
looked like new. The shelves of the pantry, the box 
wherein the cakes were kept, all the kitchen utensils, 
they carefully cleaned, shadowing forth the cleansing of 
our hearts by confession before our Easter Communion. 

"What should be done on Passover with knives?" 
And he answered. * I buy new knives for the Passover.' 
And Rabhina rejoined, * In the master's case it is ijroper, 
for thou art rich and can afford it, but what should a 
poor man do ? ' * I do not mean exactly new knives, 
but renovated knives ; knives, the blades of which are 
covered with clay and placed in the fire, and after being 
thoroughly burned are taken out, and together with the 
hilts are soaked in boiling water, when they become 
equal to new ones.' 

"A wooden ladle should be placed in boiling water, 
which had not been removed from the fire." ' What is 
the law concerning glazed pottery ? ' If the color of the 
coating was green, there is no question, they must not 
be used, but we refer to such as were glazed in black or 
in white. If the coating was cracked, there is no ques- 
tion, they must not be used. I notice that the fat cooked 
in such pots oozes out on the other side, and it is obvious 
that they absorb it, and the Scriptures say that an earthen 
pot never yields again what it once absorbs." ^ 

Scribes and Pharisees carried things to extremes, and 
we see that dish-cleaning was observed in Christ's day. 
"Thou blind Pharisee," said Christ, "first make clean 
the inside of the cup and of the dish, that the outside 

^ A dish made with flour and milk which rendered xmclean and prohibited 
the use of the oveu for all tirue to «ouie. * I-evit, vi. qi, 


may become clean." ' " For leaving the commandment 
of God, you hold the traditions of men, the washing of 
pots and many other things you do like to these." * The 
Jews see only the literal meaning of Scripture and 
religious ceremonial. They seem to be entirely blind 
regarding the symbolic or typical sense. They did not 
understand that under these figures, the purifying of the 
heart was hidden. They taught that sin was not in the 
mind but in the act, that as long as a person did not 
commit an action seen by others, he did not sin, no matter 
how corrupt was his heart. This they claimed was the 
teachings of their traditions. Whence Christ said to 
them. " Well do you make void the commandment of 
God, that you keep your own tradition." ^ Now let us see 
the way the Jews of our day prepare for the Passover. 

In New Y^ork City, at present writing, dwell nearly 
800,000 Jews. The housewife of the East side, in addi- 
tion to her ordinary cares, has two dish cupboards, the 
contents of which must never be mingled, two sets of 
dishes, two dishpans, two dishcloths. These must never 
get mixed, or trouble will arise for the orthodox family. 
One set of dishes most kosher " clean " is to be used only 
for Passover, while the other set they use during the 
year. Milk foods must not come in contact with meat 
foods. No oyster, clam, crab, eel, shell-fish, lobster, or 
other kind of sea food ever enters her kitchen, for only 
fish with scales are clean to the Hebrew. Even these 
fish must not be fried in lard, or butter, but in vegetable 
oils. They seem to prefer freshwater fish, newly cauglit, 
or taken from freshwater ponds, where they are kept for 
the Jewish market. 

The day before the Passover, a frenzy of housecleaning 
seizes on all Jewesses, and they proceed to make tlie 
whole house from garret to foundation and all within it 
kosher for the great festival. Then the fury of a score 
of New England housewives takes possession of eacli 
Hebrew heart. All the accumulated rubbish of the year 
is gathered — old clothes, cooking utensils, broken slioes, 
battered hats, torn matrasses, dented tinware, useless 
coal scuttles, etc., are projected through doors and win- 
dows into the streets, to the eminent danger of all passing 

» Matt, xxiii. 26; ' Mark vii. 9. 


by, where they are gathered up to be carried to the 

The slap of mop, broom and brush are heard on all 
sides, while mother, daughter, and older children are 
pressed in, kept from school tc " make all things kosher." 
Every dish on Passover table, every utensil with which 
tlie feast is cooked must be new, or at least never used 
except for Passover. Out of box, trunk and hiding-place, 
come pots, pans, plates, and table ware, where they were 
laid away the spring before, after having been carefully 
cleaned and wrapped. But many new things must be 
bought, even by the poor; families save up their money 
for the feast, and there is a Passover relief association, 
founded to help tlie very poor, who otherwise could not 
keep the feast according to the law. 

At sundown the Jews flock to their synagogues where 
they hold special services, and spend some time in silent 
prayer before beginning the Passover which reformed 
Jews hold for seven and the orthodox for eight days. 
Afterwards comes the feasts of Succoth when they build 
in their back yards huts of boughs, leaves and mud, 
wherein they live, sleep, and receive their friends on their 
knees, for the custom is to make calls from house to house, 
although it is forbidden to take food or drink during 
these visits. These booths out in the open air are in 
memory of the time their fathers dwelled in tents for 
forty years after they had fled from Egypt at the first 

Dark-eyed Hebraic-featured push-cart pedlers go from 
door to door selling matzoths, unfermented cakes, bitter 
herbs and edibles for the feast of the first night and for 
the banquets of the remaining evenings. Gladness, joy 
and mirth light up every Hebrew face, and if there is 
sadness it is concealed as they recall their fathers' de- 
livery from slavery. 

There is a very strict school of Jews of our day, calling 
themselves Chasidim, " Godly men," " the Saints," a 
word derived from the Hebrew Perushim, " The Sepa- 
rated," from which came the word Pharisees — the Chasi- 
dim, mentioned in the Book of Machabees under the 
name of the Assideans ^ — they have held to the change- 

1 1. Mach. ii. 42. 


less customs and traditions of the Pharisees all down the 
ages till our day. They are found in this country and 
in the Old World, the most orthodox of the orthodox 

With long prayers they plant the wheat, while growing 
carefully guard it from contact with an unclean person 
or a Gentile. With prescribed prayers they reap, thrash, 
and grind the flour which they place in three bags, one 
within the other. These bags they tie to the roof of a 
secret chamber and keep carefully under lock and key, 
where no one enters till the Passover eve, when they 
keep a strict fast- 
In the dead of the night, with solemn ceremony, they 
go to a running river, lake, or spring, and with prayer 
draw the " Water of Precept " in special vessels, which 
filled, they carry on a long pole on their shoulders so the 
vessels will not touch any one who might be legally un- 
clean and defile the water. Then with the prescribed 
prayers they make and bake the cakes for the Passover. 
These strict Jews claim they celebi-ate the feast accord- 
ing to the strict rules of the Talmud. 

*' All vessels in which leaven food had V)een kept while 
cold, may be used for unleaven food, with the exception 
of such vessels as contained actual leaven, for it is very 
pungent. Such vessels, in which leaven bread and vine- 
gar were generally mixed, must also not be used, because 
it is equal to leaven." ^ 

In Christ's days they made the unleaven cakes of wheat 
grown especially for the Passover. Pious people raised 
this wheat, and Lazarus' father had wheatfields at Mag- 
dala on the shores of the Sea of Galilee. 

Such land was plowed with prayer and prepared with 
great care. When harvest time came, the reapers were 
told: "When you bind the sheaves, bear in mind that 
they are intended for the preparation of the Matzoth," 
whence we see that he holds that the unleaven bread 
must be observed from beginning to end. 

"Thick loaves must not be baked on the Passover.' 
Such is the decree of the school of Shammai, but the 
school of HiUel permits this to be done, llow thick should 
they be ? Said R. Huna, ' One span, because that was 

' See. Tuliiiud, IJiibyl, ciip. ii, - ThIduI'I ii. p. 57. 


the thickness ot" the showbroads." The " show breads " 
were the twelve loaves oi' proposition bread, jjlaced eadi 
Sabbath in the Holies of the Temple with the wine to 
foretell the bread and wine of the Mass. ..." In the 
case of the showbreads, there were priests who were 
thoroughly competent for their work, but the Passover 
loaves are prepared by ordinary people." 

The Garmo family from remote ages made the show- 
breads or proposition bread, and were very expert, having 
a secret way of making very fine thin breads, similar to 
our altar breads. Because they would not reveal the 
process they were blamed in the Temple prayers. 

" The showbreads were prepared with the utmost skill, 
and how can they be compared to ordinary loaves ? For 
the former dry wood only was used, while for the latter 
damp wood may be used. The former were baked in a 
hot oven, while the latter are often baked in a cooler 
oven. For the baking of showbreads an iron stove was 
used, while for the Passover cakes an earthen oven was 
considered sufficient. If such cakes are made, they 
should be made as thin as wafers, not as thick as loaves, 
because in the latter event they might become leaven " 

The custom of making the altar breads as thin as pos- 
sible in the Latin Church follows the ancient Jewish cus- 
tom. To signify the Holy Ghost dwelling in the humanity 
of Christ hidden under the species of bread on our altars, 
the Jews mixed olive oil with the flour of wdiich they 
made the w^afers. 

" The quantity of oil mixed with the dough is so in- 
significant, that it is not counted, for a quarter of a log 
of oil is used for a great many cakes. A woman should 
not knead dough for the Passover except with Shelanu 
Avater, — " Our " water,' that is, not water left over night, 
but drawn that day especially for the Passover bread." ^ 

This was the water the man was bringing into the 
city when the apostles Peter and John met him, as Christ 
foretold, "Behold as 3^ou go into the city, there shall 
meet you a man carrying a pitcher of water, follow him 
into the house which he entereth." ^ 

" A w^oman should not knead her dough in the glare of 

^ Passover, p. 6C, 67. ' See Zanolini, De Festis Judgeorum, c. 4, note. 
» Luke xxii. 10-11. 


the sun, nor with water that had been heated by the 
sun. Also not with water that had been left over in a 
nmliar, " kettle," and should not remove her hands in 
general, until her bread is baked. She also requires two 
vessels filled with water. One to cool oft" her hands 
while kneading, the other to moisten her dough before 
putting it in the oven." 

When she had rolled the wafers as thin as possible, she 
made the imprint of her five fingers in each, as she sup- 
posed, to make them bake better, not knowing they fore- 
told the five wounds in Christ's dead body. The Jewish 
cakes for the Passover and the Temple, of unleaven bread 
come down to us in the altar breads with figures of the 
cross, etc., in crackers of commerce, the " hard tack " of 
soldiers and sailors with their figures copied from the im- 
prints of the fingers in the Passover cakes. Before bak- 
ing they anointed each cake with oil in the form of a cross, 
or Greek X.^ " The continual daily Temple sacrifice "^ 
was slaughtered half an hour after the eighth hour and 
sacrificed half an hour after the ninth hour." 

They began to count the hours at six in the morning. 
This relates to the afternoon service at three o'clock, 
the morning sacrifice being offered at nine. For Christ 
was condemned to death by Pilate at nine, nailed to the 
cross at noon and died at three. The time given here is 
from half -past two to half -past three p.m. for during that 
and hour the Temple Liturgy was sung, the lamb slaugh- 
tered, the prayers sung. 

" But the day before Passover, whether that day hap- 
pened to be a week day or a Sabbath, it was slaughtered 
half an hour after the seventh hour, and sacrificed half 
an hour after the eighth hour. The statement refers to 
the paschal lamb. 

"The daily evening offering precedes the Passover- 
sacrifice, and the Passover-sacrifice precedes the burning 
of incense, and the incense precedes the lighting of the 
candles.^ There is nothing which may be offered up 
before the daily morning sacrifice, except incense, which 
is burned before the daily sacrifice.* 

"Mishna: If the Passover-sacrifice had not been 

* Edersheim, Temple, p. 155. etc. ' Numb, xxviii. 3. » Exod. xii. 6, Deut. 
xvi. 6. * Exod. XXX. 7. 


slaughtered for the purpose of sacrificing it as a Passover 
sacrifice, or its blood had not been received for that pur- 
pose, or if the blood had not been brought to the altar, 
and sprinkled for that purpose, or if one act had been ac- 
complished in order to make it a Passover-sacrifice, and 
another not for that purpose, or if the reverse had taken 
place — it is not valid." One of the cakes was sent to the 
priests of the Temple as a " first-fruit offering." The 
three remaining were for the Passover. The dough re- 
maining after the cakes now called Kiccar " circle " had 
been baked, they burned as an offering to the Lord. 

"Have we not learned in a Mishna, however, that a 
trifle over five quarts of flour, equal to five logs in Sep- 
phoris, and to seven logs and a trifle over as used in the 
desert, which in turn equal an omer, are subject to the 
first of the dough ? Our wives bake in small quantities 
on the Passover, not over three logs of flour at a time. 

" Three women may occupy themselves with their 
dough, but in the following manner, one should knead the 
dough, another form it, and the third bake it. The same 
woman who kneads should also moisten the dough, and 
the one next to her should then take up the kneading ; 
while the former is baking, the latter should moisten the 
dough, and the third woman should take up the kneading. 
Thus the first woman will commence the kneading, while 
the last is moistening the dough and so on in rotation." ^ 

This was the unfermented bread the Greeks called 
azymus mentioned forty one times in the Old Testament. 
St. Matthew called it " the azymes." ^ The Jews of our 
day at Passover bake a bread called " rich azymos " made 
with eggs, milk, sugar etc., which they give to the sick 
and Gentiles, while some give away the ordinary Pass- 
over bread,^ 

" Formerly the hides of the sacrificed animals were 
left in the chamber of Parvali (one of the Temple cham- 
bers mentioned in the Tract Midath). At night the 
priests ministering during that week, would divide those 
hides among themselves. The more powerful among the 
priests would appropriate more than their share. So it 
was ordered that the division should be made every eve 
of Sabbath in the presence of all the men composing the 

* Passover Cap. 111-77. * Mat. xxvi. 17. ^ See Zanolini, De Festis, c. 4. 


twenty-l'our " courses " watches of the Temple. Still the 
more powerful priests would appropriate more than was 
due them. In consequence, persons hringing sacrifices 
decided to consecrate the hides for the use of the Temple. 
It was said that it did not take very long before it was 
possible to cover the entire Temple with disks of gokl, 
one ell square and of tlie thickness of a golden Dinar. 
At the time of the festivals, tlie disks were placed on tlie 
mound of the Temple, in order thnt the jMlgriins coming 
up to Jerusalem might see tliem, for they were beauli- 
fully worked and were not counterfeited. 

" There were sycamore-trees in Jericho, which the 
priests forcibly appropriated for their own use, in con- 
sequence of which the owners consecrated them for the 
use of the Temple. Concerning such outrages and such 
priests, Abba Saul ben Batnith in the name of Abba 
Joseph ben Hanin said : 

' ' Woe is me on account of the liouse of Baithos. 

" Woe is me on account of their rods. 

" Woe is me through the house of Hanin and through their 

"Woe is me through the house of Kathros ' and through their 

" Woe is me on account of the house of Ismael ben Piakhi and 

of their fists, 
*' For they were all high priests. 
" Their sons were the treasurers. 
" Their sons-in-law were the chamberlains, 
" And their servants would beat us with rods.*' 

The Temple was famed all over the world because it 
was covered with tliese i)lates of solid pure gold, eacli 
about a yard square and as thick as a twenty -five cent 
piece. From another part of tlie Talmud we learn that 
they first filled every crack between tl:ie white marl)lo 
stones with beeswax, and attached the plates with gold 
nails. The great building inclosing the Holies and the 
Holy of Holies was therefore called in Hebrew writings 
"The Gold House." It was 150 feet square — all its walls 
and roof within and without covered witli gold.-^ 

The reader may judge from this statement the avarice 
of the priests. Another account says that at first the 

^ Kathros means the quarrelsome. ' See Passover, p. 103. 


priests were chosen for the weekly ministry as they 
came into the Temple. But once as the}" were rushing 
up the marble steps of the Nicanor Gate, one priest 
pushed another down and broke his leg Another time 
while they were running in, one stabbed the other to 
death and the Beth Din " The Judges of the House of 
Law," established the custom of choosing them to minis- 
ter the following week by counting fingers. 

In the poem we have given on their degradation, the 
"house of Hanin " was the family of Annas, father- in law 
of Joseph Caiphas, who sentenced Christ to death. This 
Annas had five sons and five daughters and his sons-in- 
law, one after the other, became high priests. But like 
himself they were deposed from the office by the Roman 
procurators for their crimes. 

" Mishna : The inhabitants of Jericho were wont to do 
six things ; three of these were done contrary to the 
wishes of the sages, and three were done with their sanc- 
tion. They would graft palm-trees the whole day of the 
14th, they would read the Shema with the additional ver- 
sicles, and they would heap up new grain into sheaves, 
before acquitting the Omer, " first offering " thereof.' 

" Six things were done by King Hezekiah,^ three of 
which met with approval, and three with disapproval. 
He caused the bones of his father (the wicked Achaz) to 
be transported on a litter of ropes (the Talmud has here 
in a note, " As a mark of disrespect ") and this was ap- 
proved of ; he caused the brazen serpent to be broken to 
pieces (this w^as the brazen serpent Moses made in the 
desert,'* which the Jews adored as an idol) and it was also 
approved ; he secreted the book of medicine, and this was 
also approved. He cut off the gold from the gates of the. 
Temple, and sent it to the King of Assyria ; he stopped 
up the upper mouth of the waters of Gihon, and made 
the month of Nisan intercalary, all of which were not 

" From the time of Min'hah," etc. The schoolmen 
asked : Does this refer to the long Min'hah, the time for 
which commences at the half of the eighth hour (that is 

1 Passover, p. 99, 102, etc. ^ Ezechias I., was the ICth king of Juda. born in 
the year 8.309, nine years after the founding of Rome, 743 before Christ. Hia 
history will be found in IV. Kings, chapters xv., xvi., and 'II. Par. xxvii. 28. 

' Numb. xxl. 9. * Passover p. 99-103. 


at 1.30 p. M.,) or to the short Min'hah, the time for which 
commences at the half of the tenth hour ? (That is at 3.30 
in the afternoon.) Is it not lawful to eat from the time 
of the long Min'hah, because thereby the time in which 
the paschal offering must be brought will be taken up ? 

"We have learned : Even King Agrippa * whose wont it 
was to eat at the ninth hour of the day, (three p.m.) should 
not eat on the eve of the Passover until it becomes dark. 
Now if the short Min'hah is meant, after which it is not 
lawful to eat, then the case of King Agrippa is worthy of 
note. But if the long Min'hah is meant, what proof does 
this case exhibit then, that it was only because the meal 
would interfere with the paschal offering, and why is 
Agrippa's case specially mentioned ? Hence we may in- 
fer that the short Min'hah is meant. 

" Mishna : On the eve of any Passover, it is not lawful 
for a person to eat from the time of Min'hah until after 
dark. Even the meanest in Israel shall not eat until they 
have arranged themselves in proper order, at ease round 
the table, nor shall a person have less than four cups of 
wine, even if they nuist be given him from funds devoted 
to the charitable support of the very poor. A person 
must not eat aught on the eve of the Sabbath, or of a 
festival, from the time of the Min'hah on, in order that 
the entry of the Sabbath, or the festival, may find him in 
a condition to relish a meal. 

" A table must not be brouglit for each guest separately, 
unless the Kiddush had already been recited by the head 
of the household, but if a table had been set before him 
before the Kiddush had been recited, then the guest 
should cover the table set before him with a cloth, and 
himself pronounce that benediction." 

The Kiddush, " Prayer," was the prayer said before 
meals. The table was always covered with linen table- 
cloths at the Passover. In rich houses they used three 
cloths, one over the other. This was the origin of the 
three linen altar cloths covering our altars in churches of 
the Latin Rite. The Greeks use altar cloths of silk. 

^ This Herod Agrippa, Acts ii., was the grandson of Herod the Great, 
through Mariamne descendant of the INIacliabees, his father being Alexander, 
whom the first Herod strangulated to deatii. Claudius, the Roman etnperor, 
made him king over Judea. He was tlie last king of the Herod family. See 
Acts XXV. 26. 


On the ninth day of Ab, God ordered the Hebrews, 
because of their sins, to wander forty years in the desert, 
living on manna, figure of the Eucharist. On the ninth 
of Ab, five hundred and ninety-eight years before 
Christ, the Babylonians destroyed Solomon's magnifi- 
cent Temple. More than six hundred years later, on the 
ninth of Ab, in the year A. D. 70, the Romans under 
Titus destroyed the great Temple Herod built, and 
which Christ iiad visited so many times. On the ninth 
of Ab, Bethar fell, and vast numbers of Jew^s were 
slaughtered. On the ninth of Ab a year later, Hadrian 
drew the plow over the ruins of the holy city. Jerusalem 
became a Roman colony called Aelia Capitolina, and 
Jews were forbidden, under pain of death, to enter within 
its walls. Down the centuries since, the Jews fast on the 
ninth of Ab, in memory of these five great calamities 
which fell on their nation. 

They also observe three other fast days in connection 
with the fall of Jerusalem, — the tenth day of Tebet, 
when the siege began, the seventeenth of Tamuz, when 
the first breach w^as made in the wall, the third day of 
Tishri, when Gedaliah, their leader, Avas assassinated, — 
the last day being known as the Fast of Gedaliah. 

During these days, beginning with the first of Ab, 
no meat is eaten, no wine drunk, no pleasure permitted. 
The " Nine days," so-called, are days of mourning in all 
Israel, and the synagogues are filled with weeping, 
mourning and fasting Jews. The homes are all dark- 
ened, shutters closed, blinds drawn and home lighted only 
by candles. 

Barefooted, ashes on their heads, strict Hebrews of our 
day clothe themselves in sackcloth, recline on the floor, 
or on low seats and boxes, and they tell their children 
the stoiy of the sieges and calamities of Jerusalem. 
They read the Lamentations of Jeremias to their fam- 
ilies, and in the synagogues sermons are delivered on the 
sorrows of Israel. The Hassan and Rabbi in mournful 
cadence sing the plaintive songs called Kinoth, with the 
congregation chanting the woes of Israel, especially the 
Ode to Sion, by Judah ha Levi. In the synagogue of 
Jerusalem, the Scrolls of the Law, as well as the holj^ 
shrine, the Aaron where it rests, are draped in black. 


Clothed in black, they go to the western wall o£ Solomon's 
Temple, the great foundations still standing in the 
Tyropoeon valley, within the city, and, turning their 
faces to the ancient walls called the " Wall of Wailing," 
they chant the prayers for the restoration of Zion. 
From this mourning service, with its black garments, 
the Church copied the black vestments and the dark 
mourning decorations of our funeral services. 

It is sad to see them there in Jerusalem, with faces 
turned to the wall, swaying back and forth, and from 
side to side, wailing, weeping, lamenting the destruction 
of their cit3% the scattering of Israel, the ruin of the 
Temple. But it seems God hears them not, for they 
pra}^ not for spiritual, but for temporal things, — the 
coming of their Messiah to make them i-ulers over all 
the earth. Christians, with Mohammedans, look on, and 
many mocked them. 

" The sages, however, said it was customary in eTudea 
to work until noon on the day preceding Passover, but in 
Galilee no work was performed on that day. The night 
preceding that day the school of Shamai prohibits work 
to be done, w^hile the school of Hillel permits it till sun- 
rise. Said R. Meir : ' Every occupation which had been 
commenced prior to the fourteenth of Nisan, may be 
finished on that day, but no new work may be com- 
menced, even if it can be finished on that day.' The 
sages, however, are of the opinion that the three follow- 
ing crafts, tailors, barbers, and clothes-w^ashers, may 
pursue their calling until noon that day. 

" Tailors may pursue their occupation, because any man 
may of necessity mend his garments on the days inter- 
vening between the first and last days of the festival. 
Barbers and clothes-washers may pursue their calling, 
because those that arrive from a sea-voyage, or those 
that are released from imprisonment, may trim their 
hair, and wash their clothes on the days intervening be- 
tween the first and last days of the festival. R. Jose ben 
Jehudah says that shoemakers may pursue their calling, 
because pilgrims, who journey to Jerusalem for the 
festival, mend their shoes in the intervening days." 

When the Passover fell on the eve of, or on a Sabbath, 
lest they might break the Sabbath by any kind of labor, 


they stuck the sacrificial knife in the sheep's wool, or 
tied it between the goat's horns, as they led the animal to 
the altar. 

" Mishna : Under what circumstances is it allowed to 
bring a festal offering in addition to the paschal sac- 
rifice? When the paschal sacrifice is sacrificed on week 
days, when those offering it are legally clean, and if it is 
insufficient for those appointed to partake thereof, the 
festal offering may be brought as a flock of cattle, lambs, 
or goats, and may be either male or female. The festal 
offering, brought on the fourteenth with the paschal 
sacrifice, only fulfils the duty of enjoying the festival, 
but the injunction, not to come empty into the Temple, 
is not satisfied thereby. It should be consumed in the 
course of one day and night, and must not be eaten 
except it be roasted, and not by any one except those 
appointed to eat the paschal sacrifice." ' 

Thus were foretold the offerings the laity must make 
for the support of religion. The collections in our 
churches go back to apostolic times, and beyond to the 
days of Hebrew kings. The following relates to the joy 
with which we celebrate Sundays and feasts. 

" Peace-offerings brought on the eve of Passover 
fulfils the duty of rejoicing on the festival, as it need 
not be brought at the time when rejoicing is already 
a duty, but may be brought previously ; but it does not 
fulfil the duty of bringing the festal offering, because 
it is consecrated, and the festal offering must be 

Under priests' directions the laity slaughtered the 
lambs, foretelling that the Swiss Guards of Pilate's pa- 
lace crucified Christ, and tlie Roman procurator urged on 
by the priests who cried " Crucify him," etc., condemned 
the Lord to death. 

" The priests removed the blood, the priest nearest 
the altar squirted the blood on the altar, etc., as it is 
written : ' Their blood only thou shalt pour on the altar, 
and their fat thou shalt burn for a most sweet odor to 
the Lord.' ".^ " It does not say its blood or its fat, but in 
the plural, their blood and their fat, which signifies that 
the blood of the firstlings, and of the first tithes, and of 

^ Dent, xvi, 0, * Nu)iib. xxviii, 17, 


the Passover-sacrifice, must be sprinkled, and the pieces 
which must be offered should be offered on the altar. 

" ' And he shall immolate it at the side of the altar that 
looketh to the north before the Lord, but the sons of 
Aaron shall pour the blood thereof upon the altar round 
about.' And he shall put of the same blood on the horns 
of the altar, that is before the Lord, in the tabernacle of 
the testimony, and the rest of the blood he shall pour at 
the foot of the altar of holocaust.' ^ 

" The Passover-sacrifice was slaughtered for three suc- 
cessive divisions of men, because it was written.^ * The 
whole assembly^ of the congregation^ of Israel shall slaugh- 
ter it.' These three divisions were necessary according 
to the expressions " assemhlg^'' " ^ igregation^^ and 
*' IsraeV The first division entered until the court of 
the Temple was filled, when the doors of the court were 
closed, and the cornet horn sounded Tekiah, one blast, 
Teruah a succession of quick blasts, and Tekiah another 
blast. The j)riests then placed themselves in double rows 
each priest holding a chalice of silver or a chalice of gold 
in his hands, but one row of priests had to hold all silver 
chalices and the other all gold — they were not allow to be 
mixed. These goblets had no stands underneath, so that 
the priests might not put them down and allow the blood 
to coagulate. 

" The Israelite slaughtered, and the priest received the 
blood, and gave it to another priest, who in turn passed 
it to another, each receiving a full chalice, at the same 
time returning an empty one. The priest nearest the 
altar squirted it out in one stream at the base of the altar. 
The first division went out, and the second entered; when 
that went out, the third entered in the same way as the 
first, so did also the second and third division proceed. 

" The Hallel prayer of praise was read by each division. 
If they had finished before completing their duties, they 
began it over again, and might even say it for a third 
time, although it never happened that there was occasion 
to say it thrice.* 

" The same things that were done on week-days were 
also done on the Sabbath, except that the priests would 

' Levit. i. 11. ' Levit iv. 18. ' Exod. xii. 6. * The Hallel prayer consists 
of the recital of the Psalms from cxiii. to cxviii. inclusive. 


that day wash the court, contrary to the wishes of the 
sages.' R. Jehudah says : * A cup was filled with the 
mixed blood of all the sacrifices and was squirted in one 
stream on tlie altar.' " 

This chalice of mixed blood from all the sacrifices 
pointed to the one sacrifice of Calvary. The skin of the 
lamb was taken off while the victim was tied up to the 
pillar, to foretell how Christ was scourged when he was 
tied to iron hooks in the granite pillar in Pilate's 

" In what manner was the paschal sacrifice suspended 
and its skin removed? Iron hooks were fixed to the 
walls and pillars on which the sacrifice was suspended 
and its skin removed. Those who could not find a place 
to do it in that manner, used thin smooth sticks of wood 
provided there for that purpose, on which they suspended 
the paschal sacrifice, resting the sticks between the shoul- 
ders of two persons to remove the skin. If the 14th of 
Nisan occurred on a Sabbath, one person would place his 
left hand on the right shoulder of another, and the latter 
would place his right hand on the left shoulder of the 
former, and thus suspending the sacrifice on the arms 
they would remove the skin with their right hands. 

" When the sacrifice had been opened, the pieces which 
were to be sacrificed on the altar were removed, placed on 
a large dish and offered up with incense on the altar. 
When the first division had gone out, they would remain 
on the Temple mound, the second would remain in the 
open space between the walls of the Temple, and the 
third division would remain in its place. As soon as it 
became dark, they all went out to roast their sacrifices. 

" The paschal sacrifice was not slaughtered unless 
there were three divisions of thirty men each. Why? 
Because it is written : " The whole assembly of the con- 
gregalion, of Israel — thus "assembly" means ten men, 
" congregation " ten men, and " Israel " also ten men. It 
was doubtful however whether the thirty men had to be 
taken together, or whether ten men only at a time had to 
be present. So it was ordered that thirty men should 
enter, and as soon as ten were ready, they went out, and 
ten others took their place ; tlie next ten then left, and 
another ten entered; finally the last thirty went out 


together — thus each division numbered fifty men, or all 
three divisions one hundred and fifty men.' 

" Agrippa the king once wanted to know how many 
male Israelites there were. So he told the high priest to 
keep an account of the paschal lambs. The high priest 
then ordered that one kidney of each paschal lamb be 
preserved, and it was found that six hundred thousand 
pairs of kidneys were preserved, and this was twice the 
number of the Israelites who went out of Egypt. Natu- 
rally this was exclusive of all Israelites who were unclean, 
and could not offer the sacrifice, and all those who lived 
at a great distance from Jerusalem and were not in duty 
bound to be present. There was not a paschal lamb that 
did not represent at least more than ten persons." * 

Josephus "^ tells the same story of the kidneys counted, 
and we learn that 12,000,000 persons offered the Passover 
sacrifice that year, which was known as the "large Pass- 
over." AVe can then imagine the vast crowds, who 
chimored for the death of Christ and what a multitude 
saw him die. The strangers used to camp around Jeru- 
salem, filling the country for miles in all directions. They 
followed the rules Moses laid down to regulate their 
desert encampments. Olivet was covered with the tents 
of Juda and Benjamin ; to the south, toward Bethlehem, 
rose the tents of Issachar and Zebulon mingling with sons 
of Simon, Gad and Ruben ; to the west were Ephraim, 
Manasses, while in the level plain to the north camped 
Dan, Asher and Nephthalim. 

The Talmud says the gold chalices were worth 200 and 
the silver 100 denars; the denars equalling about 17 cents, 
each chalice was worth respectfully $34 and 817. The 
denar, in Latin denarius, was so called from the letter 
X, meaning ten. 

" Mishna : How should the paschal lamb be roasted ? A 
spit, made of wood of the pomegranate tree, should be 
taken, put in at the mouth and brought out at the vent 
tliereof. The paschal sacrifice must not be roasted on an 
iron roasting spit or on a gridiron.^ 

" Mishna : If any part of the i-oasted lamb touched the 
earthenware oven on which it was roasted, that part must 

^ Passover. 121. ' Antiq. xvii. '.•, 3 ; War^, v. 0, 3. ' Pa3sover,.cap, vJi. ; First. 
Miijhna. p. 24S. 


be pared off. If the fat dripping from the Iamb had 
fallen on the oven, and then again had fallen on the lamb, 
that part of the lamb must be cut out. If the dripping 
however fell on fine flour, a handful of that flour must be 
taken and burned. If the paschal lamb had been anointed, 
or basted with the consecrated oil of the heave-offering, 
and the company appointed to partake thereof consists of 
priests, they are allowed to eat it. But if the company 
consists of Israelites, they must wash it oft' if the lamb 
be yet raw." ^ 

The pomegranate, "grained apple," called in Hebrew 
rimmon, was extensiveh^ grown in the Jordan valley and 
around Jerusalem at the time of Christ. The stick was 
extended so that its lower end passed through the tendons 
of the hind feet, and the cross-piece of the sanie kind of 
wood passed through the tendons of the fore feet. The 
operation was called "crucifying the lamb." The lamb 
rested entirely on and was roasted on its cross, and fore- 
told the dead Christ hanging from his cross. Seeing this 
crucified paschal lamb, a striking image of the Crucified, 
the Rabbis of the Talmud left out the details of the sticks 
passing through the tendons of the feet. But other 
writers (Justin Martyr and the early Fathers) describe 
the lamb thus roasted on his cross, emblem of the 
crucifixion coming down from the days of the Hebrew 

" Mishna : Five kinds of sacrifices may be brought, 
even if those who offer them should be in a state of ritual 
uncleanness, but they should not be eaten by them while 
in that condition. 'I'hey are the Omer " Sheaf otlering," 
the two loaves of Pentecost, the showbreads of the Sab- 
bath, the peace-offerings of the congregation, and the he- 
goats offered on the feast of the New Moon. The teach- 
ing may be in accord with the sages, but in that event, it 
treats of the whole community, and not of an individual, 
and we have learned that a community may sacrifice the 
paschal offering, even if all the members thereof were 

The whole community of the Jews sacrificed the real 
Lamb of God foretold by the paschal sacrifice when they 
cried out " Crucify him," " Let him be crucified," etc., in 

^ Passover, cap. vii. 146. ^ passover, 148. 


Pilate's hall, and this was foretold by the passage we 
have quoted. 

" Mishna : If the whole, or the greater part of the con- 
gregation had become defiled, or the priests were in a 
state of defilement, but the congregation was undefiled, 
the sacrifice may be brought in this state of defilement, 
But if the minority only of the congregation had become 
defiled, the majority that are clean, shall sacrifice the 
paschal offering at its proper time, and the unclean shall 
sacrifice a second paschal offering on the 14th of the fol- 
lowing month." ' 

The Apostles, disciples, Joseph of Arimathea, Nico- 
demus the holy women, Christ's followers, did not demand 
his death, and these were represented by those called un- 
defiled in the Mishna we have given. To foretell how 
the Lord was crucified at Jerusalem, the following was 
the revealed law : 

" Thou mayest not immolate the phase in any of thy 
cities, which the Lord thy God shall give thee. But in 
the place which the Lord thy God shall choose." ^ " Even 
if one tribe were unclean, and the remaining eleven tribes 
of Israel were clean, the members of the unclean tribe 
must bring a separate sacrifice, because he holds that each 
tribe constitutes a congregation." ^ 

"Mishna: The bones, sinews, and other remaining 
parts must be burned on the sixteenth, and should that 
day fall on the Sabbath, they must be burned on the 
seventeenth, because the burning of these does not super- 
sede the laws of the Sabbath, or those of the festival. 
The bones of a paschal ottering, however, which remain 
whole, could have been broken and the marrow extracted 
from them only after becoming " a remainder," and for- 
tliat reason they must be burnt. " Neither shall there 
remain anything of it till morning. If there be anything 
left you shall burn it with fire." * 

This disposal of the remains of the lamb, was a prophecy 
in Moses' day, that the body of Christ would be buried 
the day he died. But the following prophesied that 
while they broke the legs of the two thieves, they did not 
break Christ's limbs. 

* Passover, vii p. 154. ' Deut. xvi. 5. » Passover, vii. 155. * Exod. xii. 10 ; 
Passover, vii. p. 1(>2. 


"Mishna: Whosoever breaks any bones of the clean 
paschal lamb incurs the penalty of forty stripes. * Neither 
shall you break a bone thereof ' ' 'In one house shall it 
be eaten, neither shall you carry forth of the flesh thereof 
out of the house, neither shall you break a bone thereof,' • 
and hence we must say that only if a bone was broken of 
a lamb, which must be eaten, but not of a lamb which 
must not be eaten, is the penalty of stripes incurred. 
They differ, however, concerning a man who breaks the 
tail of the lamb, which must not be eaten but ofifered up 
on the altar.' 

" The attic of the Holy of Holies was even more holy 
than the Holy of Holies itself, for w^hile the latter was 
entered once every year, the former was entered only 
once in seven years, according to others twice in seven 
years, and according to others only once in fifty years, 
and then only to see whether any repairs were necessary.* 

" Concerning the Temple it is written : * Then gave 
David to Solomon his son, a description of the porch and 
of the temple and of the treasures, and of the upper floor, 
and of the inner chambers and of the house for the 
mercy-seat, etc. . . All these things he said came to me 
written by the hand of the Lord,' etc.* 

" When two companies eat their paschal sacrifice in 
the same house, or room, each turning their faces in a 
different direction while eating thereof, and the warming 
pot containing the water to be mixed with the wine is in 
the center, the waiter, or servant, must close his mouth, 
that is not eat, while he waits on the other company to 
pour out the wine for them. Then he must turn his face 
towards the company he eats with, and he must not eat 
till he joins his own company." ^ 

Was it because the servants thus came between the 
tables and poured out the wine that the acolytes, deacon, 
sub-deacon or altar-boys pour the water and wine into 
the chalice during Mass? The Greek and Oriental Rites 
prescribe warm water mixed with the wine at Mass. 

" Mishna : If her husband slaughtered for his wife a 
paschal sacrifice, and her father also slaughtered one, she 
must eat that of her husband. If she came to pass the 

^ Exod. xii. 46. 2 Passover, vii., 165, 167, etc. ' Passover, vii., p, 169. * I. Par- 
alip., xxviii. 11-20. ^ Passover, vii., p. 17U. 



first festival after her marriage at her father's house, and 
her father and husband have each slaughtered a pas- 
chal sacrifice for her, she maj^ eat it at whatever place 
she prefers. If several guardians of an orphan have 
slaughtered paschal sacrifices for him, the orphan may go 
and eat it at the house he prefers.^ 

" 3Iishna : If a man say to his sons : ' I slaughter the 
paschal sacrifice for whichever one of you shall first 
arrive in Jerusalem,' then the first of them, whose head 
and greater part of whose body first appears in the city 
gate, thereby acquires a right to his own share, and 
acquires the same for his brothers." 

The following pages explain and define rules relating 
to the benefits or graces acquired by those for whom the 
lamb was sacrificed. This shows that they off:ered sacri- 
fices for particular persons and families. Thus we have 
a custom, coming dov,m from the Apostles, of offering 
Masses for persons, families or particular intentions. 

"Mishna: If a person, having a running issue, had ob- 
served such issue twice on the same day, and the seventh 
day after his disease had subsided fall on the fourteenth 
of Nisan, when he is no longer defiled, he may have the 
paschal sacrifice slaughtered for him tliat day. But if 
he observed the issue three times in one day, it may bo 
slaughtered for him only if the eighth day, when he 
again becomes clean, should fall on the fourteenth of 

" Mishna : For a mourner, who has lost a relative for 
whom he is obliged to mourn on the fourteenth of Nisan, 
for a person digging out of a heap of fallen ruins persons 
l)uried among them, for a prisoner who has assurance of 
a release in time to eat the paschal sacrifice, and for the 
aged and sick persons, it is lawful to slaughter the pas- 
chal sacrifice, while they are able to partake thereof a 
quantity at least the size of an olive." ^ 

The reader Avill here see the origin of the custom of 
giving Communion to those who cannot con)e to church. 
The following shows that only Christ and his Apostles 
formed the " band " to eat the Passover. Only men could 
sit at the table when free from defilement, and all were 

} Passover, viii.. First Mishna, p. 173, * Passover, riii., p. 185. * Passover 
xiii., p. 1^7. 


circumcised to foretell the baptized. The unbaptized 
are incapable of the other sacraments. For these reasons 
Christ ordained only men. 

" But we have learned in our Mishna, that a company 
must not be formed of women, slaves or minors, that is 
of any of three. And Rablia replied, 'jN"ay, it means 
that a company must not be formed of tlie three 

" Mishna : A mourner may eat of the paschal sacrifice 
at eve, after having taken his legal bath, but he must not 
eat of otlier holy sacrifices." 

This shows that all who celebrated the Passover were 
obliged to take " a legal bath," similar to that of the 
priests who went on service in the Temple. Washing 
the body was a type of baptism, and Christ raised it 
to the dignity of this sacrament, Avhich wipes out all sins 
and gives the three virtues of faith, hope, and charity. 

The Talmud here gives many rules and regulations 
relating to the " second Passover," held on the fourteenth 
of the following month, which all observed if they could 
not celebrate the first. If a Jew did not celebrate either 
one or the other, he became guilty of Kareth " Excom- 
munication." He was driven from the synagogue and 
excluded from, communications with all Israel, as the 
Law of Moses says : " But if any one is clean, and was 
not on a journey, and did not make the Phase, that soul 
shall be cut off from among his people." ^ " He that 
shall eat leaven bread, his soul shall perish out of the 
assembly of Israel, whether he be a stranger, or born in 
the land." ' 

"The following persons were obliged to observe a 
second Passover : Men and women afflicted with a run- 
ning issue, with running sores, women suffering from 
their menstruation, and such as had sexual intercourse 
with them during that time, women lying in (women 
in childbirth), those that neglected the observance of 
the first Passover, either through error or compulsion, 
those that neglected it intentionally, and those who were 
on a distant journey. And the Lord spoke to Moses 
saying: * Say to the children of Israel. The man that 
shall be unclean by occasion of one that is dead, or shall 

1 Numb. ix. 13. « Exod. xii. 19. 


be on a journey afar off in your nation, let him make the 
Pliase to the Lord in the second month, on the fourteenth 
day of the month, in the evening they shall eat it, with 
unleavened bread and wild lettuce.' ' 

** Kareth is the penalty for the non-observance of the 
first, as well as of the second. Thus the conclusion is as 
follows. If a man had intentionally neglected the first 
and second Passover, all agree that he incurs the penalty 
of Kareth. If he had inadvertenly neglected both, all 
agree that he is not guilty. 

" But the person that eateth of the flesh of the sacrifice 
of peace-offering that pertaineth to the Lord, having his 
uncleanness on him, even that person shall be cut off 
from his people. Whence we infer that if an unclean 
person eat of the flesh, which may be eaten only by 
clean persons, he incurs the penalty of Kareth, but if he 
ate the flesh, which was not fit for a clean person, i. e. 
unclean flesh, he is not guilty. We might assume that 
if persons having a running issue had intruded into the 
sanctuary, in a state of defilement, while the sacrifice 
was being offered, they thereby incur the penalty of 
Kareth, to that end it is written, * Command the children 
of Israel that they cast out of the camp every leper, and 
whosoever hath an issue of seed, or is defiled by the 
dead. Whether it be a man or a woman, cast ye them 
out of the camp, lest they defile it, when I shall dwell 
with you.' " ^ This Kareth, " cutting off" or excommunica- 
tion from the Jewish church, is in Hebrew, Anathema, 
Maranatha, " Get behind when the Lord conieth. " ^ 
This Christ said to Peter.* 

If a person cannot make his Easter duty during holy 
week or at Easter, the Church extends the time within 
which the obligation can be satisfied till Saturday before 
Trinity, the end of the Paschal season. If a Christian 
does not make his Easter confession and Communion 
during that time, he is supposed to become a Karetb, 
*• cut off," " excommunicated." The Church in making 
this law had the example and sanction of God himself, 
who laid down the same penalty for the Hebrews. 

" What must be considered a * distant ' journey ? 

* Numb, ix 10-11. ' Numb. v. 2, 3. ' See Edersheim. Temple, 43 ; Jewish 
Cyclopedia, etc. * Mark viii. 33. 


According to R. Aqiba it is from Moodayim and beyond, 
and from all places around Jerusalem situated at the 
same distance. Any distance beyond the threshold of 
the Temple-court should be considered as coming under 
that term." ' 

" Said Ula : * From Moodayim to Jerusalem is a distance 
of fifteen miles.' What is the distance that a man can 
travel in one day ? Ten Parsaoth." 

Moodayim, translated Modin, ''' was the city and mount 
where was born Mathathias father of the Machabees.^ 
It contained their family tombs, which Simon had built 
there * setting up seven pyramids of polished stone, one 
each for his father, mother, himself and his four brothers. 
" Parsaoth " is the plural of Parsah, " a measure of four 
miles" called in Hebrew "Milin." 

" When eating the first i^aschal offering the * Hallel * 
should be recited, but not while eating the second, from 
the, passage. * You shall have a song as in the night of 
the sanctified solemnity, and joy of heart as when one 
goeth with a pipe to come into the mountain of the Lord 
to the mighty One of Israel. And the Lord shall make 
the glory of his voice to be heard." ^ Hence on the night 
which ushers in a festival ' Hallel ' should be recited, 
but on the night of the second Passover, when no festival 
follows, the recital of the * Hallel ' is not necessary. 
Both the first and second Passover require that the man 
who offers up the paschal lamb remains in Jerusalem over 

" What is the difference between the Passover as cele- 
brated by the Israelites in Egypt, and that observed by 
later generations ? The Egyptian Passover-sacrifice was 
specially ordered to be purchased on the 10th of Nisan, 
and its blood sprinkled with a bunch of hyssop on the 
lintel, and on the two sideposts of the door, also that it be 
eaten with unleaven bread on the first night of Passover, 
in a hasty manner, while in later generations the law of 
the Passover applies to the whole seven days of the festi- 
val. Vows and voluntary offerings must not be sacrificed 
on a festival. 

» Paf?sover ix. 194. « I. Mach. xiii. 27. ^ I. Mach. ii. 9, 13, 16. II. Mach. xiii. 14. 
* I. Mach. xiii. 27-30 ; Smith's Diet., v. 3, word " Modin." ; Josephus, Antiq., 
xiii. 6, 6. ^ Isaias xxx, 29. * Passover, ix., p. 200. 


"Those who heard the Kiddush pronounced in the 
synagogue, need not recite it at their homes, but should 
merely pronounce the customary benediction over the 
wine. Why should a man recite the Kiddush at home ? 
In order to give the household an opportunity to hear it. 
Why should tlie Kiddush be recited in the synagogue ? 
In order to afford the guests, who eat, drink and sleep in 
the synagogues, an opportunity to hear it. If a person 
hears the Kiddush recited in one house, he should not eat 
in another, but it makes no difference as to rooms in one 

The Kiddush was the synagogue prayers said before 
they sat down at the passover table. They were said 
either in the s3^nagogue or in the house. As the Cenacle 
was a synagogue, Christ and his Apostles began the syna- 
gogue services of Thursday at the Bema before the sup- 
per as we will explain later. 

" R. Huna thinks that the Kiddush must be recited 
only in the place where the meal is taken. Abayi said : 
' When I was at Master's house, while he recited the 
Kiddush, he would say to the guests, * Partake of 
something before you go to your houses, for should you 
go home and find the candles gone out, ye will not 
be able to recite the Kiddush in your homes, and thus 
you will not acquit yourselves of the duty unless you eat 
aomething where the Kiddush was recited.' " 

They were forbidden to eat the lamb except candles 
burned. No religious services were ever carried out in 
Israel without lighted candles. From this the Church 
derived the custom of lighting candles at every service. 

" Two benedictions must not be made over one cup. 
When one enters his house at the close of Sabbath, he 
pronounces a benediction over wine, light, incense, and 
then the benediction of Habdalah. The Habdalah was 
the blessing pronounced at the close of tlie Sabbath serv- 
ices over one cup, and if he has not another of wine in 
his house, he may leave that cup until he has had his 
evening meal, and then recite the benediction after the 
meal over the same cup of wine. Rabh mentions all 
these benedictions, but omits that of the season, it must 
be presumed that he refers to the seventh day of Passover 
as the festival, because that day the benediction of the 


season is not said, and at that time it is possible that a 
man has only one cup of wine. 

" When is this possible ? On the first day of a festival, 
when a man surely has more wine ; still Abyi said over 
one cup the benediction of wine, the Kiddush of the sea- 
son of light, and the Habdalah, and finally of the season, 

" When the time for the Habdalah prayer arrived, the 
servant of Rabha lit several candles, and joined them into 
one flame. R. Jacob said to him * Why dost thou light 
so many candles ? ' and Rabha replied. ' The servant 
did this of his own accord.' 

" We have learned in a Boraitha : That one who is ac- 
customed to incorporate many benedictions in the Hab- 
dalah prayer he may embody as many as he chooses. 

" How is the order of the Habdalah to be observed ? 
As follows: 'Who hath made a distinction between 
sanctified and ordinary, between light and darkness, be- 
tween Israel and other nations, between the seventh day 
and working days, between clean and unclean, between 
sea and dry land, between waters above and beneath, be- 
tween priests, Levites and Israelites,' and he concluded 
with : ' Blessed be He who hath arranged the order of 
creation.' " 

The following relate to the seven benedictions and 
prayers which Avill be found later in the Passover Seder.^ 

" It is not lawful to begin eating before the prayers. 
No interruption is allowed during tlie service. If the 
Sabbath, which began at sundown, was ushered in while 
they were at the Passover table, they stopped eating and 
said the Habdalah of the Sabbath, and after citing laws 
and customs the following eight things follow. 

" First : One who included the Habdalah in his evening 
prayer, must recite it nevertheless again ov^r a cup. 
Second : The benediction after a meal must be made over 
the cup of wine. Third : The cup used at the benedic- 
tion must be of a prescribed capacity, i.e. a quarter of a 
log, for were this not so, it could not be divided, and part 
used for the Habdalah, and another part for the benedic- 
tion. Fourth : One who pronounces the benediction over 
the cup of wine, must taste some. Fifth : As soon as 

1 In Chap. XII. of this work. 


part of the wine is tasted after a benediction the cup of 
wine is rendered unfit for any other benediction. Sixth : 
Even if a full meal is eaten at the close of Sabbath, and 
the sanctification of the day had passed, it shall be the 
duty to recite the Habdalah. Seventh : Two degrees of 
sanctification may be bestowed on one cup of wine. 
Lastly : The entire Boraitha is in accord with the school 
of Shammai and with the interruption of R. Jehudah." 

We have given these because they relate to the fourth 
chalice of wine, which each one at the table must drink. 
This was the chalice Christ blessed and consecrated into 
his Blood. According to the rules we have given, this 
must be a large chalice. The one who pronounced " the 
benediction over the chalice of wine, must taste some," 
says the Talmud. Christ then partook of the consecrated 
chalice before giving It to his Apostles, and this is the 
reason the celebrant first receives Communion before 
giving It to others, The benedictions over the chalice 
gave rise to the blessings or crosses over the Elements 
after the consecration. Then follow many minute regu- 
lations for the order of procedure. 

"Neither Kiddush nor any other benediction should 
be made with anything except wine. The teachings of 
the Rabbis relative to other benedictions mean that the 
chalice given for the benediction after meals should only 
be of wine. 

" When eating, the unleaven bread on Passover-night, 
one should recline in an easy position, but this is not 
required when the bitter herbs are eaten. When wine 
is drunk, it was taught in the name of R. Na'hman, that 
a reclining position should be taken, and also that it need 
not be taken. Still this apparent contradiction presents 
no difficulty. The statement quoted of R. Na'hman that 
a reclining position is necessary when drinking wine, 
refers to the first two cups, and the statement that it is 
not necessary, refers to the last two cups. The first two 
cups symbolize the beginning of liberty for the previously 
enslaved Jews, while the last two cups have no such 

" Leaning backward is not considered reclining, nor is 
leaning over on the right side considered reclining in an 

^ » Talmud, Babyl., 225. 


easy position. The woman who sits with her husband 
need not recline when eating, but if she is a woman of 
prominence she should do so. A son sitting with his 
lather must recline 

"Each cup must contain wine, which when mixed with 
three parts of water will be good wine If unmixed wine 
was drunk, the duty has nevertheless also been fulfilled 
If all the four cups were poured into one and drunk, the 
duty has also been fulfilled. If the wine was drunk un- 
mixed, the duty of drinking the wine has been acquitted, 
but the symbolic feature thereof has not been carried out. 
The cup must contain the color and taste of red wine. 
The duty of drinking the four cups devolves upon all 

" It is the duty of every man to cause his household 
and his children to rejoice on the festival, as it is writ- 
ten : ' And thou shalt rejoice on thy feast.' * The men 
with the thing they like best, and the women with what 
pleases them most. The thing men like best is of 
course wine. But what is most pleasing to women ? In 
Babylonia multicolored dresses, and in Judea pressed 
linen garments. Small fishes should be eaten, as it is 
taught in the Mishna.^ 

" When the first cup is poured out, the blessing per- 
taining to the festival should be said, and then the bene- 
diction over the wine must be pronounced. 

" Herbs, and vegetables are then brought, the lettuce 
is then to be immersed, parts thereof eaten, and the re- 
mainder left until after the meal arranged for the night 
is eaten, then the unleaven cakes are to be placed before 
him, as well as the lettuce, Charoseth (sauce), and two 
kinds of cooked food, although it is not strictly obliga- 
tory to use the same. During the existence of the holy 
Temple, the paschal sacrifice was placed before him. 
Two immersions are necessary, one when the lettuce is 
immersed, and the other when the bitter herbs are im- 
mersed. Fish, together with two eggs, may also serve 
for the two kinds of cooked food. A man should not 
place the bitter herbs between the unleaven cakes and 
eat them that way. Why not ? Because the eating of 
unleaven cakes is a biblical command, while the eating 

1 Babyl. Talmud, x. p. 226. « Deut. xvi. 14. » Talmud, x. p. 227. 


of bitter herbs in this day is only a rabbinical ordinance. 
It was said ot HiUel, (who lived in the second century 
before Christ,) that he would take a piece ot the paschal 
offering, an unleaven cake, and some bitter herbs, and 
eat them together, as it is written, 'They shall eat it with 
unleaven bread and wild lettuce.' ' The mode ot pro- 
cedure should be said over the unleaven bread, a piece 
thereot eaten ; then another blessing should be said over 
the bitter herbs and a piece tasted, and hnally the un- 
leaven bread, and the bitter herbs should be put together 
and eaten at the same time, saying, ' This is m remem- 
brance ot HiUel's actions when the Temple was still iii 
existence ' * 

" When anything is dipped in sauce, the hands should 
be perfectly clean, that is, previously washed. Thence 
we inter that the lettuce must be entirely immersed in 
the Charoseth sauce, for otherwise what need would there 
be of washing the hands, they would touch the sauce. If 
a man washed his hands prior to dipping the lettuce the 
first time, he should nevertheless wash his hands again 
when dipping the second time. Unleaven bread, bitter 
herbs, and Charoseth must be dealt out to each man 
separately, but immediately before the Haggada is 

The Haggada is the Seder or Liturgy of the Passover. 
Sometimes they placed a seimrate table at the head of 
the couch for each person. But at the Last Supper there 
were many tables arranged in the form of a IT. The 
lather of the family, or master of the band, recited the 
service, the others holding the scroll of the Liturgy in 
their hands, and all recited it with him as the newly 
ordained ]3riests recite the Liturgy with the bishop dui-- 
ing their ordination. The sauce called the Charoseth 
was a kind of salad made of apples, nuts, almonds, spices, 
etc., mixed with vinegar. 

"What religious purposes serves the Charoseth? It 
serves as a remembrance of the apple trees. It serves as 
a remembrance of the mortar which the Israelites were 
compelled to make in Egypt. Therefore the Charoseth 
should be made to have an acid taste in memory of the 
apple-trees, also thick m memory of the mortar. The 

^ Numb. IX. 11. * Bub^ 1. Talniiul, x. p. ,'Jo7. 


spices used in the preparation of the Charoseth were in 
memory of the straw used in the preparation of the 
mortar. The sellers of spices in Jerusalem used to cry 
out in the streets, " Come and buy spices for religious 

"A second cup is poured out, and the son should then 
inquire of the father the reason for the ceremony. 
Where a band, and not a family, celebrated the Passover, 
the youngest at the table took the place of the son and 
asked the question. " What is the I'eason of these 

" Rabbon Gamaliel, (St. Paul's teacher,) used to say: 
' Whosoever does not mention the following three things 
on the Passover, has not fulfilled his duty. They are the 
paschal sacrifice, the unleaven cakes and the bitter herbs. 
The paschal sacrifice is offered because the Lord passed 
over the houses of our ancestors in Egypt, as it is written, 
' You shall say to them. It is the victim of the passage 
of the Lord, when he passed over the houses of the 
children of Israel in Egypt, striking the Egyptian and 
saving our houses.' ^ The unleaven bread is eaten, be- 
cause our ancestors were redeemed from Egypt as it is 
written • ' The people therefore took the dough before it 
was leaven, and tying it in their cloaks put it on their 
shoulders.' ^ And the bitter herbs are eaten because the 
Egyptians embittered the lives of our ancestors in Egypt, 
as it is written : * And they made their lives bitter with 
hard work, in clay, and brick, and with all manner of 
service, wherewith they were overcharged in the works 
of the earth.' * 

"It is therefore incumbent on every person in all ages, 
that he should consider as though he had personally 
gone forth from Egypt, as it is written : « And thou shall 
tell thy son that day saying. This is what the Lord did 
to me when I came forth out of Egypt.' * We are there- 
fore in duty bound to thank, praise, adore, glorify, extol, 
honor, bless, exalt and reverence Him, who wrought all 
these miracles for our ancestors and for us. For He 
brought us forth from bondage to freedom. He changed 
our sorrow into joy, our mourning into a feast. He led 
us froiA darkness into light, and from slavery into re- 

1 Exod. xii-27. » Exod. xii, 34. » Exod. i. 14. * Exod. xlll 8. 


demption. Let us therefore say in his presence Hallelujah, 
sing the Hallel Prayer." 

Hallelujah is in the Hebrew : " Praise Jah " (Jehovah,) 
" Praise Jehovah." In Church services it is Alleluia. 

" The unleaven bread and bitter herbs must be lifted 
up when about to be eaten, but the meat need not be 
lifted up, and moreover, if the meat were lifted up, it 
would appear as if consecrated things were eaten outside 
the Temple." 

This lifting up called in Jewish writings, " waving " 
was done in this way. First the bread, and then the 
wine were each in their turn raised up and offered to the 
Lord, then lowered and " waved '' to the north, south, 
east and west, making a cross. This was done with 
every sacrifice in the Temple, and this gave rise to the 
ceremony of raising up and offering the bread and wine, 
then lowering and making a cross at the offertory of the 
JMass. This was also probably the origin of lifting up the 
Host when saying : " Behold the Lamb of God, Behold 
Him who taketh away the sins of the world ! " before 
giving Communion. The " meat " or the roast paschal 
lamb was not lifted up during the Passover supper, be- 
cause it had been lifted up, and " waved " while being 
sacrificed in the Temple as we will describe later. 

" The canticle in the Scriptures ^ was sung by Moses 
with Israel, when coming up out of the sea. Who recited 
the Hallel? The prophets ordained that at all times, 
when they are delivered out of affliction they should say 
it on account of their redemption. 

" All the praises uttered in the Book of Psalms were 
uttered by David, as it is written : ' Here ended the 
prayers of David the son of Jesse.' ^ My son Eleazar says 
that Moses, together with Isniel, said it when coming out 
of the sea, but his colleagues differ with him, main- 
taining that David said it, but to me, my son's opinion 
seems more reasonable, for liow can it be that the Israelites 
should slaughter their paschal offerings and take their 
palm branches and not sing a song of praise ? 

"All the canticles and hymns in the Book of Psalms 
according to the dictum of K. Eleazar were sung by David 
for his own sake. But R. Joslma says that he did so for 

^ £xod. XV. 2 Psalm Ixxi. 20. 


the congregation at large, and the sages say that some 
were uttered by him for the congregation at large, while 
others only for his sake, namely, those he uttered in the 
singular were for his own sake, and those uttered in the 
plural were for the community at large. The Psalms 
containing the terms Nitzua'ch and Nigon, were intended 
for the future, those containing the term Maskil were 
proclaimed through an interpreter. Where the Psalm 
commences " Le-David Mizmor " the Shekina rested on 
David, and then he sang the Psalm, but when it com- 
mences " Mizmor Le-David," he first sang the Psalm, and 
then the Shekina rested on him. Whence it may be con- 
cluded that the Shekina does not rest on one who is in a 
state of idleness, or sorrow, or laughter, or thoughtless- 
ness, or on him who indulges in vain words, but only on 
one who rejoices in the fulfilment of a duty, as it is 
written : " But now bring me hither a minstrel (a musi- 
cian). And when the minstrel played, the jand (inspira- 
tion) of the Lord came upon him. 

" They said ' Not for our sake,' O Lord, not for our sake, 
but unto thy name give glory.' And the Holy Spirit 
replied ^ ' For my own sake, for my own sake, will I do 
it.' * Josue and Israel said it when they did battle with 
the kings of the Canaanites.' Israel said : ' Not for our 
sake,' etc., and the Holy Spirit said ' For my sake,' etc. 
Deborah and Barak said it, when Sisara waged war on 
them, they said ' Not for our sake,' etc., and the Holy 
Spirit replied, * For my own sake,' etc. King Hezekiah 
and his companions said it when Sennacherib waged war 
upon them. They said * Not for our sake,' etc., and the 
Holy Spirit replied, ' For my sake,' etc., Hananiah, Mishael 
and Azariah said it, when Nebuchadnezzar was about to 
throw them in the fiery furnace. They said, * Not for 
our sake,' etc., and the Holy Spirit replied, * For my sake,' 
etc., Mordechai and Esther said it, when Haman the 
wicked rose up against them. They said, ' Not for our 
sake,' etc., and the Holy Spirit replied, ' For my sake,' 

We have given this quotation from the Talmud, to 
show that they had a knowledge of the Holy Spirit. 
These words with others found hundreds of times in the 

1 Psalm cxiii. 1. 2 isaias, xlviii. 11, ^ Babyl. Talmud, x. pp. 744 to 846, 


Old Testament and Jewish writings show us, that they 
had a vague knowledge of the Three Persons of the 

"How far is the Hallel to be said ? According to Beth 
Shammai till, ' The joyful mother of children,' ^ according 
to Beth Hillel till * Who changeth a rock into a pool of 
water,' ^ according to another till, ' When Israel went out 
of Egypt.' " ' 

Beth Shammai " House of Shammai " and Beth Hillel 
" House of Hillel," were two schools of thought founded 
by these famous leaders of Israel who lived in the second 
century before Christ. Hillel in Hebrew means " Rich 
in praise " and Shannnai is " Desolated." 

" In reading the Shema " (we will give the prayer later) 
"and the Hallel, the redemption of Israel should be 
referred to in the past tense, namely : * Who hath re- 
deemed,' etc., while in the prayer embracing the Eighteen 
Benedictions, it should be referred to in the future tense, 
' Who wilt redeem,' etc., should refer to the future, not 
to the past. In the prayer for redemption, the sentence 
* He causeth to sprout the foundation of help,' should be 
said and the benediction pronounced after the recital of 
the Haphtorah (the Prophets) which should be concluded 
after the blessing for the redemption with the ' Shield of 

" A third cup is then poured out, and the benediction 
after meals is said. After pouring out the fourth cup, 
the Hallel should be concluded over it, and the blessings 
on the songs of praise be said. A person may drink as 
nuich as he chooses between the second and third cup, 
l.)ut not between the third and fourth. On the fourth 
cap the Hallel is concluded, and the great Hallel should 
also be recited thereon. 

" If it is necessary to recite the great Hallel why must 
the small Hallel be recited at the Passover-meal? Because 
the small Hallel contains the following live things; the 
exodus from Egypt, the dividing of the Red Sea, the 
giving of the Law to the Israelites, the resurrection of 
the dead, and the sufferings of the Messiah. The small 
Hallel is recited for another reason, namely because it 
contains prayers for the transporting of the souls of the 

^ Psalm cxii. 9. * Psalm cxii. 5. ' Psalm cxiv. 1. 


just from Gehenna (purgatory, not hell of the damned) 
to heaven as it is written ; " O Lord, deliver my souL" ' 

" After the meal and the beverages will have been con- 
sumed, the Lord will hand the chalice used for the bene- 
diction after meals to Abraham, and Abraham will say : 
' I am not worthy, for from me issued Ishmael " God 
is hearing " ; Isaac " Laughter," will then be asked to 
pronounce the benediction, but he will refuse on the 
ground that from him issued Esau, " hirsute, hairy " ; 
Jacob, " The Supplanter " will then be offered the chalice, 
but he will refuse on the ground that he married two 
sisters, which was afterwards prohibited by law. Moses 
"Drawer out" will then be requested to say the bene- 
diction, but he will refuse on the ground that he was not 
destined to enter the Promised Land, neither before nor 
after his death ; Josue (in Greek Jesus, " Jehovah will 
save ") will then be asked to accept the chalice, and he 
will also refuse saying : " I am not worthy, for I died 
childless." David, " Beloved," will finally be offered the 
chalice, and he will accept it saying, ' I am indeed worthy 
and shall recite the benediction,' as it is written,' ' T will 
take the chalice of salvation, and I will call upon the 
name of the Lord.' " 

The Talmud has " The cup of salvation will I lift up." 
The David given here is not King David, who seduced 
Uriah's wife, killed her husband, a man of blood and 
battle all his life, whom God would not let build the 
Temple, that honor being reserved for his son Solomon. 
The David, innocent according to God's own heart, was 
the Messiah, who at the Passover or Last Supper took 
his fourth chalice in his holy and venerable hands with 
these words, and consecrated it into his own Blood.^ 

" It is unlawful to conclude the eating of the paschal 
sacrifice with a dessert. The paschal offering after the 
hour of midnight renders the hands unclean. Sacrifices 
which are rejected, or that have remained beyond their 
prescribed time also render the hands unclean: " 

(See the book Pesachem, Passover of the Babylonian 
Talmud, which then closes with a few unimportant expla- 

The Tract, Yomah, " Day of Atonement," has as an Ap- 

1 Psalm cxiv. 4! ^ Psalm cxv. 13, ' Babyl. Talmud, x. p. 250. 


pendix the following letter written by Marcus Ambivius, 
third Roman consul of Syria, whose headquarters were 
at Csesarea. The fourth consul of Judea was Annius, 
the fifth Valerius Gratus, the sixth was Pontius Pilate, 
who was appointed in the year B. C. 25 ; the first impor- 
tant act of his administration being to move his head- 
quarters from from Caesarea to Jerusalem/ The scenes 
thereforefore here described took place about the time 
Christ was born, 


(Appendix to Tract Yomah, " Day of Atonement.") 

" Concerning the service at the Temple, these Jews were 
reluctant to inform me about it, as they declared it was 
against their law to inform a Gentile about their manner 
of serving God. They enlightened me about two sub- 
jects only, part of which I saw with my own eyes, and 
was greatly rejoiced thereat. One was the sacrifice, 
which they brought on the feast they call Passover ; and 
the second is the entrance of the high priest, whom we 
call sacerdos major, into the Temple, on the day which to 
them, in regard to holiness, purity and strengthening 
of the soul, is the most important of all the days in the 

" The Passover sacrifice which I have partly witnessed 
as also I was told, the entire ceremony takes place in the 
following manner. When the beginning of the month, 
which they call Nisan approached, by the command of 
the king and the judges, swift messengers visited every 
one in the vicinity of Jerusalem, who owned flocks of 
sheep and herds of cattle, and ordered him to hasten to 
Jerusalem with them, in order that the pilgrims miglit 
have sufficient animals for sacrifice and food ; for the 
people were then very numerous, and whoever did not 
present himself at the appointed time, his possessions 
were confiscated for the benefit of the Temple. Conse- 
quently all owners of flocks and droves came hastily on, 
and brought them to a creek near Jerusalem, and washed 

^ See Josephus, Antiq. xiv. xi. ; 1, Wars, i x etc. 


and cleaned them of all dirt. The)^ believe that in regard 
to that Solomon said : " As flocks of sheep that are 
shorn, which come up from the washing, all with twins." ' 

" When they arrived at the mountains which surround 
Jerusalem, the multitude was so great that the grass was 
not seen any longer, as everything was turned white by 
reason of the white color of the wool. When the tenth 
day approached — as on the fourteenth day of the month 
the sacrifice was brought, every one went out to buy his 
paschal lamb. And the Jews made an ordinance that 
when going forth on that mission, nobody should say to 
his neighbor : ' Step aside,' or : ' Let me pass,' even, if 
the one behind was king Solomon or David. When I re- 
marked to the priests that this was not seemly or polite, 
they made answer that it was so ordered to show that 
before the eyes of God, not even at the time of preparing 
to serve Him, more especially at the service itself — at 
that time all were equal in receiving His goodness. 

" When the fourteenth day of the month arrived, they 
all went to the highest tower of the Temple, which the 
Hebrews call Lul, and the stairway of which was made 
like those in our temple towers, and held three silver 
trumpets in their hands, with which they blew. After 
the blowing they proclaimed the following : 

" * People of God, listen : The time for sacrificing the 
paschal lamb has arrived. In the name of Him who rests 
in the great and holy house.' 

" As the people heard the proclamation, they donned 
their holiday attire, for since midday it was a holiday for 
the Jews, being the time for sacrifice. 

" At the entrance of the great hall on the outside stood 
twelve Levites with silver staves in their hands, and 
within twelve with gold staves in their hands. The 
duties of those on the outside were to direct and warn 
the incoming people not to injure one another in their 
great haste, and not to press forward in the crowd, to 
prevent quarrels ; as it previously happened on one of the 
feasts of Passover, that an old man with his sacrifice was 
crushed in consequence of the great rush. Those on the 
inside had to preserve order among the outgoing people, 
that they should not crush each other. They were also 

» Cant, of Cant., iv. 3. 


to close the gates of the court, when they saw that it was 
already full to its capacity. 

" When they reached the slaughtering place, rows of 
priests stood with gold and silver chalices in their hands: 
one row had all gold chalices, and another row had silver 
chalices. This was done to display the glory and splen- 
dor of the place. Every priest who stood at the head of 
the row received a chalice full of the sprinkling blood. 
He passed it to his neighbor, and he to his until the 
altar was reached. And the priest who stood next the 
altar returned the chalice empty, and it went back in the 
same manner, so that every priest received a full chalice 
and returned an empty one. 

" And there occurred no manner of disturbance, as they 
Avere used so to the service, that the bowls seemed to 
fly back and forth as arrows in the hand of a hero. For 
thirty days previous they practised that service, and 
therefore found out the place where there was a possi- 
bility that a mistake or a mishap might occur. There 
were also two tall pillars on which stood two priests with 
silver trumpets in their hands, who blew when each divis- 
ion began the sacrifice, in order to give warning to the 
priests, who stood on their eminence to begin the Hallel, 
amid jubilee and thanksgiving, and accompanied by all 
their musical instruments. The sacrificer also prayed 
the Hallel. If the sacrifice was not ended the Hallel was 

" After the sacrifices, they went into the halls, where 
the pillars were full of iron hooks and forks, the sac- 
rifices were hung upon them and skinned. There were 
also many bundles and sticks. For when there were no 
more empty hooks, they put a stick on the shoulders of 
two of their number, hung the sacrifice upon it, skinned 
it, and went away rejoicing, as one who went to war and 
returned victorious. 

" The one that did not bring the paschal lamb at the 
appointed time, was eternally disgraced. During the 
service the priests were dressed in scarlet, that the 
blood, which might accidentally be spilled on them, 
should not be noticed. The garment was short, reaching 
only to the ankle. The priests stood barefooted, and the 
sleeves reached only the arms, so they should not be dis- 


turbed during the service. On their heads they had a 
miter, around which was tied a three-ell-long band, but 
the high priest, as they told me, had a band which he 
could tie around his miter forty times. His was white. 

" The ovens, in which they roasted the paschal lambs, 
were before their doors, in order, as they told me, to pub- 
lish their religious ceremonies, as also on account of the 
festival joys. After the roast, they ate amid jubilee, 
songs and thanksgiving, so that their voices were heard 
afar. No gate of Jerusalem was closed during Passover 
night, because of those who were constantly coming and 
going, who were considerable in number. The Jews also 
told me that on the Feast of the Passover the number of 
those present was double that which went out of Egypt, 
for they wished to acquaint the king with the number. 

"The second service was the entrance of the high 
priest into the sanctuary. Of the service itself they did 
not tell me, but of the procession to and from the Temple. 
Some of it I have also seen with my own eyes, and it sur- 
prised me greatly so that I exclaimed, ' Blessed be He who 
imparts His glory to His nation.' 

" Seven days before that day, which they call Atone- 
ment Day, and which is the most important in the entire 
year, they prepare at the house of the high priest a place, 
and chairs for the chief of the courts, the Nassi (in 
Hebrew, " the Prince "), the high priest, or his substitute 
(the Sagan), and for the king, and besides these, also sev- 
enty silver chairs for the seventy members of the San- 
hedrin. The oldest of the priests got up and delivered 
an oration before the high priest, full of earnest entreaty. 
He said : 

" * Bethink thyself before whom thou enterest, and know 
that if thou wilt lose the devotion of thy mind, thou 
wilt at once drop down dead, and the forgiveness of the 
Israelites will come to naught. Behold, the eyes of all 
Israelites are turned upon thee. Investigate thy deeds. 
Perchance thou hast committed some slight sin. For 
there are sins which equal in weight many good deeds, 
and only Almighty God knows the weight thereof. In- 
vestigate also the deeds of the priests, thy brothers in 
office, and have them repent. Take it to heart that thou 
art to appear before the King of all kings, who sits upon 


the throne of judgment, who sees everything. How 
darest thou appear when thou hast the enemy within 

" The high priest then makes answer, that he has 
already investigated himself, and has repented ail that 
seemed to him sinful, that he has also already assembled 
all the priests, his brother officers in the Temple, and by 
Him whose name rests there, conjured them that each 
one should confess the transgressions of his brother 
officers, as well as his own, and that he prescribed for 
each transgression a corresponding penance. The king 
also spoke to him kindly, and promised to shower on him 
honors, when he should safely come out of the sanctuary. 
After that, it was publicly proclaimed that the high priest 
was about to take possession of his room in the Temple. 

" Whereupon the people made ready to accompany 
him and march before him in the following order, which 
I witnessed myself. First went those who traced their 
ancestry to the kings of Israel, then those who were 
nearer in the priesthood, then followed those who were 
of the kingly house of David, and, indeed, in the most 
perfect order, one after the other, and before them was 
exclaimed : ' Give honor to the family of David.' Then 
followed the Levites, before whom it was exclaimed, 
'Give honor to the family of Levi.' Their number 
amounted to 36,000. At this time the substitute Levites 
donned violet silk garments, but the 'priests, 24,000 
strong, vested in white silk garments. 

" Then followed the singers, the nmsicians, the trum- 
peters, then the closers of the gates, the preparers of the 
incense, the preparers of the holy veils, the watchers, the 
masters of the treasury, and then a band, which was 
called Chartophylax, then all who were employed at the 
Temple, then the seventy members of the Sanhedrin, then 
a hundred priests with silver staves in their hands to 
make room, then the high priest, and behind him the 
older priests in pairs. 

" At the corner of every street stood the heads of col- 
leges, who spoke to him thus : ' High priest, enter in 
peace. Pray to our Creator for our preservation, so that 
we may occupy ourselves with the study of his Law. ' 

" When the procession reached the mount of the Tern- 


pie, they halted, and prayed for the preservation of the 
members of the house of David, then for the priests, and 
the Temple, whereat the Amen exclamation, because of 
the great crowd, was so loud that the birds overhead 
fluttered to the ground. 

" After that the high priest bowed before the entire 
people very respectfully, and, weeping, separated himself 
from them all, and two substitute priests led him into 
his room, where he took leave of all the priests, his 
brothers in office. 

" All that took place at the procession to the Temple. 
But at the procession from the Temple (after the whole 
ceremony was finished seven days later), his honor was 
double, for the entire population of Jerusalem marched 
before him, and most of them with burning candles of 
white wax, and all attired in white. All windows were 
draped in varicolored kerchiefs, and were lighted daz- 
zingly, and, as the priests told me, the high priest during 
many years, because of the great crowds and rush, could 
not reach his house before midnight, for although they 
all fasted, nevertheless they did not go home before they 
convinced themselves whether they could kiss his hand. 

" On the following day he prepared a great feast, to 
which he invited his friends and relatives, and made that 
day a holiday, because of his safe return from the sanct- 
uary. After that he caused a goldsmith to make a gold 
tablet, with the following inscription engraved on it : ' I, 
so and so, the high priest, son of so and so, and in the 
great and holy Temple, in the service of Him who rests 
his name there, in the year of creation so and so. May 
He who favored me with the performance of that service, 
favor also my son after me to perform the service before 
the Lord.' " 


The Passover and feast of uiileaven bread were inter- 
mingled, woven one into the other to foretell that the 
crucifixion and the Last Supper — Christ's Passion and 
the Mass, were to be not two but one and the same identi- 
cal Sacrifice.' The first day of the feast they held the 
Passover Supper, the feast of unleaven bread lasted for a 
week, from the evening of the fourteenth moon to the 
evening of the twenty -first. The last day was the octave 
of the Passover and closed the series of feasts with a 
great banquet. This gave rise to the octaves of our 
Church feasts. 

The whole week was called the Passover. Each night 
they held a feast called the Chagigah. This was the rea- 
son they would not enter Pilate's hall : " that they might 
not be defiled, but that they might eat the pasch." ^ 

The Jews, divided into bands of not less than ten nor 
more than twenty men, held these feasts during this 
week; each evening they ended the day with a great ban- 
quet, the most celebrated being held in the Cenacle. 
" The Banquet Chamber." They called these banquets, 
mishteh, or shatha, " to drink," because wine was the 
chief beverage. In former times it was named " yayin," 
*' wine " or " grape juice." ^ 

The feasts of this week were celebrated from the dayj^ 
of Moses. Jesus son of Sirach in his advice to a ruler, 
writing more than two hundred years before Christ, 
mentions, " the crown " the presiding elder wore at the 
table, " the concert of music in a banquet of wine," " the 
signet ring of gold worn on the finger," " the melody of 
music and moderate wine," " in the company of great 
men," " when the ancients are present." * Now let us see 

1 See Ltike xxii. 1 ; Mark xiv. 12. 2 John xviii. 28 ; Levit. xxiii. &-6. » Cant- 
of Cant. ii. 4 ; Eccle. 32, etc. ^ Eccle. 32, etc. 



these banquets, for the details tell us how the Last Supper 
was held. 

In memory of their father's delivery from Egyptian 
slavery at the Passover, they used to demand the libera- 
tion of a prisoner condemned to death. ^ The Talmud 
alludes to this ancient custom, which even prevailed 
among the Romans.^ The Gospel history enshrined 
forever in human hearts the incident when the Jews 
asked Pilate to deliver to them a criminal in place 
of the Lord that fatal Friday of the crucifixion the second 
day of the Passover. Many ancient MSS. of the Gospel,'^ 
supported by the Armenian version, cited by Origen,* 
held by Tischendorf in his second edition, but rejected 
later, states that this robber's name was Jesus Barabbas. 
Therefore this was the question Pilate asked : " Whom 
will you that I release to you, Jesus Barabbas or Jesus 
w^ho is called Christ?"^ 

The Passover celebrated the first night and the feast 
of unleaven bread held each night after during the week,^ 
were emblematic of the Church, the Messiah's kingdom, 
and the Eucharist.® In Christ's time the Rabbis prom- 
ised their followers, that they would pass entire eternity 
eating at " the Lord's table," thus they understood the 
prophecies of the Eucharist. 

During the nights of this week synagogues and houses 
where they celebrate the feasts were illuminated with 
terra cotta lamps and torches ; and had beeswax candles 
on the table. The Temple Courts were brilliantly lighted 
up, the seven-branched candlestick, quenched during 
other nights, burned all night in the Holies, and the 
Temple gates were left opened. 

At that epoch the streets had no lamps and outside the 
houses there was exterior darkness and gnashing of teeth, 
image of hell, for those under kareth, " cut off " — be- 
cause of sin or uncleanness.^ 

The second evening took place the ceremony of the 
Omer, the sheaf of barley foretelling Christ's arrest.® In 
Palestine, Arabia, California, and desert regions, grain is 

* Matt, xxvil. 15; Luke xxiii. 17; John xvlii. 39. * Livy, v. 13. Pesachim, 

• viii. 6. » Matt, xxvii. ]?. ♦On Matt. v. 35. ^ Geikie, Life of Christ, i. 190, 204, 

and ii. 434, etc. « Luke vii. 32-39 ; xiii. 25. 26-39. ^ Prov, ix. 2 ; Amos. vi. 4 ; 

Isaias v. 12 ; Matt. xxvi. 20, 26 ; Luke vii. 46-49 ; John xii. 2. c Geikie, Life of 

Christ, i. 201 ; Edersheiin, Life of Christ, ii. ; 205-210, etc. 


sowed in the fall, grows during the winter rains and is 
reaped in the spring. Therefore God commanded them 
to offer the barley sheaf, the Omer, in the Temple before 
they began the harvest. The Omer was the " first-fruit," 
of the harvest. 

" And the Lord spoke to Moses saying . . . When you 
shall have entered into the land which I will give you 
and shall reap your corn, you shall bring sheaves of ears, 
the first fruits of your harvest to the priests." ^ Down 
their history from Moses, additions Avere made to that 
yearly Passover ceremony, so that in Christ's time it had 
become an elaborate rite,^ for it foretold first-fruit of 
mankind, Jesus Christ, offered to his Eternal Father. 

The " morrow after the Sabbath," ^ the day of the cru- 
cifixion, all the Temple priests were so engaged in that 
ceremony they did not oppose Joseph's request for Pilate 
to give him Jesus' dead body hanging on the cross. 

Josephus* and other Jewish writers show the rite took 
place after sundown on the evening of the fifteenth of 
Nisan, the day Christ died. The evening of the four- 
teenth, the day Christ was arrested, delegates from the 
Temple went down into the Cedron valley, just to the 
north of Gethsemane, to the very spot where Christ was 
arrested, carrying money from the Temple treasury, the 
Corban, as they took money from the same Corban which 
they gave to Judas. To the owner of the field they gave 
the thirty pieces of silver for the standing barley, which 
they tied still standing in the very place where they tied 
Jesus' hands. 

The time for cutting the sheaf was next day, the fif- 
teenth day of Abib, while Jesus' body hung in death. 
Even if the day fell on the Sabbath, the ceremony was 
carried out. As the westering sun was setting a noisy 
band of Temple guards and Levites led by priests and 
Pharisees — the very men who the day before had arrested 
the Lord, went out the Sheep Gate, and down into the 
Cedron valley just east of the Temple walls. The rabble 
of the town and loafers followed them each year as they 
did that fatal night of Christ's arrest. 

Only after sunset could they cut the barley, for at 

1 Levit, xxiii. 10. ' Levit. xxiii. 14. ^ Levit. xxiii. 11. * Antiq. iii, 10, 5, G ; 
Philo. Op. ii. 294. 


night they arrested the Saviour. Not wlieat, but barley, 
could they cut, for the Inferior grain foretold the Lord 
that night with the sins of mankind on him in his Pas- 
sion. They gathered round the tied standing sheaf as 
they had surrounded Christ. No Psalm was sung, no 
prayer was said, while they waited for the setting sun, for 
it foretold that covenant with hell they made with Judas,' 
for the betrayal of the Master on the very same spot. 

Three times the leader asked the bystanders, " Has the 
sun set yet ? " Thrice they replied, " Yes, it has set." 
Three times he repeated " Shall I reap with this sickle ? " 
to which they answered thrice, " Yes." Three times he 
says : " Into this basket ? " and to each they reply " Yes." 
Again three times he asks, " On this Sabbath " or " Day 
of the Passover ? " and to each question they shout 
" Yes." Lastly he inquires, " Shall I reap ? " and they 
yell " Yes." 

Then they cut the tied sheaves of standing barley, 
enough to fill an ephah, three seahs, ten omers nearly half a 
bushel. Across the bridge spanning the Cedron, over which 
they used to lead each animal for sacrifice, across which 
they led Christ tied the night they arrested Him, they 
brought the tied sheaves of barley, which they delivered to 
the priests in the Temple, as they delivered up Christ to 
the priests that historic night. 

The priests stretched their hands over the barley with 
prayer, putting their sins on it as they used to do over 
the victims, then they offered it to the Lord by " wav- 
ing." That is, they raised it on high, and moved it to 
the four points of the compass making a cross, for it fore- 
told the Victim of the cross bearing mankind's sins. 

The Temple servants thrash the grain with rods as 
the Lord was scourged, till the grain separates from the 
chaff as the Saviour was stripped of his garments. 

In a pan perforated with many holes, they parch the 
grain, as the Redeemer was filled with the fire of the 
Holy Spirit. They ground the grain as the body of Christ 
was broken, they pass the flour through thirteen sieves, 
each finer than the other, one of the Cizbarim " Treas- 
urers," plunging in his hands during the sifting as long 
any flour adhered.^ Of the ten omers only one now 

^ Isaias zxviii. 18. ' Meu. vi. 6, 7, 


remained, a little more than two quarts of fine barley 

This they mix with about a pint of olive oil, and a 
handful of incense, foretelling the Messiah anointed by 
the Holy Ghost, praying for mankind during his life and 
Passion, and his body prepared for the grave with in- 
cense, a handful of the flour thus prepared they burned on 
the great sacrificial altar, to show that the Omer was 
united with all the victims there sacrificed. 

This yearly ceremonial of their fathers they called " the 
presentation of the first wave-sheaf." The harvest 
could not be begun before this ceremou}'. From it the}'' 
counted all their movable feasts and fasts as now in the 
Church we count the movable feasts from Easter. The 
Jews of our day still follow the practice. The Jewish 
Prayer Book counts each day from the Omer till Pente- 
cost. But since the destruction of Jerusalem they do not 
hold the ceremony of the presentation of the Omer.* 

" On the same day that the sheaf is consecrated, a lamb, 
without blemish shall be killed for a holocaust of the Lord, 
and the libations shall be offered with it, two tenths of 
flour tempered with oil, for a burnt offering to the Lord, 
and a most sweet odor ; libations also of wine, the fourth 
part of a hin."^ Thus the Omer foretelling Christ's 
death, the sacrificed lamb, the bread and wine of the Last 
Supper were offered, and linked together tabernacle, 
Temple, Crucifixion, Passover and the Mass. 

The last days of the feast of unleaven bread were called 
Moed Katon, "Minor Festivals," and the Talmud lays 
down many regulations relating to them.^ In the time of 
Christ they were also called the Chagigah " Festival," 
from the Hebrew Chag, " to dance," because of the 
ceremonies ; not realizing the sacredness of the feast, some- 
times dancing girls exhibited before the guests, as did 
Herodias before Herod and his guests when she asked 
the head of John the Baptist.* 

Many Scripture texts mention these banquets, over 
which they were to sound the trumpet ; ^ the eatables 
were to be bought with money received for tithes sold ; ^ 

^ See Zanolini, De Festis, Judaeorum, c. 4 ; Jewish Prayer Book. etc. - Levit. 
xxiii. 12, 13. * Talmud, Mishna, Mo«d Knroii. * Matt. xiv. 8. See Migne, iii. 
850-855 ; xxiii. 1024, 928, etc. ^ Numb. x. 10. « Deut. xiv. S5. 26. 


they were to be eaten before the Shekina dwelling in the 
Temple.^ The word translated " Lord " in the text is 
Shekina in the original Hebrew. 

Under the pious king Ezechias, the Levites banqueted 
during the seven days of Passover \'^ " immolating victims 
of peace offerings, and praising the Lord, the God of their 
fathers " with sacrifices mentioned in the law.' Onkelos 
understands here the paschal lamb.* The good Ezechias 
and his princes gave the people at this great Passover 
2,000 bullocks, 17,000 sheep. At another Passover Josias 
gave, besides the lamb " for the Passover offerings, 3.000 
oxen," foretelling rulers, princes and wealthy families 
supporting the Church in Christian times. 

These passages tell us that the Chagigah, or last days 
of the Passover, were celebrated with great and holy 
solemnity. If the fifteenth day fell on the Sabbath the 
lamb might be sacrificed, but not the other victims, for 
they were killed on the day before so as not to break the 
Sabbath's solemn rest.^ 

These victims for the Chagigah might be roasted or 
boiled.'^ The lamb, foretelling Christ crucified, was 
always roasted, the Law forbade it to be boiled." " And 
they roasted the phase with fire, according to that which 
is written in the law, but the victims of peace-offerings 
they boiled in chaldrons, and kettles, and pots, and they 
distributed them speedily among all the people.'"^ 

The remaining days of Passover week they celebrated 
as solemn feasts. Each day they sacrificed special offer- 
ings.® After the morning sacrifices had been offered in 
the Temple,^ private individuals, heads of families or chiefs 
of tribes brought victims, male or female, without spot 
or blemish, laid their hands on their heads, putting on them 
their sins, and the sins of the family or tribe. Then the 
offerer killed the victim and gave the blood to the priests 
• to be splashed on the altar. Such private offerings might 
be sacrificed any day in the Temple for private devotions 
on any day of the year, but during this Easter week, 
victims with bread and wine were offered with greater 
devotion. They foretold the stipends and offerings now 

» Dent. xiv. 23. 34. « ix Par. xxx. 22. ^ Deut. xvi, 2 ♦ II. Par. xxxv. 6, 7, 8. 
« Pesach., iv. 4, x. 8. « II. Par. xxxv. IS. ' Exod. xii, « Numb, xvlli. 16 to 
end; Levit, xxiji. 8. "^ Numb, xviii. 17 to end. 


given the clergy for Masses for the living and the dead, 
a custom coming down from apostolic times. 

The victim's blood was sprinkled on the horns of the 
altar, but the tail, fat, and kidneys, were burned on the 
altar. The breast was given the priest who "waved" 
it, offering it to God in the form of a cross, with the 
right shoulder as a heave-offering.^ What remained of 
the victim was given the offerer, who with his guests 
formed a feast and they ate them that day or the day 
following. If any part remained till the third day it was 

Ilebrewc filled with devotion for their religion and 
Temple, copied from Moses' ceremonial, and their banquets 
were always saturated with religion. To the south of the 
great Temple altar was the great bronze laver resting on 
twelve brazen oxen. In it priests bathed the whole body 
before taking part in the services. They had besides 
many bathrooms in the Temple. Before they celebrated 
the Passover, each one bathed the whole body, as he 
plunged into the water, saying : 

" Let it be thy will, O God, my Lord, that thou causest 
me to come in and go out in peace, tliat thou causest me 
to return to my place in peace, and save me from this and 
from like danger in this world and in tlie world to come.""* 

Priest, Levite and people coming into the Temple to 
take part in its grand ceremonial, must bathe and be clean 
as becomes one in the presence of their King. It was a 
figure of baptism, which was to come and wash men's 
souls from sin. This was the origin of the holy water at 
the doors of our churches. At every Moslem mosque you 
will find people bathing their feet before entering the 
edifice, a custom coming from the Temple. 

The Jews at the time of Christ were noted for their 
feasts.* They used to invite their relatives and friends 
and divide into bands of not less than ten or more than 
twenty persons, for this was the number in the bands at 
Passover. Men and women did not feast together. The 
lady of the house invited her female friends, and with 
them held a feast, but the men did not take part with 
them. The separation of the sexes is still carried out in 

1 Levit. iii. 1-5 ; vii. 29-34. 2 ^evit. vii. 17, 18 ; Pesach., vi. 4. » Talmud, Day 
of Atonement. * Migne, Cursus Comp., S. Tlieologise v. 2, p. 117. 


the Orient. A wealthy Christian of Bethlehem gave a 
dinner in honor of the writer which lasted more than two 
hours, but not a female of the household was seen. 

The father of the family, or the master of the house, in 
the time of Christ received each invited guest at the door 
with the word Salama ; '' Peace," or " Peace be with this 
house," to which the guest replied : " May your heart be 
enlarged." This was the Marahaba of the Hebrews, the 
Alaic of the Talmud, the Oriental greeting of friends. It 
is still seen in the Roman Ritual. 

Laying their shoes, or sandals, at the door, the guests 
went barefoot in the house. Before they reclined at the 
table, servants or the master of the house washed their 
feet. The custom came down from the patriarchs. 

Abraham washed the feet of the three angels who 
visited him in his tent.^ Laban prepared water to wash 
Eleazar's feet, when he came into Mesopotamia seeking a 
wife for Isaac.^ Joseph's steward brought water to wash 
the feet of Jacob's eleven sons, when they came back to 
his house after finding the money in their sacks.^ Abigal 
asked of David only the privilege of washing his servants' 
feet.* David told Urias to go into his house and wash his 
feet as a preparation for supper and bed.^ When Tobias 
went to wash his feet, a fish came to devour him.® Job 
washed his feet with butter.^ The Spouse, speaking to 
the Church, says of the night of the Last Supper. " I 
have put off my garment. How shall I put it on? I 
have washed my feet, how shall I defile them ? " ^ 

In rich families servants performed this service, among 
the middle classes sons and daughters did it, but if he 
wished to show special honors to his visitors, the father 
washed their feet. Being a servant's work, we under- 
stand how Christ took a towel, girded himself with it, and 
went from one to another washing the disciples' feet with 
water in a basin. Peter could not understand why the 
Master would do a servant's work, protested and was 
told to obey, or his refusal would lose for him his call 
to the apostolate. All had taken a bath, as was the cus- 
tom before celebrating the Passover, their feet Avere soiled 
walking over the floor, and Christ said: "He that is 

1 Gen. xviii. 4. 2 Qen. xxiv. 32. * Gen. xliii. 24. * I. Kings xxv. 41. * H. 
Kings xi, 8. * Tobias vi, 2, ^ Job xxix. G, ^ Cant. of Cant. v. 3. 


washed needeth but to wash his feet but is clean 

Cleanness of body signified the soul washed from sin. 
All Avere innocent but Judas, Caiphas' nephew, who had 
all along acted as a spy for Temple priests, secretly re- 
ceived money from them for his promise of betrayal, and 
Jesus said: " And you are clean, but not all." For he 
knew who he was that would betray him, therefore he 
said: "You are not all clean.'" Before sitting at the 
table, they washed their hands, for they dipped them 
into the dishes to grasp the morsels of food. 

The master with a large knife carved the meat, handing 
to each his portion, a custom still followed till our day. 
The knife was often like a lance, and gave rise to our 
carving knife. There was no other knife on the table. 
Table knives were introduced in the tenth centurj^, and 
the fork later. Stools were introduced in Charlemagne's 
day, in the middle ages backs were added so they became 
chairs. At ordinary meals the people sat on the floor 
around the table, their liml^ curled under them. But at 
formal feasts they reclined on couches." 

Many waiters served guests in rich houses, but among 
the poor, wives and daughters cooked the food and waited 
on the table. Sarah and her servants prepared the meal 
and waited on the angels who visited Abraham. Samuel 
warned the Hebrews that if they insisted on having a 
king, in place of God who was then their Ruler, he would 
take their daughters to make his ointments, and serve as 
cooks in his kitchen^ as servants served in Pharaoh's 
palace as eunuchs, butlers and bakers.* 

The master of the feast, called the architriclinus, 
" master of three beds," on whioli they reclined, served 
the guests like the carver of our day. When there were 
many tables, each had a master or carver who })resided. 
When Joseph gave a dinner in honor of his brothers,^ he 
sat at a separate table, because he ^vas Pharao's prime 
minister, and had to uphold his dignity. The food Avas 
placed first before Joseph, who served it to his brothers. 
When Elcana with his two wives Avent up to the Lord's 
tabernacle to adore, and following the custom, he held a 

» John xiii. 11. * See Mipne, Cursus Com . £ Scripturse ii, 1170. =• 1 Kicgi 
viii. 13. *Gen. xl. ]. * Gen. xliii. 32. 


family feast, he waited on the table, giving to the mem- 
bers of his family their portions, but that of his wife 
Anna he gave with sorrow, for she was childless.^ Later 
she brought forth Samuel the great prophet. 

Homer tells us the Greeks had each a table and the 
master served the guests. Banquets of Persian kings 
were elaborate ; tables were placed along the sides of the 
great court, around which the palace was built, or in the 
" Hall of a Hundred Columns," of which the ruins still 
stand on the great platform of Persepolis. 

Sweetest of the meats was the flesh of the kid, and this 
was why Rebecca told Jacob to kill a kid, when he 
received his dying father's blessing. Jacob's words were 
not a lie, but a mystery, as St. Augustine explains. Covered 
with the kid-skin he typified the scapegoat with the 
sins of Israel, and foretold Christ with the sins of man- 
kind on him in his Passion. Jacob did not lie to his dying 
father Isaac, for he had bought the right of the first- 
born from his brother Esau, and beautifully the great 
Fathers explain the whole action relating to the Church 
and to Christ — they were prophecies in each action. 

Solomon's feasts were famous. Each day saw laid on 
his table thirty measures of fine flour, sixty measures of 
meal, thirty fat cattle, a hundred rams, besides harts, 
roes, fowls, etc., with products of the hunt.' David gave 
to the Israelites each a cake, and a piece of roasted meat 
when they came up to Jerusalem, while the ark remained 
in his house before the Temple was built.^ 

When Isaac blessed Jacob, when man and wife were 
reconciled, when David ate with Saul, and when the pro- 
phet dined with Jeroboam they sat on the ground, at a 
low table, their limbs curled up under them in Oriental 
fashion, and this was the way the common people ate in 
Christ's time. In days of the kings the master at the 
table sat on a little stool * as a mark of honor. This was 
the primitive way of eating among all nations. During 
the heroic age in Greece, they sat at the table.^ Ruined 
walls of Korsabad, Nineve, Calne, etc., show kings sitting 
on high chairs at table. 

In course of time, kings and nobles introduced the 

» I. Kings i. 4-5. » III. Kings iv. 22, 23. » II. Kings vi, 19. ♦ IV. Kings, iv. 10, 
•Homer, II., x. 578; Od. i. 145. 


couch, on which they reclined when eating. It is first 
found in the prophet's words ; " You that sleep on beds of 
ivory, and are wanton on your couches." ' " Thou satest 
on a very fine bed, and a table was decked before thee, 
whereupon thou didst set my incense and my ointment." ^ 

The table was placed in " the parlor," ^ or in a room 
called the " bed-chamber." * In Persia it was called " the 
king's chamber." ^ The Romans called it the triclinium 
" three couches," because the couches occupied three sides 
of the room with the table in the middle. 

This was the arrangement of table and couches in the 
Cenacle at the Last Supper. 

At the feasts of unleavened bread, guests were placed 
according to rank and dignity, the place of honor being at 
the head or at the cross-table, where the master of the 
feast, or architriclinus, reclined. Thus Samuel placed 
Saul at the head of the table when he invited the thirty 
men to meet the future king of Israel.^ The place was 
generally next the wall, where Saul sat on his chair of 
state, when he tried to kill his rival David.'' In the 
days of the kings they sat, but later they learned from 
Greeks or Romans to recline at the table. *^ The custom 
of reclining was introduced in the days of the prophets.* 
where for the first time couches are mentioned in Holy 
Writ. Scribes and Pharisees, filled with pride, sought 
the first places at feasts '° and wanted to be leaders in all 
public places.'* 

King Assuerus with his queen Esther, and his prime 
minister Aman, reclined on couches at the banquet, and 
Avhen Aman pleaded for his life, he fell on the queen's 
couch to entreat her, and the king thought he wished to 
commit a rape on the queen and ordered him crucified.'^ 

The couches or divans were placed with their heads 
next the table and Christ and his Apostles reclined on 
their left elbows on a little cushion, and took the food 
with their right hands. The divans were so large that 
more than one could recline on each. Dear friendig re- 
clined on a couch together, often laying the head on his 
friend's breast. Thus reclining, confidences were ex- 

»Amosvi. 4. ^gzechias xxiii. 41. 'I. King ix. 22 ♦ IV. Kings ii. 2. * Esther 
ii. 13. • I. Kings ix. 22. ^ 1. Kings xx. 25. * Prov. xxiii. 1. " Amos vi. 4-6 ; 
Tobias, ii. 3; Ezech. xxiii. 41. '° Josephus, Antiq. civ., n. 9. " Luke, ii. 4a 
" Esther, vii. 8. 


changed.^ John laid his head on Jesus' breast, and the 
Lord told him in confidence that Judas was about to 
betray him.^ 

The tables formed a (J, so the servants could enter 
between, one side being open. The Lord reclined at the 
head as Master of the " band " celebrating the Passover. 
Down the outer sides of the other tables reclined the 
Apostles — six opposite to and facing the other six. The 
cross-table at which Christ was, formed the altar on which 
he offered the Eucharistic sacrifice ; called " the table of 
the Lord," it gave rise to the altar in the church in all 
Christian rites. This table was at the toe of the horse- 
shoe, and the Apostles at his right and left in the positions, 
gave rise to that custom in the early Church in which 
the celebrant faced the people when saying Mass. That 
may be seen in the position of the main altar of St. 
Peter's, Rome, standing over the body of the apostle. 
The six apostles thus at the sides of the shoe facing each 
other gave rise to the stalls of our churches and the 
arrangement of the clergy in our chancel or sanctuary. 

Washing the hands, because they were dipped into the 
dishes, became an act of religion among the Pharisees. 
" He who washes not his hands before eating is guilty of 
as great a crime as to eat pork." " He who neglects 
handwashing deserves to be punished here and here- 
after." ^ " He is to be destroyed out of the world, for in 
handwashing is contained the Ten Commandments." 
" He is guilty of death." " Three things bring poverty, 
and to slight handwashing is one of them."* "He who 
eats bread without handwashing is as if he Avent into a 
harlot." ^ " It is better to go four miles to water than to 
incur guilt by neglecting handwashing."^ "He who 
does not wash his hands after eating is as bad as a 
murderer." ^ " The devil Schulchan sits with unwashed 
hands and on the bread." ^ 

Numerous such quotations might be given to show the 
importance they placed on washing hands before meals. 
Christ and his disciples did not follow all these senseless 
Tules, and the Pharisees rebuked them. " Then came to 

» Pliny, Epist. iv. 22. « John, xiii. 23-25. » Book of Sohar, Gen. F. Ix. 2. 
«Mishna, Shabbath, 62, 1. ^ Rabbi Jose. « Talmud, Calla F. Iviii. 3. 7x^1. 
mud, Tanchuma F., Ixxiii. 2. » Joma F., Ixxvii. 2, Glos. 



him from Jerusalem Scribes and Pharisees saying. 
* Wliy do thy disciples transgress the traditions of the 
ancients ? For they wash not their hands when they eat 
bread.' " ' 

Before sitting at the table they washed their hands, a 
custom which survived the centuries. For before be- 
ginning Mass, the celebrant washes his hands in the 
vestry. As the feast i)rogressed, they washed again at 
different times ; the celebrant washes after putting wine 
and water in the chalice and again at the postcommunion. 
As food would soil the hands after the feast, they washed 
their hands at the end as the celebrant does after Mass. 

After washing hands, feet, and finishing other prepara- 
tions, they took their places at the table, each standing 
at his place. Every meal began and ended with prayers. 
The Passover opened with the synagogue prayers we will 
give later. During prayer all stood, for the Jew stood in 
Temple and synagogue when praying, the custom of kneel- 
ing coming from the example of Christ who in his agony 
knelt in the grotto.^ This is the reason Christians pray 
before and after meals standing at the table, and why the 
clergy stand at the altar while saying Mass. When they 
had taken their places at the table, the master or leader 
began thus : 

The leader. " Let us say grace. 

The others. " Blessed be the name of the Lord from 
this time forth and forever. 

The leader. " With the sanction of those present. 

The others. " Blessed be our God, he of whose bounty 
we are about to partake, and through whose goodness we 

The others. " Blessed be his name, yea, continually to 
be blessed forever and forever." 

The leader repeats the same prayer and then says dif- 
ferent prayers for different feasts. 

Before beginning to eat each dish, the master took the 
dish and offered it to the Lord, as the sacrifices were of- 
fered in the Temple. Pie raised it up as high as his eyes, 
then " waved " it to the four points of the compass, making 
with it a cross saying : " Blessed art thou, O Lord our 
God, King of the Universe, who bringeth forth," here he 

» Matt. XV. I, 2. ' Liiko xxii. 41. 


mentioned the kind of food in the dish " from the earth." 
It was the way Melchisedecli offered bread and wine, a 
Temple ceremony they were careful to observe, especially 
at the Passover. The celebrant does the same when he 
offers the bread and wine at Mass. 

The Egyptians always shaved, as the mummies of their 
dead show. When Joseph was released from prison be- 
fore he could appear before Pharao he shaved.' Herodo- 
tus says they let the beard grow while mourning, but 
shaved at all other times.'"^ They sometimes wore a false 
beard. Shaving became a religious rite among them and 
the Hebrews wore a beard as a protest against Egyptian 
and heathen superstitions, for pagan priests cut their hair 
and shaved in peculiar ways in honor of their gods, whence 
the Lord's command about " the corners of the beard " ^ 

By the lapse of ages the beard became highly honored 
among the Hebrews, and at the time of Christ all wore 
beards, a custom still seen in the Orient. S. Augustine says 
" The beard is a sign of perfection " * " Christ's beard was 
a sign of his divine power " ^ " it is a sign of manhood " * 
Jews of our day in the old countries wear long beards, 
like Arabian chiefs, as a sign of age and authority. 

Clothed in rich white robes, sometimes of cloth of gold, 
beautifully embroidered ^ they carried out these feasts 
with pomp and ceremony, and wealthy families displayed 
their riches in the decorated rooms, costly clothing,^ 
quantity of food and variety of dishes.'' Candles and 
vases of flowers were on the table which was loaded with 

From the Greeks and Romans they copied the custom 
of wearing crowns of flowers, which the prophet con- 
demns.'" They anointed the head and feet of the most 
honored guest with costly perfume, as Mary Magdalen 
did during the feast Simon the leper gave in Christ's honor 
that Sabbath evening in Bethany." 

Poems were recited, music entertained, bands of danc- 
ing girls exhibited, while speeches, riddles, jests, puns, 

* Gen. xli. 14. 2 Herodotus T. 36. » Levit. xix. 27, xxi. 5. See Mig:ne, S. 

Scripturae, ii. 1157. * Enar. in Ps. cxxxii., in xii. ° Enar. in Ps. xxxiii., Ser. ii. 
ill IV. "De Civit. Dei., L. xxii . cap. xxiv. in iv. ^ Eccl ix. 8 ; Matt. xxii. 11, 12, 
• Gen. xviii. 6; xxvii. 8-9, 43-44 ; Job xxxvi. 10. ^ Amos vi. 4-5 ; Esther i. 5-8, 
7-9. n. Esdras v, 18-24. i" Isaias xxviii. 1 ; Wisdom ii. 7. " Luke vii. 88-46 ; 
John ix. 11. 


and all kinds of amusement prevailed.^ The great pro- 
phet speaks of ornaments of " shoes," " little moons," 
" chains," " necklaces," " bracelets," " bonnets," " bodkins," 
" ornaments of the legs," " tablets," " sweet balls," " ear- 
rings," "rings," "jewels hanging on the forehead," 
" clianges of apparel," " short cloaks," " fine linen," " crisp- 
ing pins," " looking-glasses," " headbands," " fine veils," 
" sweet smell," " girdle," " curled hair," " stomacher," etc.,^ 
used at these feasts. 

Feasts lasted sometimes for a whole week, even two 
weeks.^ Weddings of virgins lasted for days and gave 
rise to wedding celebrations of our time. The engage- 
ment was very solemn, took place in the Temple, where 
the priest blessed the couple, as when Joseph and Mary 
were espoused.* 

Honey, salt, oil and butter were always used at these 
feasts. We find no record of spices, these having come 
later into the western world from India.^ Wine flowed 
in abundance. Sugar not being known, honey was used 
in its place. The mother presided over the cooking,** the 
chief dish being beef.^ In that hot climate wine was 
much diluted with water, and it was drank towards the 
end of the feast. Often it was mixed with aromatics, the 
fragrance of which filled the banquet chamber.^ Wines 
made of palm fruits called sekar, was much used, especi- 
ally among the poor, but forbidden the priests during 
their ministry.^ 

Towards the end of the banquet, a servant put live 
coals in a censer, spread incense on them, entered in be- 
tween the tables, and going from one guest to another, he 
swung the incense before their faces to honor the beard 
of each, a sign of his manhood. All stood during this in- 
censing in memory of the Temple incense and prayers 
offered there to Jehovah of their fathers, for all stood 
when praying in the Temple. This rite comes down to 
us in the ceremony of incensing clergy and people during 
a High Mass. 

^ S. Augustine mentions the abuses of Roman banquets, De Civit. L. iii. cxxi. 
Wisdom ii. 6, 8 ; II. Kings xix. 35 ; Isaias v. 12. '25-6 ; Judges xiv. 12 ; II. 
Esdras viii. 10 ; Ecolesiastes x. 19 ; Matt. xxii. 11 ; Amos vi. 5, 6 ; Luke xv. 25. 

* Isaias iii. 18-24. ' Gen. xxix. 27 ; Judges xiv. 12 ; Tobias xi. 21. * Luke i. 27. 

• Cant. vi. 5, 13. " Proverbs ix. 2, 5, etc. '' Matt. xxii. 4, * Esther v. 6. Cant, 
viii. 2. • Levit. x. 9 ; Numb. vi. 3 ; Deut- xiv. 26, etc. 


Modesty and temperance ruled according to the Lord's 
words : " And thou shalt eat before the Lord thy God, in 
the place which he shall choose, that his name may be 
called upon therein." ^ The word here given as " Lord " 
in the original Hebrew is Shekina : " the Holy Pres- 

They sent from the table food for the poor, following 
the Lord's directions. " There will not be wanting poor 
in the land of thy habitation, therefore, I command thee 
to open thy hand to thy needy and poor brother." ^ 

Filled with religious feeling, governed by strict rules, 
these feasts were types or figures of the great Passover 
feast. Talmudic writers tell us no other food placed on 
the table was honored as the bread. This bread was not 
mixed with any other food, nor thrown into a dish, nor 
given to a dog, for it was like the bread placed before the 
Lord each Sabbath in the Temple. Baked for the Pass- 
over it was received with highest religious feelings. It 
foretold the bread used at the Mass. Following the Pass- 
over custom a cup of wine was poured out for Elias, 
John the Baptist foretold by the prophets, to come and 
prepare the way for the Messiah. 

Elias, prophetic type of Christ, was supposed to be 
at every feast ; unseen angels surrounded the table, por- 
tions were set aside for them, and at the end the frag- 
ments were carefully gathered up. After feeding five 
thousand with five loaves, Christ followed this custom, 
when he said to his disciples : " Gather up the fragments 
that remain lest they be lost." ^ 

The banquet over, carefully they laid aside the carving 
knife, and dishes, and folded the napkins, laying each 
at his plate, and all together, following the Passover 
custom, they recited Psalm Ixvi., " May God have mercy 
on us, and bless us," etc. The master purified his glass, 
or chalice of precious metal, with water, fills it with wine, 
pouring in a little water, takes the unfermented bread in 
his hands, breaks off a little piece, and hands it to each. 
Taking the chalice of wine, he drinks from it and hands 
it to every guest to drink, saying : 

The master. "Friends, let us bless Him of whose 
goodness we have eaten." 

1 Deut. xiv. 23. 2 Deut. xv. 11. ' John vi. 13. 


The others. " Blessed be He who hath filled us with 
his gifts and in whose goodness we live." 

After all have partaken of it the master drinks what 
remains in his chalice and says a long prayer which 
differed for each feast. Then rising from the table, they 
wash their hands, giving thanks to God who feeds all 
aninials and men, who brought their fathers from Egypt 
into Palestine and made the covenant with them to be 
his people. St. Jerome says they asked the Lord to send 
Elias to prepare the way for the long-looked for Messiah, 
to restore David's dynasty and receive them all at the 
heavenly banquet in the skies, etc. 

After the feast, what was left was given to the children, 
servants, and the poor. These leavings were called 
" crumbs which fell from the table." Thus Adonibezec 
gloried that " seventy kings with fingers and toes cut 
oft' gathered up the leavings of his table." ' Christ and 
the Canaanite woman talked about the crumbs which fell 
from the table and which were given to children and 
dogs.^ Lazarus received them from Dives' table, the 
priests of Bel took them from the idol's table when they 
came by night into his temple.^ From these examples we 
learn that the table at the time of Christ was raised 
from the floor almost as high as tables in our day. 

Hebrews held certain feasts in the Temple, where they 
gathered in worship before the Lord. "And thou shall 
eat before the Lord thy God in the place which he shall 
choose, that his name may be called upon therein, the 
tithes of thy corn and thy wine, and thy oil, and the 
first-born of thy herds, and thy sheep, that thou mayest 
fear the Lord thy God at all times." * " Thou shalt 
take the first of all thy fruits, and put them in a basket, 
and shall go the place, which the Lord thy God shalt 
chose, that his name may be invoked there " etc.^ The 
Hebrew word translated here as Lord is the Shekina. 

The Jews called these " feasts of devotion." They 
held in the Temple a holy feast in the spring after the 
first fruits of farming were gathered and the tithes paid 
the priests. 

Families also held feasts in the Temple to which rela- 
tives, friends, priests, Levites and the poor were invited. 

1 Judges i, 7. ^ Matt. xv. 20. ^ Daniel xxiv. * Deut. xiv. 23. " Deut. xxvi. 3. 


Following this custom the early Christians held feasts 
they called the Agapae, from the Greek " to love," which 
were known as "love feasts " or "feasts of friendship," in 
memory of the Lord's Last Supper.^ They held these 
feasts in the churches, after evening prayers ^ and sermon. 
They first celebrated Mass, received Communion, and 
then held the feast. In that apostolic age, before 
churches were built, following Christ's example, they 
offered the Eucharistic Sacrifice in private houses, in the 
evening, fasting the whole day before receiving Com- 
munion. But some came drunk, attracted by the feast, 
and abuses rose among the people of Corinth, to whom 
St. Paul wrote : * 

" When you come together, therefore, into one place, 
it is not now to eat the Lord's Supper. For every one 
taketh before his own supper to eat, and indeed, one is 
hungry, and another is drunk. What, have you not 
houses to eat and drink in ? Or despise the Church of 
God, and put them to shame that have not? What shall I 
say to you ? Do I praise you ? In this I praise you not. 

" For I have received of the Lord, that which I also 
deliver to you, that the Lord Jesus the night in which he 
was betrayed, took bread and giving thanks broke and 
said : 

" This is my body, which shall be delivered for you. 
Do this for a commemoration of me. 

" In like manner also the chalice after he had supped 

" This chalice is the new Testament in my blood. This 
do ye as often as you shall drink it for a commemoration 
of me. 

" For as often as you shall eat this bread, or drink this 
chalice, you shall show forth the death of the Lord until 
he come. Wherefore, whosoever shall eat this bread, or 
drink this chalice unworthy, shall be guilty of the body 
and blood of the Lord. But let a man prove himself, 
and so let him eat of that bread and drink of the chalice. 
For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and 
drinketh judgment to himself, not discerning the body of 
the Lord." ^ 

' See Die Arch, et Philos. de Bible, Calmet. * Migne, Cursus Com. S. Script- 
u£e, iii. 800. ^ i. cor. xi. 20 to 29. 


Nothing could be clearer than this doctrine of the real 
presence of Christ in the Eucharist. These " Love 
Feasts " continued to be held in tlie churches for cen- 
turies. But tliey became such a source of scandal an(3 
disorders, that in A. D. 397 the council of Carthage for, 
bade them, and they fell into disuse. But the French 
with their changeless ways, and other European peoples, 
continue a shadow of them in the " Blessed Bread," they 
distribute in the church Sundays, and at some of the 
great feasts. 

Explanation of Pictures Facing Pages 217 and 317. 

These pictures show the outside and inside of the Cen- 
acle as it stands in our day, with hardly a change since 
the time of Christ. 

The stone steps leading to tlie roof are on your right, 
but were not taken in the photograph. You walk over 
the stone roof and enter the historic "Upper Chamber" 
lighted by the windows shown. 

The picture of the interior shows the Bema or Sanctuary 
closed by an iron grill. At the end of the room, to your 
right, is the stone stairway leading to the Catafalque over 
the relics of David, Solomon and the Kings. The table of 
the Last Supper stood in the middle of this room between 
the two large pillars shown. 





Christ chose the Cenacle in which to celebrate the 
Passover, because there lived, died, and were buried Mel- 
chisedech, David, Solomon and all the kings of David's 
family till the Babylonian Captivity. 

Melchisedech comes into history under this name in the 
account of the four Mesopotamian kings, who went into 
Palestine, captured Lot, Abraham's nephew, and started 
for home. Abraham roused his servants, fell on them at 
night, rescued Lot, took their spoils, and returning passed 
by Salem, as Jerusalem then was named. 

" But Melchisedech, the king of Salem, bringing forth 
bread and wine, for he was a priest of the most high God, 
blessed him and said : ' Blessed be the most high God by 
whose protection thy enemies are in thy hand.' And he 
gave him tithes of all." ' 

Here for the first time in Holy Writ we find a priest 
"of the most high God " offering the "bread and wine" 
of the Passover and Mass. Eight centuries of silence 
pass, and 1,100 years before Christ David wrote of Christ's 
priesthood : " Thou are a priest forever according to the 
order of Melchisedech." ^ Then this great pontiff-king 
appears no more, in Holy Writ, till St. Paul in his Epistle 
to the Hebrews mentions him eight times as a type of 

In patriarchal days, the chief of the tribe, or the king, 

* Gen- xiv. 18-20. ' Psalm cix. 4. ' Hebrews v. 6-10, vi. 20, vii. 1 10, 11, 15-17 



united in his person the two offices of priest and ruler. 
Abraham was a priest, and sacrificed suffering animals, for 
of his race the priests of Aaron's family were born — the 
Hebrew priests who demanded the death of Christ — as 
they had in tabernacle and Temple immolated the victims 
which foretold the crucifixion. 

But here for the first time in history, comes forth 
another order of priests, this mysterious Melchisedech 
offering bread and wine of the Last Supper and Mass. 
To him Abraham offered tithes — the tenth part of the 
fruits of his victory. Therefore Melchisedech's priest- 
hood was higher than that of Abraham ; it was to be 
eternal; it pointed to Christ's priesthood of the Last 
Supper and of the Catholic Church. The whole prophetic 
scene in that vale beside the sacred city was emblematic 
of the future. 

First dimly the bread and wine appear in patriarchal 
sacrifices, but brighter in the Temple ceremonial, and still 
clearer in the Passover. Beautifully S. Augustine ex- 
plains prophetic Noe naked in his tent after taking the 
wine, an image of Christ crucified nearly naked. Ham, 
his son, reviling him, foretold the Jewish people mocking 
the dying Lord.* To the wine his son Melchisedech added 
bread, and from that time the bread and wine were always 
offered with the bloody sacrifices of the Hebrew Temple. 

Who was Melchisedech ? Early heretics hold he was 
the Holy Spirit himself, who in human form appeared as 
the " Just King." But this is wrong. Origen, Didymus 
and others of that age say he was an angel, but this we 
cannot hold.^ 

It is certain he was a man. He was the king of Salem, 
as Jerusalem was then named, who offered bread and 
wine in sacrifice.^ Others think him one of the Canaanite 
kings, who lived a holy life amid the awful corruptions 
of that age.* 

Coming into history to bless Abraham, to receive the 
tenth part of all he had, nothing given of whence he 
came, his history, his parents, his origin and end, of him 
St. Paul says : " Without father, without mother, without 

1 S. Augustine, De Civitate Dei, L. XVI C. i. and ii. ' S. Augustine, Quest, 
in Gen. Quest. Ixxii. * Epiphauius, Heres, 5(i, St. Cyril, etc. ^ Theodorus, 
Eusebius, etc. 


genealogy, having neither beginning of days, nor end of 
life, but likened unto the Son of God, continueth a priest 
forever." ^ 

Not according to Aaron's priesthood killing countless 
animals foretelling the Redeemer's awful death, but ac- 
cording to this great high priest's order, Jesus Christ 
offered bread and wine at the Last Supper. 

Melchisedech, " King of Peace," in that Palestine where 
kings were then called Abimelech, as in Egypt they were 
named Pharaoh, and later the Ptolomies, in his innocence 
and justice he was a striking figure of Christ, spiritual 
King and High Priest of mankind. Ignatius of Antioch ^ 
and other fathers say he was a virgin, without father or 
mother, foretelling the Redeemer without mother in 
heaven, father on earth or posterity.-^ 

Many learned works on this subject give various solu- 
tions. But Oriental traditions, Jewish and Samaritan 
writers clear up the difficulty. The Targums of Pseudo- 
Jonathan and Jerusalem,* Jewish Cabalistic works,^ Rab- 
binical writers,^ Samaritans ^ of ancient time, with Luther, 
Melanchthon, Lightfoot, Selden, etc., say Melchisedech 
was the patriarch Sem, sole survivor of the flood, eldest 
son and heir of Noe, king and high priest of the world.^ 

Noe established the right of primogeniture, that the 
eldest son should succeed the father in his property, king- 
ship and priesthood, a custom coming down to our day. 
In monarchies, the eldest son sits on his father's throne, 
or becomes owner of the family estates. Of this Virgil 
sang " King Anius was indeed the king of men and the 
priest of Phebe." ^ Sem was therefore heir of Noe. 

What is the meaning of the word Melchisedech? The 
Hebrew word for king is melek^ and for justice tsaddiq^ 
the latter coming from the Babylonian sadi/k, " the just 
one," Therefore the name of this Pontiff-Founder of 
Jerusalem is " My King is Just." In our day, at Tel-el- 
Amarna in Egypt, terra-cotta tablets were discovered in- 
scribed in the Babylonian tongue, the diplomatic language 
of the nations a hundred years before Moses led the He- 
brews from the Nile land. When Melchisedech died 

* Hebrews vii. 3. ^ Epist. ad Philadel. ' St. Augustine, De Doct. Christ., 
L. IV. XLV, Epist. clxxxii. v. * Rashi, in Gen. xiv. ^ Apud Boehart, Phaleg, 
Pt. I., b. ii., sec. 69. « Schotgren, Hor. Heb. II. 645. ^ Quoted bv St. Epiphanius, 
Her. LV., 6. « See Bereshith Rabbah. S. 9, etc. » Eneid, III., V. 80. 


Adoni-Zedek, his successor as king of Jerusalem, sent 
these tablets to the Egyptian king, telling of the great 
king Melchisedech his predecessor, who had founded the 
city, stating he had five sons. A wealth of Jewish and 
Arabian lore is found relating to this personage. Smith 
in his Dictionary says under the name Shem : 

" Assuming that the years ascribed to the patriarchs in 
the present copies of the Hebrew Bible are correct, it ap- 
pears that Methuselah, who in his first 243 years was 
contemporary with Adam, had still nearly 100 years of his 
long life to run after Shem was born. And when Shem 
died, Abraham was 148 years old, and Isaac had been nine 
years married. There are therefore but two links — 
Methuselah and Shem — between Adam and Isaac. So 
that the early records of the Creation, and the Fall of man, 
which came down to Isaac, would challenge, apart from 
their inspiration, the same confidence, which is readily 
yielded to a tale that reaches the reader through two 
well-known persons, between himself and the original 
chief actor in the events related. There is no chronologi- 
cal improbability in that ancient Jewish tradition, which 
brings Sem and Abraham into personal conference." 

Sem or Shem, " Name," " Renown," or " Yellow," father 
of the yellow Asiatics, was born before the flood, when 
Noe was 500 years old.' "He (Sem) begot Arphaxad 
two years after the flood, and Sem lived after he begat 
Arphaxad five hundred years." ^ When the latter was in 
his thirty-fifth year, he begat Sale. And when Sale was 
thirty years old his son Heber was born.' Heber be- 
came the father of Pheleg in his thirty-fourth year. The 
latter had a son in his thirtieth year named Reu, who in 
his thirty-second year had a son born to him called Sarug. 
This Sarug in his thirtieth year begat Nachor, and the 
latter in his twenty-ninth year had a son Thare, who in 
his seventieth year became Abraham's father.* 

According to this statement, Abraham was born 352 
years after the flood, when Sem was 450 years old. " Sem 
lived after he begot Arphaxad five hundred years." ^ 
Born 92 years before the flood, Sem lived till Abraham 
attained his forty-sixth year. Josephus has the follow- 
ing " Abraham, who accordingly was the tenth from Noe, 

»Gen. V. 31, aQen. xi.lO, 11. » Gen. xi. 12-15. « Gen. xi. 12-26. «Gen. xi. 11. 


was born in the two hundred and ninety-second year 
after the flood." ^ Following this Sem died when Abra- 
ham was ninety-two, and eighty years before Isaac's birth. 

Sem therefore died when Abraham was either forty-six, 
ninety-two or one hundred and forty-eight years of age, 
and he could have been that great pontiff of mankind, 
high priest of the nations, whom the Canaanites called 
Melchisedech. Oriental and Hebrew traditions have the 
following, we think the best, solution of the difficulty. 
But we do not say that the following statements are all 
true. Let the reader judge for himself. 

Dying Adam said to his son Seth : " Now I die for my 
sin, but bury me not till God shows you the place where 
I will sleep till the ' Seed of the woman,' who will crush 
the serpent's head will come." ^ They embalmed the body, 
patriarchs passed it down, Noe had the skull in the ark, 
and before he died, 350 years after the flood, he gave it 
to Sem his eldest son telling him the tradition. 

There was born of Ham's family, his grandson Nemrod, 
" Valiant," or " The Rebel," who comes down among the 
Heathen nations as Baal, Bel, the god Jupiter, Hercules, 
Thor, etc. " He was the grandson of Ham, a bold man of 
great strength of hand. He persuaded them not to ascribe 
it to God, as it were through his means they were happy, 
but to believe it was their own courage, which procured 
them that happiness. He also changed the government 
into a tyranny, seeing no other way of turning men from 
the fear of God, and to bring them into a constant depen- 
dence on his power. He also said he would be revenged 
on God, if he should have a mind to drown the world 
again. For that he would build a tower too high for the 
waters to reach, and he would be revenged on God for 
destroying their forefathers." ^ 

This Nemrod turned mankind from Adam's religion ; 
taught that the sky was a crystal ceiling ; that their 
forefathers, the patriarchs, went to heaven and became 
the planets ; that the natural forces were gods, and thus 
he founded paganism. Guided by him, the seventy-two 
families, born of Noe's grandsons, built the Tower they 
called Bab II, " Gate of God," in the Babylonian tongue, 
which the Hebrews later changed to Babel, " Confusion," 

* Antiq. B. I., c. vi. n. 5. ^ Qen. iii. 15. ' Josephus, Antiq. B. I. c. iv. n. 2. 


whence they called the nearby city Babylon, " City of the 
Gate of God." ' 

Infidelity, the worship of their father-patriarchs, the 
degradation of woman, immorality, irreligion were spread- 
ing through the people tyrannized over by this wicked 
Nemrod. But before the Tower of Babel was finished, 
God changed their language so each family spoke a differ- 
ent tongue and they could not understand the other fami- 
lies so they had to separate. Japheth's children migrated 
to the southern shores of the Caspian Sea ; Sem's sons 
remained in his father's house, Asia, because he was the 
eldest ; Ham's dark tribes went to Africa, except the 
tribes which had rebelled against Sem over the division 
of the continents. They remained in the rich plains be- 
tween the Tigris and Euphrates, where they founded the 
Babylonian empire, of which Nemrod was the first king. 
From these seventy -two families or tribes came the great 
nations of antiquity. 

Sem, father of numerous tribes, eldest son and heir of 
Noe's civil and priestly power, was stripped of all author- 
ity in this revolt. Left alone in his old age, his children 
gone, an angel told him to come and he would show him 
where to bury Adam's skull. For full many a day they 
went west, till they came to a little hill, whereon he en- 
tombed our first father's relic, and called it Golgotha, a 
Babylonian word meaning " The Place of the Skull." 
Greeks later rendered it Cranion, and Romans Calvaria — 
Calvary. There the angel told him to guard the relic of 
the first man. 

The Revelations of Moses, an ancient book the Jews 
honored, gives a long account of how the angels embalmed 
Adam's body. " And God said to Adam : " I will set thee 
in thy kingdom, on the throne of him that deceived thee, 
and he shall be cast down in this place (Calvary) that 
thou mayest sit upon him." Beside him they buried 
Abel's body, and there they laid Eve, when she died six 
days after Adam. Thus the thirty children of Adam 
laid to sleep our first parents with the priest Abel beside 
them. And the archangel IMichael said to Seth : " Thus 
bury every man that dies until the day of the resurrec- 

* Dutripou, Concord. S. Scripturae, Babel. 


We give this as a specimen of numerous doubtful 
Oriental traditions. On the way to Damascus, not far 
from the vast ruins of Baalbec, amid the Libanon moun- 
tains, they show you the tombs of Noe and the patriarchs. 
Perhaps Adam was buried there and later his skull taken 
up and guarded as the relic of the first sinner and saint. 
The Church in honoring the relics of the saints, follows 
the customs of ancient races, especially the Hebrews. In 
the Church of the Holy Sepulchre they point out Mel- 
chisedech's tomb. 

Half a mile south rose rugged rocky heights surrounded 
on three sides by deep valleys, which Sem fortified and 
called Sion, " the Projecting." There he reared his palace, 
round which rose a little city he named Salem, " Peace," 
from the Oriental salute. Salama, " Peace," a word still 
used in these countries, as we say " How do you do ? " 

In the migrations of the tribes, Caanan's cursed sons,^ 
Jebusites, Hittites, whom the Greeks called Phenicians, 
had colonized the land, where thay had built many a city 
and town. Not knowing Sem, who he was, or whence 
he came, they called him " The Just King," the King of 
Salem, in their language Melchisedech. 

Last of the great patriarchal fathers of the nations, 
heir of Noe's fatherhood, royalty and priesthood going 
back beyond the flood to Abel and to Adam, in his palace 
on Sion, on the very spot where Jesus Christ celebrated 
the Last Supper, this great high-priest king first otfered 
the bread and wine of the Mass. 

He was then the last link of the world before the flood. 
No writing, record, or monument of the ages before God 
wiped out the world's wickedness with waters of his 
wrath survived, but Sem, who had preserved them ac- 
cording to the patriarchal customs of that epoch, when 
the eldest son was sole depositary and heir of all his 
father's learning, property and priesthood. 

In Chaldea, at Ur, " Light of the Moon," where she was 
worshiped, now the ruined Mughier, " The Betumined," 
lived Abraham. His father made a living manufacturing 
and selling idols, says the Talmud. But his son did not 
believe in them, and God gave him supernatural faith, 
and told him to go into Palestine, where he would meet 

» Gen. X. 16. 


this great pontiff-king from whom he would learn Adam's 
religion, the story of creation, the fall of man, the prophecy 
of the Redeemer, the story of the world before the flood. 
According to patriarchal custom, these truths passed 
down to Isaac, Jacob, to the Hebrews as traditions, till 
Moses gathered them up in the Book of Genesis. 

Jewish rabbis say Sem called the little city Salem, 
" Peace " ; ^ that after offering Isaac on Moriah, Abraham 
named the city Jireh, " Possession " ; that the two great 
patriarchs disputed about the city's name ; but then 
agreed to unite the two words making Jerusalem, " The 
city of Peace," ^ a word found six hundred times in the 
Old Testament, and seventy times in the New. 

Hebrews called it Ariel, " Lion," or " Hearth of God " ; ' 
Grecian Jews said it was Agia Polls " The Holy City " ; * 
when Hadrian destroyed it the Romans named it ^lia 
after his first name.^ It was the holiest of all the cities of 
earth, because of Him foretold to come and there redeem 
our race. 

When Omar, Mohammed's cousin, captured it, Moslems 
called it El-Kuds, " The Holy," Beit-el-Makdis, " The 
House of the Holy Sanctuary "; Esh-Sherif, "The Ven- 
erable " or " The Noble." To them Jerusalem is a most 
sacred place, where lived the prophets they hold inspired, 
and in their eyes Jerusalem in sanctity is second only to 
Mecca where Mohammed was born, and Medina where he 

Sem, bearing the name of Melchisedech, lived on Sion, 
his palace being built on the very spot where Herod 
built the Cenacle in which Jesus Christ said the first 
Mass.® This great prophet-king priest of the most high 
God," ^ " bringing forth bread and wine," ^ offered this sac- 
rifice of thanksgiving for the victory God gave Abraham ; 
he offered this bread and wine to God as an image of 
the Mass, and not for food for Abraham's troops as Calvin 

And Abraham " gave him tithes of all.' Why did he 
do this ? To show that there was to come a priesthood, 

' S. Augustine, Enar in Ps. xxxiii. Ser. 1, V. 2 Young's Concord, of the Bible ; 
Edersheiin, Temple. 3 ; Smith's Die. of Bible, Jerusalem, etc. " Isaias xxix. 
1, 2, 7. Ezech. 43-15. * Matt. iv. 5, xxvii. 53. '' ^lius Hadrianus. *> See Jo- 
sephus, Antiq. vii. c. iii. n. 2. ^ In Hebrew, veliu cohen. " Hotseti mincha. 
^ See Migne, Cursus Comp. S. Scripturse, v. 47 ; Gen. xiv. 20. 


offering the Mass in bread and wine, superior to the 
Aaronic priesthood offering bloody sacrifices, suffering 
animals immolated in the Temple by the priesthood to 
be be born of Abraham's race. 

Abraham gave tithes to Melchisedech because that was 
the custom in those days. Pagans gave tithes, that is the 
tenth part of the spoils of their victories to their priests.^ 
Zenophon ^ says : " For of this money collected from 
the captives, the tenth part consecrated to Apollo or to 
Diana of Ephesus the pre tors received." Agesilao writes : 
" Offerings, that is fruits of the earth, every two hundred 
years a hundred talents or more, the Ephesians dedicate 
the tenth part of that to God." 

Christ was therefore a priest according to the order of 
Melchisedech when he offered bread and wine at the Last 
Supper, and a priest according to the order of Aaron 
when he brought the lamb of Passover to the Temple to 
be sacrificed.^ 

Sem and Abraham slept with their fathers, and were 
buried one on Sion, the other at Hebron, sixty years of 
silent history passed, and Jebusites, sons of the third 
son of wicked Canaan, captured Sion, fortified its ram- 
parts, and their dwellings rose round Melchisedech's fort- 
ress. They called the city Jebus, " Trodden down," in 
memory of their father. 

It was a place of extraordinary strength. Recent ex- 
cavations in Jerusalem laid bare the ancient ramparts run- 
ning from near the Joppa gate, down deep into the Tyro- 
poeon valley, separating Sion from Moriah, and continued 
along the southern slopes and to the west bordering the 
Hinnom vale to the place of beginning. They show Sion 
must have been in that day an acropolis, " A Citadel." 
They then called it " The Dry Rock." The Tyropoeon 
valley was then twenty-six, thirty-three and and eighty 
feet lower than now, while to the south and west the 
ramparts rose hundreds of feet over the Hinnom and 
Cedron vales. At one spot a fragment of the ancient 
wall of Sion on the north was built close against the 
cliff, and though only rising to the top of the rock behind 
it, it was yet thirty-nine feet high towards the ravine 

1 Livy, L. 6. ^ Cyro, L. 6. ^ gee Migne, Cursus Comp. S. Scripturae xxv. 
319 to 325. V. 47, etc. 



in front." ^ This was at the north side of Sion towards 
the present city. There the land was more level, where 
to-day the long David Street gently rises from the modern 
city up to Sion.^ 

In the imagery of the Old Testament Sion was a pro- 
totype of the Church with its Eucharistic Sacrifice, while 
Jerusalem was emblematic of heaven, and these mean- 
ings will be found in hundreds of texts.^ 

When the victorious Hebrews under Josue were sweep- 
ing over Palestine, Gibeonites, "Dwellers on a hill," 
possessed four cities a little north of Jerusalem — one of 
them being " The city on the hill which cannot be hid," * 
which you can still see about five miles north of Jerusalem. 
They deceived Josue ^ and were condemned to be 
" hewers of wood and drawers of water." Their de- 
scendants lived in Oj^hel and boarded the Jewish priests 
while serving in the Temple. The Hebrews could not 
take Jerusalem because of its strong fortifications. The 
Hinnom vale then divided the tribes of Juda and Ben- 
jamin, and later the division line was run through the 
center of the Temple. 

For 824 years Jebusite sons of Canaan held Jerusalem 
till David " The Beloved " was firmly fixed on his throne 
in Hebron. The city was on the high spur of the central 
mountain range running through the center of the Hebrew 
kingdom, and was a place of extraordinary strength. 
After reigning seven years in Hebron all the chiefs of the 
twelve tribes swore fealty to David, firmly fixing his 

Leaving Hebron, twenty miles to the south, over these 
Judean hills David marched his troops, invested Jeru- 
salem, and i)romised to make general over his armies the 
first who would scale the walls. In spite of the blind 
and crippled defenders placed on the walls in mockery of 
David's soldiers, Joab, "Jehovah is Father," son of 
Zeruiah, " Balm," David's nephew, scaled the ramparts.'"' 
" And David took the castle of Sion the same is the city 
of David " ' 

" When David had cast the Jebusites out of the citadel, 

1 Recent researches in Jerusalem. ' See Mig^ne, Cursus Comp. S. Scripturce, 
ili. 1474, etc. ^ S. Augustine, Enar. in. Ps. xcviii. n. iv. Epist. clxxxvi. n. viii. 
* Matt. V. 14. ' Josue ix. * Joseplius, Antiq. B. VII., c. iii, A. I.' '' II. KingSj v. 7. 


he rebuilt Jerusalem, named it the City of David, and 
abode there all the time of his reign , . , Now when 
he had chosen Jerusalem to be his royal city, his affairs 
more and more prospered by the providence of God, who 
took care that they should improve and be augmented. 
Hiram, "The noble born," the King of the Tyrians, sent 
ambassadors to him, and made a league of friendship and 
assistance with him. He also sent him presents, cedar- 
trees and mechanics, and men skilled in building and 
architecture, that they might build him a royal palace 
at Jerusalem. Now David made buildings round about 
the lower city. He also joined the lower city to it, 
and made it in one body. And when he had encom- 
passed all with walls, he appointed Joab to take care of 
them. It was David therefore who first cast the Jebusites 
out of Jerusalem and called it by its one name, the City of 
David, for under our forefather Abraham it was called 
Solyma or Salem." ^ 

David's palace was celebrated. It was built on the 
very site of Melchisedech's palace. There David pre- 
pared a place for the ark; there the great Mosaic 
ceremonies were carried out, till Solomon built his famous 
Temple on Moriah, another hill a little to the north of 
east. From that time Sion became a sacred place in 
Hebrew story, there they celebrated solemn feasts in 
David's day, and called Sion " The Holy Mountain." 

On the walls of the palace, David's notices of adminis- 
tration, laws, etc., were posted. The fortress was called 
Mello, " Multitude," and handsome houses and palaces 
rose round the summit of the City of David, Sion and 

Down deep in the soft limestone rock, where Melchis- 
edech was buried, David excavated passages, rooms 
and tombs. There he hid vast treasures for the building 
of the Temple which God told him his son Solomon would 
erect — the gold and silver amounting to $19,349,260, with 
bronze and brass and other treasures of far more priceless 
value. His tomb interests us for reasons given later. 

" He was buried by his son Solomon in Jerusalem, with 
great magnificence, and with all other funeral pomp 
which kings used to be buried with. Moreover he had 

* Josephus, Antiq. B. VII, c. iii, n. 2. 


great and immense wealth buried with him, the vastness 
of which may be easily conjectured by what I shall now 
say. For a thousand and three hundred years afterwards, 
Hyrcanus the high priest, when he was besieged by 
Antiochus, that was called the Pious, opened one room of 
David's sepulchre, and took out three thousand talents, 
and gave part of that sum to Antiochus, and by this 
means caused the siege to be raised, as we have informed 
the reader elsewhere. After him, and that after many 
years, Herod, the king, opened another room, and took 
away a great deal of money, and yet neither of them came 
at the coffins of the kings themselves, for their bodies 
were buried under the earth so artfully, that they did not 
appear even to those who entered into their monuments." ^ 

Solomon, " The Peaceful," stretched a stone bridge 
across the deep Tyropoeon vale separating Sion from 
Moriah, under which ran what was called in Christ's time 
the Cheesemongers' Street. Herod, with his mania for 
building, enlarged that bridge so that it was fifty -one 
feet wide and 350 long, its entrance being at the south- 
west of the Temple area. It was across that bridge that 
Christ and his apostles went when carrying the lamb for 
the Passover or Last Supper. Part of the eastern abut- 
ment is now called Robinson's Arch. 

Solomon enlarged and fortified the old fort built by 
Melchisedech and David. There abode the ark of the 
covenant from the time David placed it in his palace, 
till Solomon had finished his famous Temple on Moriah.* 
Now on the site of Melchisedech's and of David's palace 
rose Solomon's great palace, which took thirteen years to 
build.^ It was celebrated for its magnificence and extent. 
Court rooms, prisons, halls — all were of fine Judean mar- 
ble and cedar of Lebanon. It was burned and totally 
destroyed by the Babylonians, when they captured 

In the deep soft, yellowish- white Judean rock, beneath 
that palace, beside David's tomb, other vault rooms and 
galleries were dug, and there Solomon and all the kings 

* Josephus, Antiq. B. VII, c. xv., n. 3. See Migne, Cursus Comp. S. Scrip- 
turae, 11, 7a3, etc. 2 n Kings vi ; III. Kings viii. a III. Kings vii. ♦ IV. Kings 


Note.— The reader will find the different opinions regarding this vast sum 
David had accumulated in Migne, Cursus Completus, SacraeScripturae, Vol. II, 
pp. 037 to 650. 


of Judea were buried with the prophetess Huldah " the 
cat." ^ When Jerusalem was rebuilt, after the Babylonian 
Captivity, Sion was again fortified as the city's citadel. 
The Machabees enlarged the Sion fortress and there they 
lived as warrior high priests. They fortified the Baris 
rock to the northwest of the Temple area which Herod 
rebuilt and called the Antonia. There Pilate lived, and 
there Christ was tried and sentenced to death. 

Herod, the Edumean, born of Judah's tribe, last of 
Hebrew kings foretold to reign till the Messiah came,^ 
hearing of David's vast treasures hidden in his tomb, be- 
fore beginning to build his famous Temple twenty years 
before Christ was born, sought for the treasures David 
had hid under his palace. 

" As for Herod, he had spent vast sums about the cities, 
both within and without his own kingdom. And as he 
had heard that Hyrcanus, who had been king before him, 
had opened David's sepulchre, and taken out of it three 
thousand talents of silver, and that there was a much 
greater number left behind, and indeed enough to sufiice 
for all his wants, and he had a great while an intention 
to make the attempt. And at this time he opened that 
sepulchre by night and went into it, and endeavored that 
it should not be known in the city, but took only his 
faithful friends with him. As for any money, he found 
none, as Hyrcanus had done, but that furniture of gold, 
and those precious goods that were left there, all these 
he took away. However he had a great desire to make a 
more diligent search, and to go farther in, even as far as 
the bodies of David and Solomon, when two of his guards 
were slain by a flame that burst out upon those that went 
in, as the report goes. So he was terribly frightened and 
went out and built a propitiatory monument of that fright 
he had been in, and this of white stone at the mouth of 
the sepulchre, and that also at great expense." ^ 

Thus over the tombs of the great kings rose the pile of 
buildings called the Cenacle,* " Banquet Hall," by the Ro- 
mans, for there public banquets were held. The Greeks 
named it the Huperoon, " high," or Anageon, " Beautiful," 
and the Jews Aliyah, " chamber," because it was the high- 

1 Talmud Babyl., Ebel, 60. « Gen. xlix. 10. » Josephus, Antiq., B. XVI. c. 
vii. n. I. * See Migne, Cursus S. Scripturae iii., 909 


est, largest, finest and holiest room, except the Temple, 
of all places in the sacred city at the time of Christ. It 
was beautifully furnished with carpets, lUgs, tapestries — 
its walls were decorated, its furniture most costly as 
became that building, over the tombs of the sleeping 
kings resting in the rock rooms beneath. There syna- 
gogue services were held, and it was the largest and fine- 
est of the 480 synagogues in Jerusalem at the time of 

We mentioned the dead sleeping beneath Sion. Kings' 
and prophets' relics rested there the night Christ cele- 
brated over them the first Mass, and said "Do this for a 
commemoration of me." ^ Every incident of that night — 
the room, the surroundings, the services impressed them- 
selves on the apostles' minds. 

When they went forth to establish the Church, among 
the nations, they said Mass over the remains of saints and 
martyrs. Persecuted in Rome they offered the sacrifice 
in the catacombs. They later placed the relics in altar 
stones, and thus down the ages, tliat custom has obtained 
till our day in all the Rites and Liturgies of Christendom. 

The clergy of the Latin Rite use a stone on which to 
rest Chalice and Host, and in this stone, as in a little 
tomb, the relics of the saints are placed and ceiled up, as 
were relics of prophet and kings under the Cenacle. The 
Oriental Christians, who use only silk for altar cloths, 
place the relics of saints in the double silk folds forming 
the altar covering, on which the Eucharistic Elements 

All Oriental Christians follow the same custom. We 
trace it back to apostolic times, beyond Roman persecu- 
tions, and earlier than the catacombs. Some writers say 
it came from the catacombs, but going deeper they will 
find it comes from the Last Supper. 

When the apostles went forth to found churches in 
many lands they found customs of entombing the honored 
dead in pyramids, " flamed-shaped," in tombs, " mounds," 
but the Greeks called their burial-place the necropolis 
" city of tlie dead " The Christians followed the lessons 
of Sion and the Last Supper. In vaults beneatii churches 
the early Christians buried their dead. The custom was 

^ Luke xxii. 19. 


followed till modern times in Europe Avhere historic per- 
sonages still sleep in churches. In this country they en- 
tomb the bishops under the cathedrals. These customs 
are traced to Sion and the Cenacle. 

Sion is a hill higher than that of Moriah to the northeast, 
where rose the " Gold House " of the great Temple, 
flashing the sunlight over the city. Sion is 2,700 feet over 
the sea and 4,000 over the Dead Sea. The Temple with 
its priesthood and sacrifices was to pass away. The 
Church with its priesthood and Eucharistic Sacrifice was 
to be eternal. Therefore, down the Old Testament 177 
times the prophets, in burning words pour forth the 
glories of Sion, image of the Church, while condemning 
Moriah with its wicked Jewish priesthood. 

In the time of Christ, round the Cenacle rose the homes 
of richest Jews, wealthy Pharisees, learned Scribes, 
Judges of the Sanhedrin. Joseph Caiphas and his father- 
in-law Annas there had palaces worthy of princes. Sion 
was the aristocratic residence quarter of Jerusalem. 
Therefore when we select the richest and most wealthy 
quarters of our cities as sites for our cathedrals and 
churches, we follow, perhaps without thinking, the ex- 
ample of Christ when he celebrated the first Mass on 

The Cenacle belonged to David's family. The Lord's 
Mother was the Princess of the royal family and David's 
heir. Therefore Christ, Prince of the House of David, had 
a right to the building. Joseph of Arimathea and Nico- 
demus were leaders of the synagogue congregation wor- 
shiping in the Cenacle. There gathered the apostles, dis- 
ciples and Christ's followers for the synagogue services 
on that historic Thursday night, and on that Sabbath eve 
while the Lord's body lay in the tomb. There they re- 
mained during these forty hours till he rose from the 
dead. From that spot 500 persons followed him down 
the Tyropoeon vale, across the Cedron, up the slopes of 
Olivet, the day of the ascension. Ascending the Mount 
of Olives, the Arabs now call Gebel et Tur, the Lord be- 
fore he ascended told James to take care of the disciples 
at Jerusalem. 

Day by day they there assembled for the synagogue 
services, preparing for the feast of Pentecost, waiting for 


the promised Paraclete. They were in the Cenacle that 
day, when at nine in the morning the Holy Ghost, the 
fiery cloud of the Shekina of the burning bush, Sinai, 
tabernacle. Temple and Thabor filled the room of the 
Last Supper and rained down tongues of fire, giving each 
apostle a knowledge of the language of the nation to 
which he was to preach. 

" On Wednesday," says an ancient writer.^ " St. James 
first said Mass according to his Liturgy, which he said he 
received from the Lord, changing not a word." The apos- 
tles used the Cenacle as a church while they remained in 
Jerusalem. AVhile the Roman army under Titus was 
marching down from the north to invest the holy city in 
the year A. D. 70, Simeon, who had been elected bishop 
after James was thrown down from the roof of the Temple, 
and killed with a fuller's stone, preached on the Lord's 
words foretelling the terrible siege, the destruction of the 
city, and warned them to flee. In a ravine to the east of 
the Sea of Galilee, nestled then the little city of Pella, 
and there they found a home while the war lasted, after 
which they returned to find Jerusalem a heap of ruins. 

Round the Antonia tower and the Temple had raged 
the fierce fighting, Josephus so graphically describes.* 
The Romans knew nothing about the little band of 
Christians worshiping in the Cenacle, and the building 
was little damaged. After the war St. James's Liturgy 
of the Mass was again followed. The Cenacle was called 
" The Church of the Apostles " or the " Church of Sion." 
Pilgrims in the early ages mentioned it. 

Again the Jews rebelled and Hadrian leveled the city 
and walls, drew the plow over it, and forbade a Jew 
under pain of death to enter, except once a year to cele- 
brate the Passover. The holy building of the Last Sup- 
per had survived the calamities of the two wars. Syrian 
clergymen now called the ^laronites then served the 
people. Eusebius, the famed historian, gives a list of 
fifteen bishops of Hebrew birth, and twenty-four of 
Gentile parentage who governed the See of Jerusalem. 

A century and a half passed, and Silvester sat on the 
high Apostolic See Peter had established at Rome, of 
whose bishops Eusebius mentions twenty-nine names, 

* Dion. Barsilibus, Hist. S. James' Liturgy. * Jewish Wars. 


beginning with Peter and bringing them down to the 
Council of Nice in 325. The empress Helena, mother 
of Constantine, after her son's conversion came to Jeru- 

It was easy to find where slept the famous kings, and 
the building where the Lord said the first Mass still stood. 
Jerusalem, then as now, was built of stones, all rooms 
and ceilings arched. You could not burn the buildings, 
for wood is only in doors and windows. Only man or an 
earthquake could ruin Jerusalem. 

Under Helena's directions the Cenacle was purified, 
consecrated, and in it Mass was again said. It became the 
seat of an archbishop — a patriarchal See second to Rome 
and Alexandria. In the Cenacle they said Mass accord- 
ing to St. James's Liturgy, and the Mass St. Peter com- 
posed at Antioch. The first is written in Greek, the lat- 
ter in Syro-Chaldaic the language of the people of Judea 
at the time of Christ. The Church of Jerusalem with the 
Cenacle as its cathedral flourished till A. D. 636, when 
with fire and sword came the fanatic followers of the false 
prophet of Arabia. Omar, Mohammed's cousin came and 
negotiated with the patriarch Sophronius for the sur- 
render of the holy city. He treated the Christians with 
kindness, gave them the Church of the Holy Sepulchre 
and the Cenacle, retaining for the Mohammedans the site 
of the Temple. 

Maronite priests served the Christians till the crusaders 
came, after which at the request of their founder St. 
Francis who went to Jerusalem, the Cenacle fell into the 
hands of the Franciscan Fathers who held if for more 
than 200 years. Then some Mohammedans, claiming direct 
decent from David's family, drove out the monks, and 
they still serve as the guardians of the Cenacle, calling it 
Bab Neby Daud " The House of the Prophet David." 

Bright was the April day in 1903 when we started up 
David Street, leading south up the holy hill. On the right 
we passed the dark battlemented Tower of David, a little 
South of the Joppa Gate, noAv used as Turkish barracks. 
The great stones look old and black enough to have been 
placed there by the Royal Prophet. On the opposite 
side are Cook's office, a Protestant school, and higher up 
is the site of the house of Thomas the apostle. Farther 


on your left you come to the Armenian church, built on 
the spot where they say St. James, first bishop of Jerusa- 
lem, lived. By the bishop *s throne in the sanctuary they 
show you his tomb. Outside the wall east ot the Tem- 
ple area cut from the living rock his tomb still stands. 
Why they buried him within the city we do not know, 
as Jewish laws forbade burials within the sacred walls. 
Perhaps they brought his relics to the church on Sion. 

The land is now level, and continuing south you come 
to the site of Caiphas' house or palace, where Christ was 
twice tried and condemned to death. A little church oc- 
cupies the site. It is twenty-one by twenty-seven feet, 
built of the gray limestone of Judea. Six square pillars, 
three on each side, support the stone arched roof. In- 
scriptions tell you SIX bishops were buried under the 
building. In the eastern part is the sanctuary, its altar 
stone being the round rolling flat stone with which they 
closed the door of the tomb ot the dead Christ. To the 
right, or south of the altar, within the chancel is a little 
stone room over the cell in the basement, in which they 
imprisoned Christ that niglit, till they could hold court in 
the morning to legally sentence him, for night sessions 
of the court were forbidden by the Jewish law. 

The church occupies but a small part of the high priest's 
palace. In the yard behind the church, they had dug 
away some of the debris of centuries, exposing a large 
beautiful mosaic pavement, made of little colored square 
marbles done with art, forming flowers and beautiful 
tracery — perhaps the floor of Caiphas' house. Half a 
day's work would have uncovered most of the yard, and 
the rest of the figures. But the Turks forbade further 
search, lest Christians might discover David's tomb and 

Now south slope Sion's summit and suburbs. Debris 
of walls and houses destroyed centuries ago cover fields 
and gardens. You will see men plowing sites of rich 
abodes of Scribes, Pharisees, priests and judges, who sen- 
tenced the God-Man to death, fulfilling the prophet's 
words, Jeremy quotes : " You that build up Sion with 
blood, and Jerusalem with iniquity. Her princes have 
judges for bribes . . . Therefore because of you, Sion 
shall be plowed as a field, and Jerusalem shall be a heap 


of stones, and the mountain of the Temple as the places 
of the forest.^ 

You come through the walls, pass out what was once 
called the Sion Gate, which now Moslems name Bab en 
Neby Daud, " Gate of the Prophet David." On your right, 
inclosed by a wall, is the Armenian cemetery, and farther 
on the Protestant burying-ground. Walk over a little to 
the west where Melchisedech's palace once rose, and you 
look down into the deep Hinnom valley, 170 feet below, 
where you see the Gihon pool partly filled with water. 
At your left, to the east, is the Tyropoeon vale, then comes 
the hill where Ophel stood, below the Temple area, then 
the Cedron and Gethsemane — around on all sides rise 
tombs, and east is Olivet — all inspiring memories of his- 
toric incidents. 

As you run your eyes along over the land below, spread 
like a map before you, wonderful stories of the past rise 
in your mind. There Solomon was crowned. There op- 
posite is the hill with its steep eastern side toward you, on 
which Judas hanged himself that fatal Friday morning 
of the crucifixion, when his body fell down seventy -five 
feet onto the road below and his bowels gushed out. It is 
the very spot where wicked Achab and Manasses burned 
little children to the fire-god Moloch in that cursed 
Topheth, where emptied the city sewers, where ever-burn- 
ing fires were kept for consuming garbage, animal car- 
cases and criminals. Well was it named Topheth and 
Gehenna. It was an image of that hell down to which 
went the soul of the Master's faithless apostle. 

South about half a mile the two vales of Hinnom and 
Cedron unite forming the ravine leading their waters in 
winter and spring down 4,000 feet to the Dead Sea. 
Almost hanging from the western cliffs of the Hill of 
Evil Council, where Solomon reared temples to the gods 
of his pagan wives, you see the empty tombs and homes of 
Moslems, wretched in ignorance, poverty and filth — many 
being afflicted with leprosy. That is Siloam " Fleece- 
Pool," for in that pool before you they washed the lambs 
for Temple and Passover. There Christ told the man to 
anoint his blind eyes with its clay when he received his 

1 Jeremy xxvi, 18 ; Micheas iii. 10-12. 


Sion, image of the Church Universal, whose glories 
prophets sang, now outside the walls, has become a waste. 
Who cultivates these fields ? Come with me, gentle 
reader, and see a specimen of her inhabitants. We are 
coming up the Cedron ravine from the place, down below, 
where Judas hanged himself. On our right, wretched 
stone houses, and tombs of Siloam, cling to the steep hill. 
On our left is the Virgin's Spring, now called Ed Derez, 
" Spring with steps," still flowing from underground 
cisterns Solomon excavated under Temple and city. 

Above us, about ten feet away almost above us, there 
like an apparition, suddenly appears a woman of about 
twenty-five, her bare feet nearly on a level with our 
heads. On a matted shock of black hair, making a cushion 
on her head, rests a round earthen water vessel, shaped 
like those of the days of Juda's kings. She had just drawn 
that water from the Virgin's Spring. Her only garment, 
of camel's hair, rough and thick as a carpet, is so covered 
and permeated with dirt, for she has worn it day and 
night for years, that you could scrape off the crusts of 
filth with a hoe. It comes not quite to her knees and the 
frayed edges hang in dirty ringlets. Her breast is bare, 
and great holes are worn in the garment under her arms. 
If she washed the garment it would fall to pieces, for the 
dried dirt keeps it together. 

Her skin is the color of old copper. Fanaticsm, dirt, 
degradation, debased womanhood are written in every 
lineament and move, as there she stands like a bronze 
statue, and through dark decayed teeth she yells in Arabic 
to someone in the village of Siloam across the Cedron 
vale. She is the wife or daughter of a farmer who culti- 
vates the fields of Sion now desolate and uninhabited. 

A little south of Sion's summit, but outside the city 
Avails Moslems built in the seventh century, about 400 
feet south from site of Joseph Caiphas' palace, rises the 
ancient pile of the Cenacle buildings, black with age and 
looking as though the storms of twenty centuries had 
passed over them. It is composed of various buildings, 
gables, and sides, some one, others two stories high. 
There, guarded by Moslems, you find the upper chamber 
in which Christ said the First JNIass. 

On the outside, a stone stairway about twelve feet 


high leads to the roof of the adjoining building ; mount- 
ing and passing to the left, you walk over the cemented 
stones forming the roof covering the vaulted rooms be- 
low, and through a door you enter the " Upper Chamber " 
of Gospel and history. Four windows on the south side 
light the room. 

The room is fifty by thirty feet, and two square stone 
pillars in the center sustain the vaulted ceilings. The 
floor is of irregular flat stones cemented together. To 
the east is an alcove like the chancel or sanctuary of a 
church, closed by an iron railing. In the time of Christ 
this formed the Bema or sanctuary, and gave rise to the 
sanctuary of our churches. Attached to the wall on your 
right is a flight of high stone steps leading up to another 
chamber about ten feet higher than the floor of the 
Cenacle. You ascend, enter, and at your left through an 
iron grill closing the door, you see a catafalque covered 
with a faded canopy of silk, reminding you of the catafal- 
que used in our churches at Masses for the dead when 
the body is not present. Down deep in Sion's rocks, un- 
der these rooms, rest the bodies of Melchisedech, David, 
Solomon, and the kings of David's dynasty. 

The walls of all the rooms are blackened with age. 
Decorations of synagogue. Last Supper, and Masses of 
apostolic days appear no more. The vaulted ceilings, the 
ornamented capitals of the two pillars, the great stones of 
walls and ceilings, the carved groins of the Bema where 
the synagogue " ark " rested — all show great antiquity. 
They point out to you the marked place where Jesus 
Christ reclined with his disciples that historic night. 

At your left as you come into the Cenacle, in the cor- 
ner, a flight of stone steps leads down to the lower apart- 
ments. The door below was open and the writer started 
to go down. The Moslem ran before him, shut the door 
and forbade him. They will not allow a stranger to enter 
their female apartments. The writer was in negotia- 
tions with them to enter David's tomb before he left the 
city ; difficulties rose, a great price was asked before 
hand, a firman from the Sultan v/as required, which was 
almost impossible to get lest David's treasury might be 
found, the excavations would take weeks and might be 
stopped at any moment, and the project was abandoned. 


The custom of artfully hiding the bodies of the dead 
the Hebrews brought with them from Egypt. You will 
find that Cheops in his pyramid near Cpjro, used remark- 
able means of concealing his body in the stone coffer in 
the " king's chamber," and different means were used to 
conceal the mummies, remains of nobles in their desert 
tombs along the Nile valley. 

In 1839, some Jews were allowed to see the tombs of 
their kings on Sion. Later, Miss Barclay went down to 
what she thought was the tomb of David, and says : 

"The room is insignificant in its dimensions, but is 
furnished very gorgeously. The tomb is apparently an 
immense sarcophagus of rough stone, and is covered with 
a green tapestry richly embroidered with gold. A satin 
canopy of red, blue, green and yellow stripes hangs over 
the tomb, and another piece of black velvet tapestry, 
embroidered in silver, covers the door in one end of the 
room, which they say leads to a cave underneath. Two 
silver candlesticks stand before this door, and a little 
lamp hangs in the window near it which is kept con- 
stantly burning." * 

The catafalque the writer saw was not as ornate as the 
one she describes, and the coverings were faded. 

» City of the Great King p. 212. 



Writers say in the time of Christ synagogue services 
were held in 480 schoolhouses and public buildings of 
Jerusalem/ The finest of these public buildings, except 
the Temple, was the Cenacle over the tombs of David and 
the kings. There, on Sabbath, Passover and feast, they 
gathered for morning worship, in the afternoon for the 
Micha : " vespers " and night prayers. The Rabbis hold 
that these hoars of prayer came down from Abraham, 
Isaac and Jacob, which Moses and the prophets had 
developed into the Temple and synagogue ceremonials of 
the days of Christ. 

Moses led the Hebrews in sight of the Promised Land, 
but did not himself enter. Josue, or as he was called in 
Greek Jesus, brought them into Palestine after Moses' 
death. A mystery is written in this. For a greater than 
Moses, Jesus Christ, was foretold to lead the world into 
the mysteries of the Canon of the Last Supper, the Mass 
with the Consecration, the Eucharistic Sacrifice and 
Communion. The synagogue services carried the Mass 
as far as the end of the Preface. There the worship of 
the Jewish Church stopped. But Christ and the Apostles 
brought the Last Supper to the end of the Mass. The 
first part of the Mass is founded on the worship of the 
Jewish Temple and synagogue little modified. But 
supernatural Christian faith enables us to see the heavenly 
wonders of the Real Presence. Let us therefore see the 
synagogue and its worship at the time of Christ. Then 
we will better understand the rites, ceremonies and 
prayers of that historic night. 

When the Hebrews were carried into Babylonia, in 
every place where ten men, called batlanim, formed a 
band, named kehillah, lived, they worshiped God accord- 
ing to the ceremonial of the ruined Temple, sacrifice 

* Jerusalem Talmud, Megilla, iii. 73; Edersheira, Life of Christ, i. 119, 433, 



excepted, which was forbidden except at Jerusalem.* 
Then they built edifices facing the sanctuary toward the 
sacred city, to remind them of Palestme, the splendors of 
Solomon's ruined Temple, and the foretold Messiah to be 
born of their race, and, as they thought, to found for them 
a kingdom of matchless splendor extending over all the 

In these buildings they worshiped the God of their 
fathers who had punished their race for the sins of idola- 
try. They then began to better study their sacred 
books, and the traditions coming down from immemorial 
times Suice that epoch the Jews never again fell into 
idolatr}^ the synagogue baling kept them m Jewish faith.' 

A tradition came down and crystalized into the Talmud, 
that Moses ascended Sinai on Tliursday, where he re- 
mained forty days and received the Law, and that he re- 
turned on Monday, when he found them worshiping the 
golden calf,* and they set apart IMondays and Thursdays 
in addition to the Sabbath ;ir days of fasting and prayer. 
Of this the Pharisee gloried : *' I fast twice a week." ^ 
These days called Sabbaths fai-mers came into the cities to 
sell their produce, the Sanhedrin or Court sat, and special 
services were held in the synagogues.* 

During the Captivity Daniel, Ezechiel and other pro- 
phets consoled thorn with God's oracles foretelling they 
would return to Palestine, tliat the Temple would be re- 
built and that the ^lessiah would come. vSeeing his very 
name in Isaias' prophecy, learning that they worshiped 
the same Almio^htv God he adored under the name of 
Aliura liladza, that Zoroastriansm taught by Persian Magi 
priests was smiilar to the Hebrew worship of Jehovah, 
Cyrus sent them back to rebuild city and Temple.'^ 

When under Esdras the exiled Jews returned, in every 
town and hamlet of the Holy Land they built a place of 
worship they called in Hebrew haccenseth " house of meet- 
ing," in Syro-Chaldaic hetli cnishta^^ "or beth-hath-tiphil- 
lah, "house of prayer," in Greek, synagogue, " gathered to- 
gether," and in Hebrew, Asaph, " a congregation." ^ Their 

» Deut. xvi. 5, 6, etc. - S^e Geikie, Life of Christ, I.. 81, 174 to 187 ; II., C14. 
' See Edersheim, Life of Christ, I. 19 to 30, 4i33 to 456. * Exod. xxxii. 19. ^ i.uke 
xvlii. 12. ° Mark i. 21, iii. 9.. vi. 'Z ; I,nkf iv, 10. xiii. 10 ; Acts xiii. 11, xv. 21, xvi. 
18, xvii. 2. xviii. 4. etc. •' IsmI.js xliv. '^.'(i, 2S, 4.') ; Daniel x. "St. Augustine, 
Euar. in Psal. Ixxvi. nil. 


ruins are still seen scattered all over Palestine. Captain 
Wilson examined the remains of seven synagogues in 
Galilee, the largest being ninety by forty-four feet six 
inches, and the smallest forty-eight feet six inches by 
thirty-five feet six inches. At Rome, Alexandria, Athens, 
Antioch and in every place into which the Jews scattered 
to engage in trade before the time of Christ, they had 
synagogues for the members of each trade, x)rofessiou 
and guild of workmen, where the service was in Hebrew, 
and the sermons in the language of the people. There 
the Hebrews worshiped Jehovah of their fathers in the 
midst of the awful debasement of paganism, hoping for 
the coming of the Messiah, who they thought would 
gather them again into Judea and make them rulers over 
all the earth. Thus they understood the prophecies re- 
lating to Christ and the Church. 

God gave his revelation to mankind through the Jewish 
race, Christ was a Jew and followed every religious rite 
and custom of his people.^ The Church is the daughter 
of Judaism. We find no Church ceremony which was 
copied from paganism, as some writers hold. For twenty 
centuries Church and synagogue have come down side by 
side, entirely separated, but having much in common. 
Let us see the synagogue that we may understand the 
Last Supper and the origin of the Mass ceremonial. The 
word synagogue is found once in Exodus, four times in 
Numbers, the same in Psalms, once in Proverbs, six times 
in Ecclesiasticus in the Latin Vulgate Bible. Few writers 
treat of the synagogue in an exhaustive manner, perhaps 
prejudice has been an obstacle or the persecuted Jew would 
not give the information. Eighty times the word will be 
found in the Bible as a meeting. When they saw Moses' 
face " horned," they returned, botli Aaron and the 
rulers of the congregation,^ the word here translated 
"congregation" being synagogue. But in other places 
the word synagogue is retained in translations of the 

Let us first see the name. Synagogue is the Greek of 
the Hebrew Moed, " Appointed place of meeting." In 
later times it was named Beth-ha Cennesth, " House of 
Gathering." Classic writers, like Thucydides ^ and Plato * 

* St. Augustine Enar. in Psal, xliv. n. xii, ' Exod. xxxiv. 31. * ii. 18. * Repub. 526. 



use the word synagogue. The Septuagint Bible tmns- 
lates twenty-one Hebrew words by the tenn synagogue, 
implying a gathering. It is used 130 times for an ap- 
pointed meeting, twenty-five times for a meeting " called 
together," and Church and congregation appear in the 
same verse.^ 

In tlie New Testament, the word is often applied to the 
tribunal on which the judges sat,^ or to the court.^ But 
as a house of worship it was named, Beth Hakkene- 
seth, " house of assembly." During week-days the build- 
ing was used as a schoolhouse for the children, and 
named beth hamidrash, " house of stud3^" 

The New Testament gives the word twenty- four times, 
often as the meeting places of the apostolic converts. 
St. Ignatius of Antioch uses the word for Church," as 
does Clement of Alexandria.^ Later, when the division 
between Jews and Christians became more marked, the 
latter used exclusively the word Church. 

Jewish writers claim a high antiquity for the synagogue, 
holding that every place where the Hebrews, " appeared 
before the Lord," or "prayed together" was a synagogue. 
The Targum of Onkelos, and that of Jonathan, think they 
find it in Jacob dwelling in tents,^ and in the calling of 
assemblies.' Where did the Hebrews living in places far 
from the Temple, many miles fi'om the sacred city 
worship ? Where did they observe the feasts, fasts, and 
new moons, when they could not go up to Jerusalem? 
The Jewish writers say in the synagogues built in every 
town in times remote far beyond the Captivity.® 

When in addition to the Temple priests and Levites 
rose the prophets to instruct the people and foretell the 
Messiah, they established schools of prophets to sing God's 
praises. In different parts of Palestine were purified houses 
or synagogues where the phylacteries or teraphim, called 
" Frontlets," were almost worshiped. The ancients of 
Israel sitting before Ezechiel * to learn of the prophet God's 
oracles show that during the Exile the synagogue was re- 
vived. The great Seer told them God was in Babylonia as 

1 Prov. V. 14. See S. Auprustine, Ques. in Evan^. 1. ii. viii. ; Enar. in Psalm 
Ixxxiv ; in P.;alin Ixxiii., 1 ; Enar. in Psalm Ixxx. 11 ; Enar. in Psalm Ixxxii. 1. 
- Matt. X. 17. 3 Matt, xxiii. ?A ; Mark xiii. fl. ; Luke xii. 11, xxii. 11. * Epist. ad 
Trail, c. 5. " Stroma, VI. Go:'.. " Gen. xxv. 27. ^ Judg. v. 9 ; Isaias i. 13, etc. 
" See Mitz;ne, Cnrsus Comp. S. Scripturae, iii. 1233, etc. * Ezech. viii. 1, xiv. 1, 
XX. 1, xxxiii. 81. 


well as in Judea, and would gather them together — back 
again into Palestine.^ 

The whole history of Esdras' time supposes synagogues, 
if not existing before at least in his day, and many 
writers give him as their founder.^ At that epoch the 
synagogue was either instituted or revived. The words 
of St. James the apostle : " For Moses from ancient times 
hath in every city them that preach him in the syna- 
gogues, where he is read every Sabbath,"'' seem to date 
the synagogue from Moses. But the Machabees men- 
tion only Maspha as a place of prayer,* perhaps because 
Jerusalem was then in ruins. 

Jewish writers say the synagogue of the time of Christ 
existed from Moses' day, was developed during the Cap- 
tivity, fostered by Esdras, still more developed under the 
high priest John Hyrcanus, and that in the days of Christ 
every town and hamlet in Judea, where 120 families lived, 
had a synagogue, and that the surrounding country was 
divided into districts, each having its own synagogue. 
The apostles copied the Jewish Church, and divided dis- 
tricts into dioceses, placing over each a bishop with his 
twelve priests or presbyters. 

During the Captivity, the synagogue exerted a deep in- 
fluence on the Hebrews, united them to struggle under 
the Machabees, trained them in the faith of Israel, and 
established schools for the children, so that they never 
afterwards abandoned Judaism. When the bloody sacri- 
fices were re-established in the rebuilt Temple, the syna- 
gogue services, with their deep devotion, edifying worship 
and stately liturgy of the Temple united the people, at- 
tracted converts from paganism, and satisfied the human 
heart's cravings for pure religion. 

The prophets had ceased to teach, and beside the 
Temple ministers flourished another order of religious 
teachers — the Scribe and Rabbi, not necessarily born of 
the tribe of Levi and the house of Aaron. Schools and 
colleges flourished in which these men were educated, 
after which they were ordained with the imposition of 
hands. The synagogue and Rabbi have come down to 
our days substantially as in the time of Christ. 

* Ezech. ii. 14 to end. * I. Esdras viii. 15 ; II. Esdras viii. 2, ix. 1 ; Zach. vii. 5. 
SActsxv. 21, * I. Mach, iii, 40. 


While the plan of the tabernacle and Temple came from 
heaven, no fixed size Avas laid down for the synagogue 
building; it varied with the size and wealth of the con- 
gregation. But the building was always in a prominent 
part of the city, on a hill near by, or a tall pole rose from 
its roof to tell the passer by the site. The building was 
erected by levying a tax on the people of the surround- 
ing district, by free offerings of wealthy Jews,' or by a 
friendly convert. Often it was by the tomb of a cele- 
brated Rabbi or prominent Jew. 

When finished it was dedicated with great ceremony, 
like Solomon's Temple — forever consecrated to God ; like 
our consecrated churches, it could not be used for any 
other purpose, and common acts of life, like eating, drink- 
ing, sleeping, etc., were forbidden. There was only one 
exception to this rule. The Passover, being a religious 
feast, could be, and was usually held in the synagogue. 
No one was allowed to pass through it as a short-cut; if 
it ceased to be a synagogue, it could not be turned into 
any other use, as a bath, laundry, tannery, etc. At tlie 
door stood a scraper, on which they cleaned their feet ; 
there they left their sandals or shoes, but they wore their 
turbans in the building all the time.^ 

The synagogue building was modeled after the Temple. 
Entering the latter you first came to the Choi : " The 
Profane," where the Heathens could worship, beyond 
which they were forbidden to pass under pain of death. 
The Choi represented the Gentiles without faith. It 
surrounded the whole building. The next was called the 
Cliel, " the Sacred." Then came the women's Court, 
beyond which no female could penetrate, to remind them 
of Eve's sin. Farther in was the Court of Israel where 
the men adored. It was separated from the priests' 
Court by a low marble railing, beyond which was the 
priests' Court, in the middle of which rose the great 
sacrificial altar. To the west was the Holies. Within 
the " Gold House " was the Holy of Holies. Each of these 
spaces and Courts was higher than the outside spaces we 
have described, and were approached by magnificent stone 

The divisions of the synagogue were three — the porch, 

' Luke vii. '•>. ^ Babj'l. Talmud, Megalla, Chap, iv., Qeaiara, p. 77. 


nave, and sanctuarj^ Church buildings, having been 
copied after tlie synagogue, have always these three 
divisions — the porch represents the infidels, the nave, the 
Christians, and the sanctuary heaven, copied after the 
Holies of the Temple or the sanctuary of the Cenacle. 
Let us see the synagogue in detail. 

In the synagogue porch were money-boxes like the 
money-chests of the Temple— the latter being called the 
Corban. In one they put money for the expenses of the 
synagogue, in another offerings for the poor of the con- 
gregation, in another alms for the poor of Jerusalem, and 
in others gifts for local charities, of which St Paul writes.^ 
Whence rose the custom of having poor-boxes in our 
churches. On the walls were posted notices of feasts, 
fasts, and the names of those under Kareth, " cut off," 
excommunicated, and the names of the dead for which 
their friends asked prayers. Near by was a box in which 
were kept the musical instruments used by the choir. 

On the right door-post hung a little box, the Mezuzeh, 
having a parchment with a prayer written on it, which 
they said while entering. It reminded them of the blood 
of the paschal lamb on the doorposts when their fathers 
left Egypt. On the left of the staircase leading up to the 
Temple Holies was a great bronze " sea " in which priests 
bathed before entering on their ministry.^ This and the 
box gave rise to the holy water fonts in the porch of our 
churches, and to the custom of taking the holy water and 
praying when entering, to remind Christians of baptism 
through which they enter the Church. 

The synagogue nave has galleries on three sides, the 
side opposite the door being occupied by the sanctuary. 
A synagogue of our day is so like a Catholic church, that 
hardly a change, except to place an altar in it, would be 
required to turn it into a church. Thus church and 
synagogue buildings have not changed for twenty cen- 

In the days of Christ, all synagogues did not have 
these galleries, the nave was divided into equal divisions, 
men occupying the part to your right, women the other, 
a partition about six feet high running down the middle. 
A still stricter separation of the sexes now prevails among 

» I. Cor. 16, etc. * See Edersheim Life of Christ, i. 273, etc. 


Oriental and orthodox Jews, the galleries being screened 
ott" by lattice work. Orientals looked on women as being 
deeper defiled by Eve's sin, — this especially prevails 
among Moslems. The Jew of our day prays : " " O Lord, 
I thank thee that thou didst not make me a woman," 
and the woman says : " O Lord, I thank thee that thou 
didst make me as I am." * 

They planned the synagogue so the sanctuary would 
face towards Jerusalem ; in the latter city it faced the 
Temple, the direction being called in Hebrew Kedem, 
" The Front." The sanctuary of the Cenacle faced the 
east, from that rose the ancient custom of facing the 
sanctuary of our churches towards the east. 

In the time of Christ the sanctuary was named by the 
Grecian Jews the Bema, while the Roman Hebrews called 
it the rostrum " stage " "^ as of theaters and public build- 
ings. Only men could occupy the sanctuary during 
divine services ; and women were never allowed to take 
part during public worship.^ Whence St. Paul says : 
" Let women keep silent in the churches .... For it is 
a shame for a woman to speak in the church." * As a 
sign of subjection, they always wore a head covering 
when praying. " Doth it become a woman to pray to 
God uncovered?" says St. Paul;^ whence women even 
in our day never uncover their heads during church or 
synagogue services. 

At your right, but within the sanctuary, was a rostrum 
or pulpit called the darshan, from which the preacher 
delivered the midrash "sermon," on the part of the Law 
or Propliets read. From this came the custom of preach- 
iiig on the Epistle or Gospel, and the pulpit in our 
churches. As the men read the lessons from tlie Bil)le 
one stood by, called the meturgeman,'' and translated the 
words into the language of the people ,who in the days of 
Christ did not understand the ancient Hebrew. 

Before the Babylonian (^^aptivity tlie people of Pales- 
tine spoke the pure Hebrew called Leshon Hakkodesh, 
" Holy Language, or Leshon Chakamim," " Language, 
of the Learned." But during the seventy years of exile 

* Jewish Prayer Book. ' In St. Chrj'sostom's Liturgy the sanctuary is called 
the Bema. ^ See Migne, Cnrsus Coinp. S. ScrijJturiB, iii. 14::5J3, etc. * I. Cor. 
xiv. 34. '^ I. Cor. xi. 13. « Edersheiin, Life ot Christ, i. 10, 11, 436, 444, 445. 


they mixed Hebrew with Babylonian words, and when 
they returned, the common people spoke the Syro- 
Chaldaic, which some writers call the Aramean lan- 
guage.^ After the Greek conquest, many Greek words 
Avere adopted. When the Romans came they intro- 
duced numerous Latin terms, so that at the time of 
Christ a mixture of languages prevailed, especially in 
Galilee, meaning " The Circle of the Gentiles," from 
Gelil, " Circle," and Ilaggoyin, " Gentiles." This part of 
Palestine was so rich that it was called " the udder of 
the land," and many Gentile families who had settled 
there broke down the isolation of the Jew. Hence 
Christ converted many Galileans and chose his apostles 
from them, Judas, Caiphas' nephew, being the only strict 
Jew among them.^ 

The sermons of these ancient preachers come down to 
us under the name of the Targums and Midrashes. But 
they made no change in the ancient Hebrew of Moses 
and Temple, and synagogue services even to our day 
remain in the pure Hebrew, which only the learned Jews 
now understand. People wlio find fault because Mass Is 
said in Latin, Greek, and tongues the people do not un- 
derstand, do not realize that Christ worshiped in the 
synagogues where the services were in a dead language.^ 

Within the sanctuary, before the ark containing the 
holy Scrolls, hung an ever-burning lamp, fed with olive 
oil, reminding them of the Shekina, " a cloud by day and 
a fire bj^ night," in the tabernacle and first Temple. This 
lamp is now seen in our sanctuary lamp before the Bless- 
ed Sacrament. Along the two sides of the sanctuary were 
seats for the officers who carried out the services for the 
kneseth, " the congregation." These seats are seen in the 
seats and stalls of our churches. In wealthy synagogues 
these seats were very finely carved and ornamented, as 
are the stalls of cathedrals, and the large churches of 
Europe. Let us give the following from the Babylonian 

"Who has not seen the diplostoa, 'double portico,' 
of Alexandria in Egypt, has not seen the glory of Israel. 
It was said it was a great Basilica, ' palace with colon- 

1 Mi^ne, Cursus Comp. ii. 1346 ; Edersheim, Life of Christ, i. 10, 130. 2 Eders- 
heim, Sketclies, 40. ^ q^q Migne, Cursus Comp. S. Scripturse, 1. 529 to GOO, etc. 


nades,' and the palace could contain twice the number of 
men who went out from Egypt. There were seventy-one 
cathedras, ' armchairs with footstools,' for the seventy- 
one sages of the Great Sanhedrin, and each cathedra was 
made of no less than twenty-one myriads of talents of 
gold. And a wooden Bema was in the middle of the palace, 
were the hassan or sexton of the congregation stood with 
a flag in his hand, and when the time came in the prayer 
to respond 'Amen,' he raised the flag, and the whole 
people said ' Amen.' And they did not sit promiscuous- 
ly, but separately. The golden chairs were separate, and 
silver chairs were separate, smiths sat separately, carpen- 
ters separatel}^ and all of the difierent trades sat separately, 
and when a poor man went in, he recognized who his 
fellow-ti'adesmen were and went to them, and thus got 
work for the support of himself and his family.' The 
account says that Alexander of Macedon killed all of 
them, because thej^ broke the command,^ which forbade 
the Israelites to return to Egypt. 

" The court of the women was formerly without a bal- 
cony, but they surrounded it with a balcony, and ordained 
that the women should sit above, and the men below. 
Formerly the women sat in inward chambers, and the 
men in outer ones, but thereby was produced much levity, 
and it was ordained that the men should sit inwardly, 
and the women outwardly. But still levity arose, and 
therefore it ordained that the women should sit above and 
the men below." ^ 

The account then treats of the two Messiahs they 
thought the prophets foretold, one to be born of Joseph's 
tribe, who would be the suffering Messiah, quoting pro- 
phecies of his sufferings and death relating to Christ, and 
tlie other the glorious Messiah, born of David's family, 
who was to come in triumph and establish his kingdom 
over all the earth, ending with these words " And the 
Lord showed me four carpenters.* Who are the four 
carpenters ? The Messiah son of David, and the Messiah 
son of Joseph, Elias, and the Priest Zedec." ^ 

The word " carpenters " in the original Hebrew in the 
Douay version is " smiths," but in the King James 


* Babyl. Talmud, Tract Succah,c. v. « Dent. xvii. 16. "Talmurl Babyl. Succab, 
I. See Edersheim, Life of Christ, i. 58 to 64. * Zach. i. 20. ^ guccah, 79 to 82. 


version it is "carpenters." Thus it was handed down 
in these Jewish traditions that the Messiah would be a 
carpenter. The Gospels and writings of that time tell us 
that Christ worked as a carpenter before he began his 
public life. 

A railing, copied from the golden lamps forming a bal- 
ustrade between the priests' Court and Holies of the 
Temple, separated the sanctuary of the synagogue from 
the nave occupied by the people. This was the origin of 
the altar railing in our churches. 

On your right within the sanctuary, was a great candle- 
stick with seven lamps, modeled after the famous one of 
gold in the Temple, called the Tsemath, " The Branch." 
It reminded them of the "Branch" of David's family, 
the Messiah, " The Anointed," " The Christ," foretold to 
come filled with the sevenfold gifts of the Holy Ghost,^ 
and fill the world with heavenly truth, efi:ulgent rays, 
the teachings of his Gospel. They thought he was to 
found a matchless kingdom extending over all the earth. 
The Scribes, Pharisees and Rabbis thought that only 
the Jews would be rulers in this kingdom. 

From the days of Moses, they kept in the Temple the 
Yachas, "genealogies," birth and marriage records of 
Aaron's family, which they consulted when electing the 
high priest and inferior clergy.^ Following this in each, 
synagogue they kept careful records of births, marriages, 
deaths and confirmations of boys. The local Sanhedrin 
or court, found wherever 120 families lived, kept these 
records. Sts. Matthew and Luke could have therefore 
found Christ's genealogy, recorded in their Gospels, 
in the synagogues of Bethlehem and Nazareth. Whence 
come down in parish churches, records of births, deaths, 
confirmations, funerals, etc. 

The synagogue teacher, the Darshan, was called Rabbi, 
Rabban, or Rabboni. The word rah in the Babylonian 
language means " lord " or " master." Thus Nabuzardan 
is called rah tahachim^ " master of the army." ^ Assuerus 
placed a rah or " master " to preside over each table at 
his great feast.* Asphenez was rah ^ of the eunuchs. A 
rah of the saf/anim.^ "satrap," Avas the ruler of each 

1 Isaias ii. 1. 5. 3 : Zacli. iii. 8. 0, vi. l;i. = See Edersheirn, Life of Christ, i. 9; 
G«ikie, Life ((f Clirist, i. ")!. ^ IV. Kiii<^s x.vv. H. < Esther i. 3. ^ Dan. i. J5. 


province, and a rob of the chartimim was " chief of those 
who interpreted dreams." ^ The first to be called Rabbi 
was a son of that Hillel who was so famous as the 
founder of the Beth Hillel, " School of Hillel." This son 
was, according to some, that holy Simeon, who took the 
Child Jesus in his hands when presented in the Temple. 
The title Rabbi was not generally used before Herod the 

The president of a school or college was a cacham^ 
" sage " or " doctor." When he became famous as a 
teacher he was a cabar rahhin " companion of masters," 
who decided disputes about the Law,^ married people, 
granted divorces, lectured, presided over large synagogues, 
punished the wicked and could excommunicate.* 

These learned Rabbis went around the country preach- 
ing and gathering disciples to the number of twelve, as the 
high priest was served by twelve priests in his Temple 
ministry, in memory of the twelve sons of Jacob, fathers 
of the twelve tribes of Israel. This custom Christ 
followed when lie traveled over Judea with his twelve 

John the Baptist from the day he was confirmed at 
twelve till he was tiiirty, lived in the desert. Then 
following the customs of the Rabbis, he gathered disciples 
round him — many of them followed Christ after John had 
pointed him out to them as the " Lamb of God " who was 
to take away the sins of the world.* 

licsides the twelve immediate followers, these Rabbis 
had seventy-two followers, images of Noe's grandsons, 
fathers and founders of tlie nations.''' Often wealthy 
ladies followed these Rabbis to learn the Law and wait 
on them.'' Bands of Jews, each led by a Rabbi, used to 
come up to Jerusalem for the feast of Passover, thus 
great crowds followed Jesus to the Temple on Palm 

Christ was known by names applied to these Rabbis. 
The Greek of the Gospels shows us the names they called 
him. He or calls himself — 

didaskalos : " teacher," Matt. x. 24, xxvi. 18 ; 

» Dan. i. 2. * Geikie, Life Christ, i. C, 20, 77, 1(10, 170, 215 to 248, etc. ' Migne, 
Cursus Coinp. S. Scriptural, iii. 11H'.>. * (iHikio, Life of Clirist, ii., p 178. See 
Edersheim, Life of Christ, i. 11. '' Jolin i. ^0, " Gen, 10, See Edersheiiii, Life 
of Christ, ii. 135 to 143. ' Luko xxiii, W. 


kathegetes : " leader," " guide," in the sense of Rabbi, 

Matt, xxiii. 8-10 ; 
grammateus, "scribe," "learned," "a lawyer," Matt, 
xiii. 52. 
He is called — 

didaskalos: " master- teacher," Matt. viii. 19, ix. 11, xii. 

88, xvii. 23, xxii. 24; 
rabbi : " great man," " teacher," Matt. xxvi. 25-49 ; 
Mark xiv. 45, ix. 4, xi. 21 ; John i. 38-49. iii. 2, 26, iv. 31, 
vi. 25-92 ; 
rabboni : "my rabbi," " my lord," Mark x. 51 ; John xx. 

Rabbi, "my Master," or " my Lord," was first given to 
religious teachers in the time of Herod the Great,^ when 
Rabbis got the most extravagant ideas of their impor- 

In his Gospel St. Luke uses the Greek Didaskalos as 
the equivalent of Rab or Rabbi, "My Lord," applied many 
times to Christ. The lowest order of the Rabbis was the 
Rab, then the Rabbi, and the highest the Rabboni, titles 
coming down in the Church as Rev., Very Rev., and Rt. 
Rev., applied to spiritual rulers. The English is "My 
Lord," the French Monseigneur, the Italian Monsignor, etc., 
a title applied to bishops in Europe. It is the equivalent 
of the title they addressed to Christ in these days, when it 
was not respectful to call a teacher by his own name.' 

The Pharisees, Scribes and Rabbis liked to be called 
" Father " as priests are addressed to-day. But they had 
so exaggerated their own importance, and abused the title, 
that Christ told his apostles to call " God their Father in 
heaven, and Christ their Father on earth." * The custom 
of calling a priest or bishop " Father " comes down from 
this title our Lord applied to himself. 

No one would listen to a Rabbi before he was ordained 
with the laying on of the hands of the Rabbis in his thir- 
tieth year. If he began to preach before that time all would 
laugh at him. That is the reason Jesus lived in private, 
working as a carpenter at Nazareth after Joseph's death, 
supporting his widowed Mother till he was in his thirtieth 

» See Palestine in the Time of Christ, 30.",. a Qeikie, Life of Christ, i. G9-70-; 
ii. 19, 20, ICl ; ii. 585, etc. ; Migne, Gursus Comp. S. Scripturse iil. 1189, » Nork. 
193. * Matt, xxiii. 9, 10. 


year. Then he called members of the band of John the 
Baptist and fishermen of Galilee to be his followers, select- 
ing from these his twelve apostles. For more than three 
years they wandered over Judea like many bands led by 
the Rabbis of that time. 

On the hillsides and valleys, in the streets of villages, 
where night overtook them they said the Temple and 
synagogue prayers, after which they spread the two 
blankets and straw each carried in a basket, and with a 
stone for a pillow like Jacob ^ they slept beside the sacred 
form of Jesus Christ. 

Why did the Lord spend his xjublic life wandering 
from place to place ? He wanted to train his apostles 
like soldiers, accustom them to hardships, drill them by 
a severe novitiate, harden their muscles, strengthen their 
wills, that they might be prepared later to travel through 
the nations while preaching his Gospel, and to enable 
them to stand all kinds of trials and hardships, even 
martyrdom destined for them all, except St. John.^ 

Judea was then densely populated, and the Rabbis with 
their bands used to pass through country and city followed 
by crowds of people. When they entered a town the 
whole population turned out. In country districts the 
Rabbi often sat on a high rock, or on the top of a hill or 
mountain, as Christ did when he delivered the sermon on 
the mount. The Rabbi placed his most advanced 
scholars at his feet, surrounding him like the apostles 
around Christ, the hearers less advanced below them, 
like the seventy-two disciples below the apostles and the 
people lower down sitting on mats or on the ground. 

Great honor the children offered the teacher Rabbi of 
the Beth-ham-Midrasch, " School House." He whispered 
his words, which an advanced scholar spoke so that all 
the scholars could hear.^ The Jews of that time told 
their children, " Rub yourselves in the dust of the feet of 
your teachers." Children used to wash the feet of their 
teachers as a mark of love and veneration. To show 
them his love, Christ reversed the custom when he 
washed the apostles' feet at the Last Supper. 

The Jews claim thii'teen classes of Rabbis — teachers, — 
]\Ioses, Josue, Eleazar, llie Seventy men Moses chose to aid 

» Geu. xxviii. IS. 2 John xxi. 2:^. » Sue Geikie, Life of Christ, i. 231 to 235. 


him in the government, the Judges, the members of the 
Sanhedrin of that epoch, the Prophets, the twenty-six 
great teachers after the Captivity, tlie Thanaim mentioned 
in the Talmudic Mishna, the Amoraims who commented 
on the Mishna, the Giours " Excellent Doctors," the 
Seboreens, "Doubters," and lastly the Gaons, teachers 
of our day. 

The Rabbis, called Maggid, went through the country 
teaching in the synagogues, each followed by his band of 
disciples. "Jesus went about all Galilee teaching in their 
synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and 
healing all diseases and infirmities among the people."* 

" And when he was departed from thence, he came into 
the synagogue."^ "And coming into his own country, 
he taught them in their synagogues." ^ " And on the Sab- 
bath day going into the synagogue he taught them." * 
Eight other texts of the Gospels say he went into the 
synagogues, taught and performed miracles before the 
assembled Jews. His sermon relating to eating his Body 
and drinking his Blood was preached in a synagogue of 
Capharnaum,^ "village of the prophet Nalium," the word 
meaning " the comforter." 

One Rabbi presided over a small synagogue. But 
large flourishing congregations were ruled by a college of 
twelve Rabbis,** called in llebvew pamasim and in Greek 
preshyteri : " aged men." The presbyters, first mentioned 
in Esdras,' are found twenty-four times in the Bible, 
translated as " elders " in the King James Bible and as 
" ancients " in the Douay version. The ruler or chairman 
of this senate the Greeks called the archiaynagogos 
" ruler of the synagogue." He governed the congrega- 
tion, took care of the building and property, and could 
punish unruly members w^ith the pain of Kareth " cut 
off," " excommunication." This senate was an image of 
the high priest with his twelve priests, who carried out 
the Temple ceremonial. 

Christ acted as a Rabbi during his public life, twelve 
times this name is applied to him in the Gospel, and when 
he chose his twelve apostles, he followed Temple and 
synagogue custom. The apostles founded dioceses, "resi- 

» Matt. is. 35. -Matt. xii. 9. » Matt. xiii. 54. *Marki.;>l. » John vl. 60* 
* See Oeikie, Life of Christ, ii. 595. ' I. Esdras vi. 8. 


dence " or " administration," among the nations, as Judea 
was divided into districts with a synagogue in each, with 
these twelve rulers at its liead. In every city they 
ordained twelve priests, called presbyters, over whom 
they placed a bishop, " superintendent," to rule the church 
with its senate of twelve priests, similar to the constitu- 
tion of the Jewish Church. In the early Church we find 
only the diocese. The parish took its rise in Rome, 
when the city was divided into districts in the days of 
Peter. Alexandria soon followed, the other cities copied, 
but the country parishes with a priest as pastor over each 
were not founded till the twelfth century. 

In the days of Christ the archisynagogos was always 
an ordained Rabbi, as were the members of the senate, or 
parnasim. But in later times a layman might occupy the 
position and now he is called the " president of the con- 
gregation," or the rich-hac-cejieseth^ " ruler-of-the-meet- 
ing-house." He called the members to meet, presided at 
all meetings, sat in the Bema during the services, invited 
preachers, called up the seven men to read the Law, and 
looked after business matters. The Rabbi had little to 
say in the finances, but looked after the doctrines of 

An important official of the synagogue Avas the sheliach 
in Hebrew, or apostolos in Greek, meaning " to be sent." 
The apostle carried the collections taken up in Babylonia 
and Jewish colonies of the Roman empire to Jerusalem 
for the support of the Temple, with the half shekels each 
Jew was obliged to give every year for the expenses of 
religion — the Temple and its sacrifices.^ 

The Temple priests also sent each year apostles from 
Jerusalem to the different synagogues of the world to 
bring greetings from their brethren in Judea, and to see 
that the synagogue Avorship was rightly observed in these 
distant lands.^ When therefore Christ's followers went 
forth from Jerusalem into the nations to preach the 
Gospel to the heathens they were called apostles, both 
name and mission being well known in Judaism long be- 
fore Christ. 

» Mark v. 22, 35, 36, 38 ; Luke viii. 41, xiii. 14 ; Acts xviii. 8-17 ; Edersheim, L 
C, i. 63. * Migne, Cursus Comp. S .Scripturaa, ii. 1328. * Mlgne, Cursus Comp. 


Each synagogue had a committee of seven " standing 
men," who used to fast sometimes four times a Aveek, 
from Monday till Thursday inclusiv«. On Sabbath the 
standing men read the Bible sections commencing: "In 
the beginning God created," etc ; ^ on Monday they read, 
" Let there be a ; firmament," etc. ; on Tuesday, " Let the 
waters," etc.^ ; on Wednesday, " Let there be lights," etc' ; 
on Thursday, " Let the earth bring forth, etc.,* and on 
Friday, " Thus were finished," etc.^ 

" The long section was read by two persons, and the 
short by one, this was done however during the morning, 
and during the additional prayers, but in the afternoon 
they entered the synagogue, and recited the sections by 
heart, as the Shema is recited. On Friday they did not 
go to the synagogue at all in honor of the Sabbath." ^ 

These men were called up into the Bema or sanctuary 
of the synagogue to read the sections of the Scripture. 
It is called reading the Scrolls of the Law. In syna- 
gogues of our day, on Passover and holidays thej^ read five, 
on Passover before feast and on Sabbath seven lessons 
from the Law, and one from the Prophets. The Rabbi 
and Hassan also each read one section making nine les- 
sons." This was the origin of the nine lessons of the 
Matins. The lessons of Holy Week like those of the 
Jews have no " Command, Lord bless," etc., as the lessons 
of the ordinary offices.'' 

The seven men who read the Law were the leading 
members of the congregation, and sometimes they looked 
after widows, orphans and the poor. When the apostles 
selected and ordained the seven deacons, they followed 
the ancient custom of the synagogue.® The reader was 
called the Maphtir ^ and was classed with Moses, the 
patriarchs and prophets. 

Temple priests and Levites were born of Aaron's and 
Levi's family, but any one could become a Rabbi. There- 
fore Christ chose his apostles and disciples not from 
among the Temple priests but among the Galileans with- 
out doing violence to custom. The Rabbi when a boy 

» Gen. i. 1 to .'>. • Gen. i. 6. ' i. 14. « i. 24. ^n.ltoi. « Talmud, Taanith, 

cap. iv. 79-81, 62, 63, etc. '' See Babylonian Talmud, Cap. iv. for regulations 

regarding "Standing men." The Babylonian Talmud, Megilla, "Book of 

Esther," gives minute directions regarding the ceremonies of reading the 

©aored Books. ® Act.s &, * See Migne, Cursus Comp. S. Scripturse. iii. 967. 


attended the school of his native place, and went up to 
Jerusalem to finish his studies. The conditions and 
talents were the same as St. Paul lays down for the 
selection of a bishop.' Before they ordained him he had 
to be learned, active, father of a family, apt to teach, a 
good singer, and not engaged in business. These are still 
required for Rabbis of our day. 

The next personage was the chazzan^ called to-day by 
Jews hassan^ " minister," in Greek diakonos^ " worker," in 
Hebrew shemash. The word is mentioned in the account 
of Christ in the synagogue. "And wlien he had folded 
the book he restored it to tlie minister," ^ — the hassan. 
He thus fulfilled tlie duties of the deacon and sub-deacon 
when waiting on the Kabhi.* The same rules were fol- 
lowed in his selection as for the Rabbi. He opened the 
synagogue doors, prepared things for the service, often 
acted as the school-teaclier, sang the services and re- 
sponded to the Rabbi during divine worship. Good 
singers and active hassans of our day receive large sala- 
ries, sometimes $2,000 to $3,000 a year. With the Rabbi 
he was ordained in the time of Christ with a long cere- 
mony, and the laying on of the hands of the Rabbis and 
hassans on his head. This gave rise to the custom of 
imposing the hands of the clergy with the bishop on the 
head of the clergyman the day of his ordination. 

Besides these ofilcials, in every congregation were ten 
men, called batlanim " men of leisure." They were not 
obliged to labor for their living, and could therefore at- 
tend, not only the Sabbath, but the ^Monday and Thurs- 
day services. No congregation was complete, nor could 
any service be held without tliem. At one synagogue 
tlie writer attended, they had to wait before beginning 
the service till ten men were ])resent, the women not 
l)eing considered, as they cannot take part in any religious 
function. Seven of these men, called jStationaiHi, or viri 
Stotionis in the synagogue of the Iwoman empire, collected 
the synagogue alms for the poor, read the Law during 
the services, and gave rise to the church clergy in minor 
orders. They are sotnetimes called shepherds, in Hebrew 
hassans, in Greek hUqjcus "priest" while the Rabbi was 

^ I. Tim. iii. 1-T ; Tit. i. C-9. "- Geikie. Life of Clui^, i. 178. » Lulce iv. 20. 
* Edersheim, Life of Christ, i. 231, J;J8, \\X 


sometimes named apostolos " sent," " legate " of the con- 
gregation. These words are found in decrees of later 
Roman emperors regarding the Jews after the destruction 
of the Temple. 

Each synagogue had either five or seven Gabai Zedakah. 
" Charity Collectors," who took up the collection during 
the service. The people offered either money or victuals. 
This took place after reading the Law and Prophets. 
The custom was continued in the early Church when the 
people brought their offerings and placed them on a table 
in the sanctuary and that part of the Mass is called the 

Two Jews took up the collection, and four or five dis- 
tributed them. They were the leading men of the con- 
gregation and took care of the widows and orphans. We 
trace the collectors in the Church back to the sjaiagogue. 
Some writers think the apostles had these seven men in 
mind when they ordained the seven deacons.^ 

The Jews of the time of Christ had an order of exor- 
cists : " Who went about and attempted to invoke over 
them that had evil spirits." ^ When Christ gave power 
over unclean spirits he followed the synagogue regula- 

The reader will see in these four officials of the syna- 
gogue the minor orders of the Church coming down from 
the apostolic days. They are mentioned in the most an- 
cient records and are found in all the apostolic Liturgies. 
The priests who prepared the bread and wine in the 
Temple imaged the acolytes, the men who read the Scrip- 
tures the readers, the chassans who opened doors of 
Temple nnd synagogue the porters, and the men who 
drove out demons, the exorcists. 

The synagogue service was always sung in the days of 
Christ. From the time Jubal invented musical instru- 
ments,^ song, timbrel and harp * were used at Aveddings, 
religious gatherings, and feasts of joy. Music and poetry 
went hand in hand. Poets composed and sang their 
songs accompanying themselves on musical instruments. 
This custom obtained among all primitive peoples.*^ 

1 Acts vi, ; Edersheim, Sketches, p. 283. ^ ^gt^ ^ix. 13 ; Matt. xii. 27; Mark 
iii. 15-30 ; Luke vi. 18, viil. 29, xi. 24. » Gen. iv. 21. * Gen. xxxi. 27.< « Migne, 
Cursus Comp. S- Scripturae iii. 1029. 



Moses sang his hymn of glory to the Lord.' All Israel, 
forming a mighty choir, voiced their joy in Jehovah's 
praise when they found water in the desert.^ Before his 
death God told Moses to write a glorious canticle of praise 
and prophecy.* 

Down the history of the Hebrews we find the hymn, 
" sacred song " and canticle of " praise " during religious 
worship. Seventy-four times the canticle is found in the 
Old Testament. When Moses built the tabernacle, parts 
of the services were sung by priest and Levite choirs, and 
that was the order of exercises till Temple replaced taber- 

David, Jesse's seventh son, keeping his father's flocks 
on Bethlehem's hills, moved by the spirit of poetry, com- 
posed songs of praises to the God of his fathers. Chosen 
king in place of Saul, when he had brought the ark to 
Jerusalem, David formed priests and levites into twenty- 
four courses for the better service of the Temple his son 
Solomon was to build. Then began the composition of 
the Book of Psalms, the Temple Hymn-book. Later 
other prophet-poets added psalms " songs of j) raise," till 
the Hebrew Hymn-book, the Book of Psalms was formed 
as it comes down to us. 

Written in pure Hebrew, in verse sometimes in fault- 
less meter, in striking figures, filled with history of the 
nation, uniting past, present and future, telling the story 
of David the king, and David the Christ, the Hebrew 
Church and the Catholic Church, David's sorrows and 
Christ's sufferings, the Babylonian Captivity, and the 
glories of Christianity, the preaching of the Apostles, and 
the conversion of the Heathens, the glories of the Re- 
deemer's reign, and the triumph of the Saints, — the Psalms 
come down from the reigns of David and of Solomon as 
the most remarkable compositions of any age or people. 

Used ever after as Temple Hynni-book, sung twice a day 
by two choirs of priests and Levites, each formed of more 
than 500 members, the Psalms were sung in the syna- 
gogues after the destruction of the Temple. To this day 
in their synagogues, scattered over the world wherever 
they have wandered, the Jews still sing these wonderful 

* Exod. XV. 1. 2 Numb. xxi. 17. ' Deut. xxxi. 19, etc. * See Migne, S. Serip- 
turffi, ii. 1129, 1131, 1122, 1155, etc. 


devotional prophetic hymns and religious canticles. 
They look on David as their holiest and greatest king. 
But why they should now hold that these hymns re- 
late to a king, an adulterer and a murderer 3,000 years 
dead, especially when in hundreds of places the long- 
looked-for Messiah is mentioned, is surprising. 

The flute, in Hebrew mashroqitha, " to blow," under 
different forms was used in Egypt 2,000 years before 
Christ. It was a favorite instrument of Greek and 
Roman shepherds, and was used in military bands, and 
at festivals and funerals. Its Latin name comes from 
Jluta^ an eel of Sicilian waters, with seven spots on each 
side like flute holes.* 

The piccolo is an octave higher, and many flutes, tuned 
in unison, became the organ used before the flood. ^ 
David introduced the organ into the Temple services^ 
translated "musical instruments." 

Musicians sometimes played two flutes at the same 
time, one an octave higlier than the other, as we see in 
sculptures and pictures of shepherds and satyrs. The 
pagans played the flute at feast and f unenil. The Rabbis 
taught that not less than two flutes must be played at a 
funeral, Jews having learned that custom from Greeks 
and Romans. 

Many flutes formed into one instrument became the 
organ run by water invented by Ctesbius of Alexandria 
in the second century before Christ. In the Temple was 
a large organ they called the magrephah, the bellows be- 
ing of elephant hide.* It sustained the singing. The 
Rabbis write it could be heard down to Jericho, but this is 
incredible for the distance is fifteen miles. When it 
gave forth a jjeculiar note, the priest behind the veil in the 
Holies spread the incense on the gold altar. From the 
beginning the organ has been used in our churches. 

In David's day 4.000 singers formed choirs of Levites 
under the leadership of Asaph, Heman and Idithun, and 
they sang the Temple service. Asaph had four sons, 
Idithun six, and Heman fourteen, each son being placed 
over a choir or band, and thus David divided the Levites 
into twenty -four bands or " courses." Each son of these 

* See Migne, Cursus Com. S. Scripturae, iii. 1002. * Gen. iv. 21. ^ I, Par. xv. IG. 
* Edensheim, Temple, 137 ; Geikie, Life of Christ, i. 338. 


great music teachers, had unrler him elcA^en teachers of 
vocal and instrumental music. They taught the priests 
and Levites to sing the glories of Jehovali. Families be- 
came famous for nuisical abilities. These sons of Caath, 
at the time of Christ, stood in the center, Avith the sons 
of Merai on the left, and the descendants of Gerson on the 
right. While Idithun's family in David's day played the 
cithern called the cinnor, Asaph's family drew music 
from the psaltery, called in Hebrew nahaU and Heman's 
struck the Mizlothaim, " the timbrels," with them beating 
time. These were the three chief musical instruments 
used in the temple from David's da}^ and are called by 
Jewish writers the viol, psaltery and cymbal. 

" And now David, being freed from wars and dangers, 
and enjoying for the future a profound peace, composed 
songs and hymns to God of several sorts of meter, some 
of which he made were trimeters and some were pen- 
tameters. He also made instruments of music, and 
taught the Levites to sing hymns to God, both on that 
called the Sabbath-day, and on other festivals. Now the 
construction of the instruments was thus. The viol was 
an instrument of ten strings, it was played on with a 
bow. The psaltery had twelve musical notes, and was 
played by the fingers. The cymbals were broad and 
Uirge instruments, and were made of brass." ^ 

According to Josephus, David composed the Book of 
Psalms, not at different times as is generally supposed, 
but towards the end of his life, and he alone is their 
author. He says Moses composed his Canticle at the Red 
Sea and his other Canticle in hexameter meter. But the 
Psalms were of various meters. 

The Hebrews carried their music, instruments and the 
liturgy of the destroyed Temple to Babylon, and used 
them in the synagogues. When they returned and re- 
built the Temple, they continued the Temple service in 
the synagogues they built in all the towns of Judea, and 
in cities and towns of the world into which they had 
scattered at the time of Christ. Synagogue services were 
always sung by priests Levites and members of the con- 

* Josephus Antiq., B. vii. C. xli. n. 3. ' See Migne, S. ScriptivfiB, lii. 915-8, 


The choirs of Levites in Solomon's Temple were clothed 
in white tunics of byssus and fine linen, to distinguish 
them from the priests vested in cloth of gold ; on solemn 
feasts they put on vestments of magnificent embroidery. 
Some time after the death of Chj'ist, Herod Agrippa gave 
the Levites permission to vest in robes like those worn 
by the priests in their ministry, which Joseph us says 
was contrary to the law. 

Priests and Levites formed two choirs, one responding 
to the other, using as hymn-books, Psalms, Job, Prov- 
erbs, Ecclesiasticus and Canticle of Canticles — the Book 
of Psalms being the one most used. Following the ex- 
ample of Moses' sister Mary and the women with her 
who sang and danced,^ women sang in the synagogues. 
We do not find that women ever formed a choir in the 
Temple, perhaps they sang in congregational singing in 
the Women's Court. 

The priests' choir began the Psalm, sang as far as the 
star in our breviaries, and the Levites sang the rest of the 
verse like a response. This is the reason that the latter 
part, in thought is like an echo of the former, for the 
Psalms were written for the Temple service. The two 
choirs of Temple and sjaiagogue passed into the two 
choirs of the Church or into the priests' choir in the 
sanctuary, and the lay-choir in the organ gallery. From 
the Jewish church came the versicles and responses, and 
parts taken by the celebrant of the Mass, and they are 
seen in missals. Breviaries, rituals, liturgical books, and 
are found not only in the Latin, but in all Oriental 

Temple service of sacred song and h3ann were intro- 
duced into the synagogue long before the time of Christ, 
and continue down to our (lay among both Jews and 
Christians. The Passover services was always sung in 
imitation of the Temple worship. Many reasons force us 
to conclude that the services of the Last Supper were 
sung. The Gospel states they sang a hymn before they 
left the Cenacle.^ 

The Passover the writer attended in Jerusalem was 
sung by the thirteen Jews in their own peculiar tone and 
melody. The Oriental Christians sing Mass in their crude 

1 Exod. XV. 20, 21. » Matt. xxvi. 30 ; Mark xiv. 26. 


nasal tone, reminding j^ou of Jewish vocal music. Roman 
Catholics sing the offices of Holy Week round Christ's 
tomb in Jerusalem, and it is so strikingly superior to 
Oriental music that great crowds gather. The proph- 
ecies relating to the Saviour's Passion and death are 
then read in the spot where they were fulfilled. 

The next week the Oriental Christians, Armenians, 
Copts, Greeks, Nestorians, Jacobites, etc., gather in the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre, each band being led by 
their clergy and bishop, the laity going first, then the 
clergy and last the bishop. One band follows another 
to the number of six or eight, and each band, having a 
different language, rite, and method of singing — all to- 
gether make the most awful discord heard on earth. 

Pope Gregory I. reformed the crude Jewish and oriental 
music, and he is the author of what is now called the 
Gregorian or plain chant — the official music of the Church. 
St. Augustine says St. Athanasius condemned certain waj^s 
of modulating the voice in singing the Psalms, Avhicli he 
himself does not condemn, which shows that our services 
were sung in the early Church.^ 

In the Temple Holy of Holies, the ark with the Shekina 
resting on its mercy-seat, having the tables of the Law, 
was most holy to the Hebrew. The synagogue ark, con- 
taining the Torah "the Law" and the Haphtorah, the 
" Prophetic Books " was the most sacred object. It was 
a box about three feet square and high, and covered by a 
vail, it rested next the farther wall in the middle of the 
sanctuary and was approached by steps. In the early 
Church the altar was made the same size and shape as 
the Jewish ark. The Greek and Oriental Christians have 
altars of the same kind rising in the middle of the veiled 
sanctuary, the bishop's throne being behind, where he 
sits facing the people. The Orientals cover the altar 
with silk altar cloths and allow on it nothing but the 
liturgical books — the Book of the Liturgy in the center, 
that of the Gospels on your left and that of the Epistles 
on your right, resting on the silk-covered altar table. 
Even the candles must be on a little shelf in the Slavonic 
Rite. The Jews allow nothing but the Scrolls of the 
Law in the ark. 

* S. Augustine, Confes. 1. xc, xxxiii. 


Jews in this country form the ark as an ornamental re- 
cess curtained off, having two doors opening out, behind 
which they keep the Scrolls, the place being approached 
by steps. The synagogue ark came down from the 
Temple, for God told Moses to place the Law, that is 
the first five Books of the Old Testament in the ark,^ 
At the time of Christ another box received the Haphtorah 
" The Prophets," for they were not written till after 
Moses' time. 

The writer examined different synagogue Scrolls which 
Jews claim are now written the same as in the days 
of Moses. They are in the peculiar angular Hebrew 
letters written with a reed pen. The last line of a par- 
agraph has the letters spread out, so that all lines will 
be of an equal length. These Scrolls come from Europe, 
where they are produced by learned Scribes — generally 
old men learned in Biblical and Talmudic lore. The 
Torah used in the synagogues was never printed with 
type, but is always copied with the extreme care and 
labor as in the ancient days of Christ and the prophets. 

The Jews say it is hard to read these Scrolls, as they 
must remember the vowels and put them in as they go 
along during the reading of the Law in the synagogue. 
Many centuries ago the vowels were put into some writ- 
ings. In other Hebrew writings the vowels were put in, 
and they appear as little dots and signs. But no change 
was ever made in the Scrolls of Moses' Five Books, still 
copied, in the purest Hebrew.^ The Jerusalem Talmud 
was written in the Hebrew of Moses and the Temple, 
while the Babylonian Talmud was written in the mixed 
Hebrew and Babylonian forming a language called the 
Syro-Chaldaic of the time of Christ. The Jews of our 
time publish works and newspapers in their vernacular 
language, such as German, Russian, etc., using the Hebrew 
letters in Scrolls, Talmuds and their modern publications. 

The Jews call these five first Books of the Bible, " The 
Five Books of Moses," the Greeks named them the Pen- 
tateuch, " The Five Books." But their ancient Hebrew 
name is Torah, " The Law," a word found more than six 
hundred times in the Bible. Sometimes the word law 
means these five Books Moses wrote, in other texts it 

1 Deut. xxxi. 25, 2G. ^ Geikie, Life of Christ, i. 553 ; ii. 607, 608, etc. 


refers to the Law and the Temple ceremonial, while often 
it signifies the whole Hebrew religion with the Old Test- 
ament, Temple, synagogue and Jewish faith. But when 
the Jews of our day mention the Torah or Law, they mean 
these five books Moses wrote on the scrolls and placed in 
the Temple in a special ark, and which they claim come 
down in the synagogue to our da}^ in the exact form as 
Moses wrote them on the vellum scrolls. 

The Sheepskins are about two feet square, each cut 
from a whole skin, scraped nearly as thin as paper, and 
tanned white ; they are called vellum, from vel^ " skin," 
whence our word volume. They are then sowed together 
with sheep-gut, so as to form a band many feet in length. 
In the middle of each square piece of vellum are written 
two or three columns of the Hebrew writings, which 
read, not from left to right like our books, but from right 
to left like all Semitic writings. You begin at what 
Avould be the back of our books. 

The long sheets of vellum are rolled on two sticks, the 
ends having rollers so the vellum does not touch the 
table. The ends of the sticks and rollers are ornamented 
with silver, gold, or other ornaments, decorated and 
richly finished according to the wealth of the congrega- 
tion> The scroll of the Law, with its ornaments, is cov- 
ered with a rich embroidered case when placed in the ark. 
During the synagogue service, officers vested like our 
inferior clergy, go up to the ark, draw aside the veil 
and take out the Law. Forming a procession, they go 
to the reading desk, where it is read in a loud singing 
tone. This gave rise to the ceremony of singing the 
Gospel. The deacon taking the missal places it on the 
altar and kneels in prayer. Taking the missal from the 
altar, he receives the celebrant's blessing, and goes 
with the other ministers to the place where the Gospel is 
sung. The reader Avill find in Zanolini ^ accurate descrip- 
tions of the synagogue worship at the time of Christ. 
Jewish and Protestant writers we liave quoted treat the 
subject extensively. 

The synagogue service * began with the Psalms, prayers, 
and doxology : "praise." Then they read the part of 
the Law or Torah of Moses relating to the feast. Dur- 

» De Festis et Sectis Judftiorum. • See Palestine, 338-343. 


ing this reading, all except the reader sat, and that is 
the reason that in the church to-day, all sit during the 
reading of the Epistle at Mass. 

As the Scriptures were in the ancient Hebrew, which 
the people did not understand, one stood by the reader 
and translated the sentences into the language of the 
people, into Syro-Chaldaic in Palestine, or into the Baby- 
lonian, Greek, Latin, etc., according to the place where 
the synagogue was.' The reader, or Maphtir, covered his 
head with the prayer-shawl, called the tallith, to which 
St. Paul alludes.^ As the Jews considered themselves a 
nation of priests, any one could rise in the synagogue and 
read the Scriptures.'' 

After reading the portion of the " Books of Moses " relat- 
ing to the feast, they read a part of the prophecies. 
Generally they stood while the prophecies were read, and 
that gave rise to the custom of standing during the 
Gospel in our churches. After this they sat while the 
reader, Rabbi, or one of the congregation preached the 
sermon from the pulpit. The parts were marked so that 
the whole Torah, or Pentateuch was read in the course of 
three years. Later, but before Christ, it Avas arranged so 
that they read the whole Torah in one year. That gave 
rise in the early Church of reading a part of each of the 
Books of the Bible during the year. 

In Scripture and Jewish writings, the word Sabbath, 
" rest," means not only Saturday, the Jewish day of 
worship, but any solemnity, festival, or feast.* 

During Sabbath feasts, and Passover, the latter being 
the highest holiday, all work stopped, they could even 
walk only half a mile. They worshiped God with 
solemn synagogue and Temple worship at Passover. 
The Talmud Tract,^ under thirty-nine heads, cites things 
forbidden on Sabbath. Three chief things were done on 
the Sabbath and feast — trumpets sounded, tables were 
prepared, lamps and candles lighted, synagogue services 
held, and Law and Prophets read. But the preparations 
and services of Passover were most elaborate. 

The Laws of JMoses were first read in what the Greeks 
called Parasca " section," and its appendix, the prophecy, 

* Acts XV. 21 : Luke iv. 16. * Rom. iv. T. ' Luke iv. IG : Acts xiii. 15. * Zauo- 
liui, Disp. cle Fest. Judaeorum, Cap. Prim. " Tlie Sabbath, Cup. vii., Sec. 2, 


was also sung, as we read first the Epistle, and then 
the Gospel. The regular prayers were said, and two 
added for the Passover, the last being a prayer for the 
king whom they served.' St. Paul, asking Christians to 
pray for and obey their princes^ followed the synagogue 
and Temple, where day by day sacrifices were offered for 
the Roman emperor. After these services they sat or re- 
clined at the table to eat.^ Some writers claim the cus- 
tom of reading sections of the Scripture came from 
Moses, others from Esdras, but the council of Jerusalem 
defines in these words : " From the most ancient times, 
Moses had in each city men, who preached the Scripture 
in the synagogues where every Sabbath it was read." * 

In Babylonia, at the time of Christ, they read the 
whole Law or Pentateuch once a year. This is still the 
practice of modern Jews, but in Judea they read the 
whole of Moses' Books in three years. They were divided 
into sections ^ not marked in scrolls, but each part was 
fixed by custom. As the reader read the Hebrew, one 
stood by with a pointer so the reader might not miss a 
word. Ordinary Sabbaths six men of the congregation 
were called up, and on feasts seven men, each reading a 
portion. Then two other men, called by the Hassan, 
read two lessons of the Prophets. This gave rise to the 
nine lessons of Holy Week, and of the Breviary. Holy 
Week services have remained almost unchanged since 
the beginning of the Church. In the Church of the 
Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, these lessons are read facing 
the door of the tomb, and the prophecies are striking 
when heard in the very place where they take place. 
People from all nations of the earth fill the ancient 
building St. Helena erected A. D. 312. 

The Talmud tells us how they were read in Christ's 
day. " When the Sabbath of Shekalim (the time for col- 
lecting the half -shekel at Passover) falls due, the portion 
proper to this Sabbath is Thetzaveh. Six persons^ should 
read from verse 20 of xxvii. to verse 11 of xxx., and one 
from 11 of xxx. to verse 17." SaidAbbyi: The people 
will think the portion is too long, and will not notice 

' Zanolini, Cap. I. * Titus, 3-1. ' Zanolini, Ibidem. See his Note regarding 
the three sections of the session at the table. * Syn. Jerusalem, C. 15, V. i31> 
*Se© Geikie, Life of Christ, ii, 584. 


that they read the portion Shekalim, and therefore he 
says six should read from 20 in xxvii., to 17 in xxx., 
Thetzaveh, and then should come another and repeat 
from 11 in xxx. to 17. When the first of Adar falls 
on the eve of Sabbath, said Rahb, the portion Shekalim 
should be read on the preceding Sabbath, because the 
tables of money-changers are set up two weeks after the 
reading," etc. These were the money-changers Christ 
drove from the Temple. The Temple priests derived a 
discount of $45,000 from the traffic. 

" Three men are called ^ to read the Holy Scrolls on 
Mondays and Thursdays, and on the afternoon of the 
Sabbath, neither more nor less than that number may 
be called, nor shall any section from the Prophets be 
then read. He who commences the reading of the Holy 
Scrolls shall pronounce the first benediction before read- 
ing it, and he who concludes the reading shall pro- 
nounce the last benediction after reading it. On all 
days when an additional offering is prescribed, which 
are not nevertlieless festivals, four men are called, five on 
festivals, six on the Day of Atonement and seven on tlie 

The synagogue service on the afternoon was mostly 
formed of Psalms, and this gave rise to our Vesper service, 
when the Gospel is not read. "It is not so with the 
reading of the Torah (the Law), w^hich can be read only 
when the congregation sits. 

" The scrolls of the Pentateuch one should read, and 
the other should interpret, but not one read and two 
translate, but the Prophets one should read and two in- 
terpret. One nmst not read less than ten verses in the 
house of prayer. To what do these ten correspond ? To 
the ten unemployed men in the synagogue. The begin- 
ner shall pronounce the benediction before the reading, 
and the last reader after." 

They kissed the sacred words of the Scrolls before 
and after reading. In our time they I'ub the corner of 
the prayer-shawl worn on their shoulders on the text 
and kiss that. The Jewish rite of kissing the Scrolls of 
the law we see when the celebrant of the Mass kisses the 
beginning of the Gospel after reading it, and i:»ronounces 

» Balyl Talmud, Megilla, 57-89. 


the blessing over tlie kneeling deacon. This rite comes 
from the Jewish benediction before reading the law/ 

The Temple service was more elaborate than that of 
the synagogue. Twelve priests served the high priest, 
six on either side, and the Segan at his right as assistant 
priest. " The six men who read on the Day of Atonement, 
to whom do they correspond? He said, 'To the six who 
stood on the right and the six on the left of Esdras as is 
written.^ The names of the six men who stood on the 
right and of the six that stood on the left.'" 

The Mass, having come from the Passover or Last 
Supper only indirectly from the Temple, follows the former 
in the numl)er of its ministei's and ceremonies. Whence 
the bishop, the high priest of the Church, is served not 
by twelve priests as the pontiff in tlie Temple, bat by 
seven ministers as the Rabbi was served in the syna- 
gogue. ''The Torah was read by seven men." We find re- 
peated in many places of the Tract Megilla of the Talmud : 

" Kot less than three verses of the Iloly Scrolls may be 
read in the synagogue by each person. One verse only 
of the Law may at one time be read to the interpreter. 
From the Prophets however may be read three also, but 
if each verse form a separate section, each must be read 
separately. Passages may be skipped in the reading of 
the Prophets, but not in that of the Holy Scrolls. Two 
weeks before the Passover it shall be lectured about the 
Passover. On the first day of Passover, the portion in 
Leviticus relating to the festival must be read. ^ On 
Passover should be read the portions referring to the 
festival, and the portions from the Prophets should be 
from Josue v. 9, about Gilgal (Galgal in our version), etc., 
and at present in exile, when \ve keep two days as fes- 
tivals, the lirst day should be about Gilgal, tjie second 
day, from IV. Kings, xxiii, about Josias, and the last day 
of Passover should be selected small portions, in which 
it is spoken about Passover." 

At all Jewish feasts parts of the Bible relating to the 
feasts were read in the Temple and synagogues, and from 
this was derived the custom of reading in the church 
portions of the Bible relating to the feasts. 

^ See Babylonian Talrniu), Tatiiiith, cap. ii. 41, 75. etc.. where the order of 
benedictions is given. * il. Esdrus, viii, 4. ^ Levit. xxiii. 5-22. 


"One shall open the Holy Scrolls and look on them, 
pronounce the benediction, then read. He who rolls 
together the Holy Scrolls, shall do it so tlnst the sewn 
rolls should be in the middle, that it be done easily. 
They may be rolled together only from the outside, so 
that the letters should not be seen outside." 

Then follow details of rolling and holding the scrolls. 
Books were first written on long scrolls rolled up, whence 
perhaps our w^ord volume, "' rolled." During the syna- 
gogue services the Rabbi and ministers always stood, as 
the celebrant and his ministers stand ■while carrying out 
Church functions. I;i Temple or synagogue the people 
prostrated themselves thirteen times on the floor at the 
name of Jehovah and duriiig the most solemn parts of 
the services. We see the remains of this at the end of 
the Gospel, when the standing congregation bend the 
knee. The celebrant reads the Epistle and Gospel before 
they are sung. This was also the way in the early Church. 
St. Augustine tells us that " While Lazarus the deacon 
read the Acts relating to the coming of the Holy Ghost 
and gave the book to the bishop, Augustine, the bishop 
said, *I wish to read, for the reading of these words gives 
me more pleasure than to j) reach.' " ^ 

When did they begin to read the Prophets? When 
the Greek king Antiochus forbade all sacrifices and public 
and private reading of Scripture under pain of death, 
the Jews divided the prophetic books into sections and 
began to read them in the synagogues.- The Machabees 
restored and endowed the synagogue w^orship with greater 
splendors. The Acts says '' After the reading of the 
Law and the prophets, tlie rulers of the synagogue sent 
to them Paul and Barnabas, asking them to preach to 
the people."^ Christ himself read the prophet Lsaias in 
the synagogue of Nazareth,* 

It was the text of the prophet ^ relating to him that he 
read that day, towards the end of August. Christ read 
the Nitzauim " Section " of that day. But the Jews, 
seeing him foretold in it, later changed it for another sec- 
tion which they read in our time on that day lest the 
people might see the Redeemer it foretold. Reading the 

i S. Au^stlne, Sermo ccclvi. de Vita Clsr. ^ Zanolinl, Opere citato ; i. 
Mach. i. 52. ' Acts xlii. 15. * Luke \v. 15. ^ Istiias Ixi. i. ^W- 


Law and the Prophets in the church therefore comes down 
to us from the Jewish Church which from earl}^ times 
followed the synagogue custom/ 

How did it happen that Christ was called up that day 
to read Isaias's words relating to himself? Any man in 
the congregation might be called up to read if he were 
over thirty years of age. After his fast of forty days on 
the Lenten mountain, Christ, in his thirtieth year began 
his public ministry. "And he came to Nazareth where 
he was brought up, and he went into the synagogue ac- 
cording to his custom on the Sabbath day, and he rose up 
to read. And the book of Isaias the prophet was delivered 
to him. And as he unfolded the book, he found the place 
where it was written : 

" ' The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, wherefore he hath 
anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor, he hath 
sent me to heal the contrite of heart, to preach deliverance 
to the captives, and sight to the blind, to set at liberty 
them that are bruised, to preach the acceptable year of the 
Lord, and the day of reward.^ And when he had folded 
the book, he restored it to the minister and sat down. 
And the eyes of all in the synagogue were fixed on 
him." ^ 

As one of the men read the Scrolls in the original 
Hebrew which the Am-ha-Arets, " Country people " did 
not understand, one stood by and translated it into the 
Syro-Chaldaic they spoke. Then the preacher addressed 
them on the text. The man's name who translated the 
text of Isaias for Christ that day is not given. But Jesus 
then preached to the people in the synagogue his first 
sermon. "And they wondered at the words of grace 
that proceeded from his mouth, and they said. Is not this 
the son of Joseph." * 

If a Jew could not be present at the synagogue services 
because of sickness, etc., he clothed himself with the 
taleth, " prayer shawl," place his phylacteries on brow and 
left arm, stood by his bed, in a quiet corner of his house 
or in his place of business, and recited the prayers while 
they were being held morning, noon and afternoon in 

' (See Apostolic Constitut. Book 8, Clementine Recoernitions, etc. For the 
synagogue worshi]), see Migne, ii. 1340-1368: Babvl. Talmud, Magllla, Whole 
Tract. 2 Isaias Ixi. 1, etc. ^ L^i^y jy. 1G--20. ' ♦ Luke iv. 22. 


synagogue or Temple. This the Rabbis called " Stirring 
up in them the kingdom of God " or " of heaven." ^ These 
services recalled to them the long-looked for kingdom 
of the Messiah, the Prince of David was to establish for 
them over all the earth. From these customs came down 
to us morning and evening prayers. 

During Temple and synagogue services the priests 
praying stretched out their hands, following the example 
of Moses praying for victory over the enemies of Israel 
when Aaron and Hur upheld his arms.^ But during 
these prayers they were forbidden to hold their hands 
higher than the Phylacteries on their brows.^ " Why," 
say the Talmud, " is it then the custom at present for the 
priests to raise their hands in the afternoon prayer of 
the fast day? Because the afternoon prayer is said 
very near sunset, it is regarded the same as the closing 
prayer." * 

Isaias in his prophetic description of the Last Supper ^ 
foretold the Lord during the first Mass on Sion, as we 
will later explain. He continues, " As he shall spread 
forth his hands in the midst of them, as he that swimmeth 
spreadeth forth his hand to swim," etc. 

Following Temple, synagogue, and Last Supper, at the 
Mass the celebrant still stretches forth his hands, with his 
body forming a cross. For the Jewish ceremony related 
to the Crucified who stretched forth his hands on the cross 
when he would redeem our race. And the celebrant 
who now offers the Mass as a memorial of the crucifixion 
still stretclies forth his hands during the prayers. As he 
cannot hold his hands out all the time in the form of a 
cross he holds them near his body. 

At every Mass we pray for the repose of the souls of 
the dead. Did Christ pray for the dead at the Last 
Supper ? We find no record, but it was the custom of 
the Temple and synagogue in his day. 

Prayers for the repose of the souls of the dead are 
found in the earliest records of the Temple and synagogue. 
Even Mohammed prayed for the dead as all Mohammedan 
sects still do. The writer was shown an ornamental 

* Matt. vi. 5. 2 Exod. xvii. 12 ; Edersheim, Temple, 141. » Levit. ix. 22. 

* Tract Taanith, " Fasting," of the Babyl. Talmud, 81, ^ Isaias xxv, 6 to end 
of chapter. 


table on which, each Friday, the Khedive of Egypt places 
the Coran and beside it kneels to pray for the repose of the 
souls of his two daughters, where their bodies restwithni 
the mosque rising at your left as you go up to the citadel 
of Cairo. The Jews of New York called the attention of 
the writer at different times to the solemn prayers for the 
dead during the synagogue services. Their beHef regard- 
ing pui-gatory, souls detained there and helped by fasting 
and prayer of their friends on earth, is the same as that 
of the Church. 

Let us give the words of a learned Protestant writer, 
who investigated the question.^ " Whatever account may 
be given of it, it is certain, that Prayers for the Dead 
appear in the Church's worship, as soon as we have any 
trace after the immediate records of the apostolic age. It 
has been described by a writer, whom no one can sus- 
pect of Romish tendencies as "an immemorial practice." 
Though " Scripture is silent, yet antiquity plainly speaks." 
The prayers " have found a place in every eai-ly liturgy of 
the world." ^ How indeed, we ask, could it have been 
otherwise? The strong feeling shown in the time of the 
Machabees, that it was " a holy and wholesome thought to 
j^ray for the dead,"^ was sure, under the influence of the 
dominant Pharisaic Scribes, to show itself in the devotions 
of the synagogue. So far as we trace back these devo- 
tions, we may say that there also the practice is " imme- 
morial," as old at least as the traditions of the Rabbinic 
fathers." There is a probability, indefinitely great, that 
prayers for the departed, the Kiddish of later Judaism, 
were familiar to the synagogues of Palestine, and other 
countries, that the earl}^ Christian believers were not 
startled by them as an innovation, that they passed un- 
condemned by our Lord himself. The writer already 
quoted sees a probable reference to them in IL Tim. i. IS. 
St. Paul, remembering Onesiphorus, as one whose "house " 
had been bereaved of him, prays that he may find mercy 
of the Lord "in that day." Prayers for the dead can 
haiTll)^ therefore be looked on ns anti-Scriptnral.^ 

In all Apostolic Liturgies, in every one of the Oriental 

^ Rev. E. H. Plumptre, M. A., Prof, of Divinity in King's College, London, la 
Smiths Die. of Bible, Vol. iv. p, 3lS7. » ElUcott. Destiny of the Creaturfe, 
Ser. Tl. « II. Mac. xii. 43 to 4fi. ♦ hJuxtori. Dp Svnfl.f^of?. p. 7()0, 710 ; McCauL, 
Uld Fatbo, C. ob. " Ciluotcd lixiin Sniilh'e Inc. uf Dible, Ail, Syua;juguc. 


Kites, we find prayer for the dead, oflerings for prayers, 
stipends given by the laity for Masses for the I'epose of 
the souls of the departed. Along the walls of the Cata- 
combs, on tombstones, on monuments of the apostolic age, 
on w^alls of church buildings now made into mosques, in 
Constantinople, etc., the writer has seen " Let them rest 
in peace," " Pray for the repose of the soul of such a one " 
etc. These inscriptions are in Greek, Latin and other 
ancient languages. The Jewish Prayer Book, used all 
over the world, copying Temple and synagogue services, 
has prayers for the repose of their deacl relatives and 
friends, no synagogue service is complete Avithout the 
Kaddish, called " Prayers for the Dead." The abuses of 
offerings for Masses for the dead, and of indulgences, 
rife before the Reformation, induced the reformers to go 
too far, and abolish these prayers and doctrine relating to 

The Jews of our day believe that their dead go to a 
place like purgatory, where they remain for a time and 
are aided by their friends' prayers. Children pray for 
their parents on the day of death, on the third, seventh, 
thirtieth day, and on the anniversarj^ of their death. 
These customs coming down from the Temple and syna- 
gogue services gave rise to the burial of the dead on the 
third day, the "Month's Mind," the anniversary and 
Masses for the departed.^ 

The Jews observed peculiar burial custom, the third, 
seventh and thirtieth days being held as special mourning 
days, but when these days fell on feasts they had special 
regulations.^ Cohabitation, wearing shoes, etc., were for- 
bidden these days.^ Only near relatives rent their gar- 
ments and ate " the mourning meal." " " When a coffin 
is being removed from one place to another, those present 
nmst stand in a row and pronounce the mourning benedic- 
tion and the words of consolation." ^ A learned scholar, 
or a Rabbi, pronounced the funeral oration sometimes in 
verse.* The " mourning women " wailed these days but 
did not clap their hands. ^ 

In the time of Christ the Jews prayed * for the repose 

» See Sketches of Jewish Life, 173 ; Geikie, Life of Christ, ii. 605. See whole 
Tract Ebel Rabbath, "Great MourniDc:," in Babvl. Talmud. - Tract Moed 

Katan, "Minor Festival^.'' Mishna p. m. » Ibid. 39. ♦ Ibid. 40. » Ibid. 41. 
» Ibid, 42, 43. ^ Ibid. 45. * See Smith's Die. of Bible, art. Synagogue Worship, n. 4. 



of the souls of the dead. Jews of our day do not continue 
praying for them for a whole year, lest it might imply 
that they remained for a year in purgatory.' The Jewish 
Prayer Book used to-day in the synagogue,-' in the prayer 
for the dead has the following words. 

*' May God remember the soul of my revered father, 
(mother) who has gone to his (her) repose. May his 
(her) soul be bound up in the bond of life. May his (her) 
rest be glorious with the fulness of joy in thy presence, 
and pleasui-es for evermore, at thy right hand. Father 
of mercy, in whose hand are the souls of the living and 
the dead, may thy consolation cheer us, as we remember 
(on this holy day) our beloved and honored kinsfolk, who 
have gone to their rest. . . And may their souls repose in 
the land of the living, beholding thy glory and delighting 
in thy goodness," etc. 

They followed the example of their fathers, who offered 
sacrifices in the Temple for tlie repose of the dead, as the 
Machabees did. " For it is a holy and a wliolesome 
thought to pray for the dead, that they may be loosed from 
their sins." ^ 

The Rabbis of the time of Christ made a distinction 
between the Onen, " The sufferhig," and the Avel, " The 
niourner." The first api)lied to the day of the funeral, 
and the seven following days, the latter to the month 
following the funeral. 1'he prayers for the dead were 
said in the synagogue, or elsewhere. A strict rule was 
laid down for the High Priest.'' It was customary to 
say " May we be thy expiation," or, " Let us suft'er what 
ought to have fallen thee," to v^hich he replied " Be ye 
blessed forever," or " Be ye blessed of heaven." At the 
" wake," the friends partook of a " mourning meal," at 
which no more tlian ten cups of wine shoukl be drunk.^ 
The IMergillath Taanith, " Roll of Feasts," gives the day 
on which mourning was forbidden. 

They also prayed to the Saints in heaven in the follow- 
ing words " May they in heaven show forth our merit for 
a peacable preservation, and may we receive a blessing 
from the Lord and justice froni the God of our salvation, 
and good understanding in the sight of man." Prayers 

> Edersheim, Sketches of Jewish Life, p. 174, 180. « Daily Prayer Book, p. 326. 
» II. Mach. xii. 46. * Levit. xxi. 10-12. « Ter, Ber, iii. 1, 


to the Saints in Church services were copied from the 
Jewish Church at the time of Christ. 

The New York Ghetto has many queer trades, one of 
them being the saying of the Kaddish for tlie repose of 
the souls of the dead. Sons or members of the family say 
them morning, afternoon and evening, every day for a 
year after tlie funeral, as long as a male member of the 
deceased lives. The Kaddish must be recited in a con- 
gregation of minyan " ten or more men " in synagogue, or 
house. If no male issue survives, a professional band of 
Kaddish prayers are paid to say the prayers. 

Often Jews on their deathbed make provision by leav- 
ing money for " a Kaddish of their own," as Christians 
leave bequests for Masses for their souls. Usually a friend 
of the sick is appointed to see that these prayers are said, 
and he is specially remembered in the will. This provision 
for prayers for the repose of the soul is the pious wish of 
eveay Jew. 

The professional Kaddish sayers, called " batlonim " 
are mostly beggar students of the Torah and Talmud, 
wishing to become Rabbis, law students or enter the 
learned professions, but who have not the mone}^ for their 
education, and take this means of continuing their studies 
of the Laws of Moses, their " dear bride." 

There is no fixed stipend and they offer their services 
to the family not blessed with sons, during the time of 
mourning, and agree to pray the soul of the dead from 
purgatory into Paradise. These prayers have come down 
in Judaism from far beyond the days of Christ, and on 
them was founded the Masses, stipends and prayers for 
the repose of the dead. 

Nov. 23, 1905, it seemed that almost the whole Jewish 
population of New York turned out in a vast procession 
through the streets of the east side, to mourn the mas- 
sacres of their brethren in Russia. The streets for blocks 
around the headquarters in Grand Street were filled, 
fairly packed, with one mass of surging, pushing, gestic- 
ulating Hebrew humanity, as four men passed through 
bearing on their shoulders an empty coffin, covered with 
a black velvet silver embroidered pall, typifying the 
dead, as the catafalque does in our churches at a requiem 
Mass, when the body is not present. This is one of the 


oldest of the Jewish ceremonials coming down from Moses 
or the kings. These prayers lived side by side in both 
the Christian and Jewish faiths whose members were 
often hostile in the middle ages. 

All branches of the Semitic race were Avell represented. 
Jews from Germany, Poland, Russia, Turkey, Spain, and 
countries of the Orient were there, crowding sidewalks, 
massing in tlie middle of the streets, mounting stepa of 
business and private dwellings— all united in heart and 
mind, as every tongue uttered the prayers for the repose 
of the souls of their murdered Russian brethren. 

Patriarchs with velvet skull-caps, waist-long white 
beards, every hair of which was precious, shoved and 
talked with younger generations, with women with wigs 
and shawls showing their widowhood, with girls be- 
plumed, products of the sweatshops, and with young 
men born in freedom, who hardly showed the Jewish 

But the bearing of the vast crowds was different, from 
that which usually turns out for a parade. There was no 
laughter, no jokes were heard, no good-natured nudging as 
they mai'ched, headed by black flags, red union banners, 
each wearing black badges on their arms, or draped in 
deep mourning. They went four abreast, stretching 
along five blocks, moving like a vast human flood, soon 
swelling into a mighty stream, filling the streets as 
though they would mount the high w^alls of buildings, 
through which they passed as through a canyon. 

In mournful music they sang the dirge of sorrow and 
prayers for the souls of the dead, accompanied by bands 
of music. As the sound of the band reached ahead, win- 
dows would go up, women with heads covered with black 
mourning prayer shawls would appear, hold up their 
hands with distorted faces, eyes filled with tears, and 
mingle their cries with the vast crowds in the streets. 
From the heart of every Israelite came the cry : El Male 
Rachnin, " God have mercy on their souls," repeated over 
and over again. 

When they came to a synagogue, the \vhole procession 
stopped before the crowded steps. In the place reserved, 
the Rabbi, and lending men of tlie congregation, led inprayer 
for eternal rest for the departed, part song, part chant, 


part wail : " God have mercy on their souls : " " God liave 
mercy on their souls : " " God have mercy on their souls.'* 
The band struck up the Kim Allel Eclun, " the mourn- 
ing song of Solomon," and they began over again the 
touching prayers for the repose of the dead. They 
stopped for the longest time before the Beth Ilamedrish, 
" The House of Prayer," the synagogue where the famous 
Rabbi Joseph used to preach, that leader in Israel most 
learned in the Talmud, whose funeral produced almost a 
riot against the Jews. There the men and women sang 
in separate ranks, for they do not think it seemly for the 
sexes to mingle in divine worship, even in our day. It 
was a weird chant the singing made. The differences in 
tone and pitch met in the middle, and made a half gruff, 
half shrill, wholly strange sound, that rose and fell, 
swelled and diminished in a cadence, as different from 
the Christian choir, as Arab singing. We have given 
this incident of our day, with customs of the ancient 
synagogue, to show that in all his history the Jew prayed 
for the repose of the souls of his dead, and that from him 
the Church fell heir to that doctrine, the human heart 
cry for the dead we loved in life, which has been, perhaps, 
the most attacked. 

Now let us see the origin of our wedding customs and 
the nuptial Mass. 

The Talmud forbade marriage in the case of a male 
under thirteen years and a day, and in the case of a girl 
under twelve years and a day. Wednesday was the day 
of the betrothal of a virgin, and Thursday of a widow. ^ 
Modern Jews appoint Wednesday and Friday for the 
former, and Thursday for the latter. The parents choose 
the wife for their son. Modern Jews often employ a 
matchmaker, a schachun who acts as a friend between 
the parties.^ 

Consent of bride and parents having been obtained, the 
betrothal followed. This was not like our " engagement," 
but a very solenm and formal agreement ratified b}^ pres- 
ents to the bride called mohar, the word occurring thrice 
in the Hebrew Bible.^ Her father gave her a dowry, 
which after the Captivity was bestowed by a written 

^ Mishna Ketub. i. sec. 1. - Gen. xxiv. 12. * Gen. xxiv. 10-2:2 ; Exod. xxii. 17 ; 
I. Kings xviii. 25. 


ketubah, "a writing," which dowry her husband con- 

The betrothal, called by the Romans the espousal, was 
celebrated with a great feast, where the groom placed the 
wedding ring on her finger, as a token of fidelity and of 
adoption into his family. She was now regarded as a 
wife.' If she was unfaithful, among the Hebrews before 
her father's house she was stoned to death,^ but the man 
could put her away by quietly getting rid of her, if he 
did not want to have her killed. This is what Joseph 
thought of doing when he found the Virgin with child.^ 

The essence of marriage was in the removal of the 
bride to her future home. This was a great public cere- 
mony. The bridegroom clothed himself in his festive 
dress and put on his head the handsome turban the pro- 
phet calls the peer * formed like a crown.^ Myrrh and 
frankincense was offered before him, or he was incensed 
by a servant as the clergy are incensed at a high Mass. 
The bride prepared herself the day before with a bath,^ 
robed herself in her bridal garments, and a little before 
the appointed time covered her whole person with the 
bridal veil called the tsa'iph ; the Romans called it 
nuhere^ "to veil," whence covering not only her face, but 
her whole person ^ it was a sign of submission to her hus- 
band. The Greeks called the bridal veil exoysia^ "au- 
thority." She bound up her waist with a costly sash 
called the Jcishshurim^ " the attire," which Romans named 
zona. On her head she placed the callah^ "bride," a 
crown of pure gold, or gilded if the family was rich, but 
of orange blossoms if the family was poor. After the 
destruction of the Temple under Titus, in A. D. 70, this 
gold crown was forbidden as a token of humiliation. 

If the bride were a virgin, she wore her hair hanging 
down her back;^ but a widow tied up her hair. The 
virgin's bridal robes were white, often embroidered with 
gold thread, a widow Avas dressed in colored garments 
and the ceremonial was short and simple. 

When the hour fixed arrived, usually late in the even- 
ing, the bridegroom came to her house attended by his 
groomsmen, called in Hebrew inereHm^ waited on by his 

» Phil. De Spec. Leg, p. 788. » Deut. xxii. 23, 24. » Matt. i. 19. ♦ Isaias Ixi. 10. 
*Cunt. iii. 11. « Picart. i. 240. ' Geu. xxiv. 05, xxxviii. 14, 15. » Ketub, ii. Sec. 1. 


paranymph^ we now call his " best man," and preceded 
by a procession, surrounded by a band of musicians and 
singers, with men bearing torches, they went to the 
bride's home, who with her virgins Avaited for them. 
Bride, parents and friends, with the bridegroom formed a 
great procession, and with music and song they marched 
back to the groom's house, near which a party of virgins, 
ten with lighted lamps, met them in the street and all 
marched to the house. ^ At the house they held a great 
feast, all the friends of both families attending, each guest 
having on a white wedding garment.^ If she was a vir- 
gin, parched Avheat and grain was distributed, the origin 
of rice at our weddings, as a sign of prosperity and hap- 
piness for the couple. The festivities lasted for seven 
days sometimes for a fortnight, but in the case of a 
widow for only one night. 

From the Hebrew wedding we copy the bishop's ring, 
for he is wedded to his diocese, the orange blossoms, the 
bridal veil, the nuptial Mass, the blessing of the bride. 
But the widow is not blessed at her second marriage. 
Among the Oriental Christians the bride and groom wear 
metal crowns during the wedding ceremonies. 

The wedding feast was very elaborate in wealthy 
families, the ceremonial and etiquette being the same as 
at the feast of unleaven bread. 

Moses made a covenant, the Old Testament, between 
God and the Israelites, who broke that covenant when 
they fell into idolatry under their Kings. But the pro- 
phet foretold that, " the days shall come, saith the Lord, 
and I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, 
and with the house of Juda. Not according to the 
covenant which I made with their fathers, the covenant 
which they made void," etc.^ Moses made the covenant 
with blood of animals, foretelling the New Testament, the 
covenant made with the blood of the Victim of Calvary,* 
" of the New and eternal Testament the mystery of faith." 
The Greek text says, diathekn, " in his blood." " And they 
shall not break bread to him that mourneth, to comfort 
him for the dead, neither shall they give them to drink 
of the cup to comfort them, for their father and mother." ^ 

* Matt. XXV, 6. 2 Matt. xxii. 11. » Jeremias, xxxi. 31, 32. * Exod. xxiv. 8. 
" Jeremias, xvi. 7. 


" Thus saith the Lord, Behold I will profane my sauc- 
tuarj% the glory of your realm." ' At Christ's death the 
Old Testament passed away, the Xew had begun. The 
synagogue was rejected, the Church was established on 

The Lord broke the Eucharistic bread to the doubting 
disciples at Emmaus and only then they knew him.- The 
apostles went forth from house to house, breaking the 
Eucharistic bread of the Mass with praj^ers ; ^ " continu- 
ing daily with one accord in the Temple and breaking bread 
from house to house, they took their meat with gladness 
and simplicity of heart." * "On the first day of the week 
when we assembled to break bread," ^ "going up and break- 
ing bread and fasting." The Greek words of the original, 
" eulogia " and " eucharistia " show that the breaking of 
Id read was the Eucharistic sacrifice of the IMass. The first 
word, eulogia, " praise," shows that they began with the 
synagogue praise and prayers, following Christ's example 
at the Last Supper, and finished with the consecration 
and the distribution of the Eucharist.*^ 

Following the example of the Last Supper, the meet- 
ings were held in the evening, in the synagogues, on the 
Sabbath, and the instructions took up the time till after 
midnight." Psalms and Prayers of the synagogue were 
sung, the members of the infant Church saluted each 
other with a holy kiss.^ St. Paul mentions four times * 
the kiss of friendship and of love, a Hebrew custom con- 
tinued in the Church, and was the origin of the ceremony 
of the " kiss of peace," the clergy give during Mass.''^ 

The apostles following the Lord's example went into 
the synagogues in all the lands where Jews were found, 
and preached first to the Hebrews. As the synagogue 
the Sabbath service on Saturday was the best attended, 
they preached that day, and in the evening said the 
Mass. The services were protracted into the night, and 
later Mass was said in the early morning hours of Sun- 
day. Whence, in apostolic times, Sunday took the 
place of Saturday of the Je^^'s. When at last the Church 

» Ezech, xxiv. 21. « Luke, xxlv. 30, 35. » Acts. ii. 42. * Acts, ii. 46. " xx. T. 
* I. Cor. il. 20, 21, etc. ; St. Ignatius, Epist ad Smyr., c. 4. ; Sozomen, Hist. Eccl. 
VII. c. 10, Council of Carthaere, C;\n. XLI. ^ Acts xx. 7. • I. Cor. xvi. 20 ; II. 
Cor. xiii. 12. " Rom. xvi. Ki: I. Cor. xvi. 20 ; II. Cor. xiii. VI; I. Thes. v. 20 ; I. 
Pfttpr V. 14. 1" Tertullian, De Orat. c. 14 ; Justin Martyr, M. Apol. 11 ; Migne, 
Cursus Comp. ii. 1348. 


broke with the synagogue, it was called the " Lord's day," 
in memory of the resurrection and of the corning of the 
Holy Ghost on Pentecost Sunday.^ 

Thousands of candles lighted the Temple courts, lights 
burned in synagogues during services, numerous lights 
you will find in the synagogue of to-day as candles illumi- 
nated the Cenacle during the Last Supper; "and there 
Avere a great number of lamps in the upper chamber 
where we Ave re assembled," says the Acts.'-^ Mass being 
said at night in the Apostles' day, candles burned on the 
altars. The candles burning on our altars came down, 
not from the catacombs, as some writers hold, but from 
Temple, synagogue and Last Supper. 

This synagogue service — singing Psalms, reading the 
Law and the Prophecies before the Eucharistic Sacrifice, 
developed into the Matin-Lauds Avith their Psalms, 
Nocturns, " By night," prayers, versicles, responses, ves- 
pers and offices of our bre\iaries. The peculiar divisions 
and arrangements shoAvthey came doAvn from the apostolic 
age. The Last Supper began Avith the synagogue serAices 
Avhich Avere always said at night before beginning the 
Passover feast, and this is the reason of that ancient 
custom of saying the office, as far as Terce, before saying 

Many Avere the disputes betAveen Christians and Jcavs 
regarding the Crucilied ; at last the synagogue excluded 
the apostles, who then went to the homes of converts. 
They found that the synagogue service Avould not do for 
the Eucharistic sacrifice. New elements, the Divinity of 
Christ, the Real Presence, the sacramental system, and 
numerous other truths had been added to Judaism. 

On the Liturgy of the Last Supper they founded new 
Rites — Liturgies of the Mass Avhich Avere handed doAvn by 
word of mouth till they Avere later Avritten down. These 
were in the languages of the people. Oriental Christians 
claim that their Liturgies haA^e come down to us unchanged 
from the apostles. Numerous Hebrew terms they incor- 
porate into these Liturgies, as, " Amen; " " Let it be so ; " 
Alleluia, "Praise Jehovah ; " Hosanna, " Save, I beseecli 
thee ; " Sabaoth, " Hosts ; " " The Lord be with thee," 
*' Peace be to thee," etc. 

1 Acts ii, * xVcts xj;. 6. 


We have shown how the Holy Ghost wrote a religious 
truth in every ohject and movement of Temple and Pass- 
over worship. The Passover Liturgy and ceremonial 
were loaded with type image and symbol of the Messiah, 
his Passion and of the Encharistic Sacrifice. When the 
apostles founded the Liturgies of the Mass, they followed 
the lesson God gave in the Jewish ceremonial and worship. 
Every object, movement and ceremony of the Mass teaches 
the people truths hidden in the service, so that the Mass 
is a book written by God himself through the apostles. 
These rites and ceremonies we have explained in a former 

The apostles carried out the synagogue services, read 
the Law and the Prophecies and then preached, exhort- 
ing the people to live good lives. The " Lord's Table " 
w^as prepared with candles, flowers, and ornaments.^ 
The twelve priests with the apostle read the prayers of 
the Liturgy, and thus they celebrated the Eucharist. 
They took up a collection for the support of religion.' 
Sometimes these offerings were sent to the poor converts 
of Jerusalem.* 

The apostle remained with them instructing, making 
converts till a congregation was formed. Then he or- 
dained twelve of them priests, called in Greek presbyters. 
He laid hands on one of them and anointed him a bishop, 
consecrating him with the holy oils as was the custom at 
the ordination of Rabbis and judges of Israel long before 
the time of Christ. Many works of the early Church men- 
tion these facts. 

Thus the Clementine Homilies^ says Peter founded a 
church in Tyre and set over it as bishop one of the presby- 
ters and then departed for Sidon^ where he did the same,^ 
as at Bayrout and Laodicea.*^ "And having baptized 
them in the fountains which are near the sea, and having 
celebrated the Eucharist, and having appointed Maroones 
as their bishop, and having set apart twelve presbyters, 
and having designated deacons and arranged matters re- 
lating to widows, and having preached on the common 

* Teaching Truth by Signs and Ct^rernonies. 2 Acts xx. 7-11. ^ n cq,- jx 
1-15 ; Justin Martyr, Aplogo. 1. * Ibidem. ^ This work is of doubtful authen- 
ticity, mentioned by Ori^en, ('ap. 'i;i, Philocalia and other writei's as existint^ 
in the beijinning of tlie third century. ^ Hom. VU. Cap. v. ' Cap. VIU. 

» Cap. XXII. 


good what was profitable for the ordering of the Church, 
and having counseled them to obey the bishop Maroones, 
three months being now fulfilled, he (Peter the apostle) 
bade those in Tripolis of Phoenicia farewell, and took his 
journejT^ to Antioch of Syria, all the people accompanying 
him with due honor." ^ 

This curious work of antiquity states that they reclined 
at the table when eating,^ and shows us that Peter vested 
like the bishops of our day. When Clement asked that 
he might go with him, Peter smilingly replied. " For 
who else shall take care of these many splendid tunics, 
with all my changes of rings and sandals.'' ^ 

The Apostolic Constitution says : * " Now concerning 
those bishops who have been ordained in our lifetime, 
we let you know that they are these : — James the bishop 
of Jerusalem, the brother of our Lord ; ^ the second was 
Simeon the son of Cleophas,*^ after whom the third was 
Judas, the son of James. Of Caesarea of Palestine, the 
first was Zaccheus,^ after whom was Cornelius and the 
third Theophilus. Of Antioch Evodius ordained by me 
Peter, and Ignatius by Paul of Alexandria, Annianus was 
the first ordained by Mark, the evangelist. Of the 
Church of Rome, Linus the son of Claudia was the first,^ 
and Clement after Linus' death, the second ordained by 
me Peter. Of Ephesus, Timothy ordained by Paul, and 
John by me John. Of Smyrna, Aristo the first,^ after 
whom Strateas son of Lois.^*^ Of Pergamus, Gaius. Of 
Philadelphia, Demetrius by me. Of Athens, Dionysius. 

1 Clementine Homilies. Horn. xi. Cap. xxxvi. See J. lahn ArchaBoIogia Biblica 
De Litufffia Apostolica, etc. * Ibidem. Hom. x. Cap. xxvi. ^ Horn. xii. Cap. vi. 
* Some like, Whiston, Bunsen, etc., think that with a few corruptions these 
come from the apostolic age — others that they come from the second or third 
centuries. Book VII. Sec. iv. ^ He was his cousin who according to the Jew- 
ish custom was called his brother. 

® Cleophas was the brother of St. Joseph, the Virgin's spouse. He married 
Mary the Virgin's sister, by whom he had four sons and and two daughters. 
His eldest son was named Joseph, the second James called Alpheus, the third 
Judas Thaddeus, and the fourth Simon. His first daughter was called Mary 
after her mother; the second, Salome married Zebedei, by whom she had 
James and John the apostles. It was Cleophas who went with another dis- 
ciple to Emmaus after the crucifixion, whom the Lord met on the way. See 
Dutripon, Concordantia S. Scripturae, word Cleophas. 

^ This was the rich publican of Jericho, a tax collector, " little of stature," 
Luke xix. 3-6, who climbed the sycamore tree to see the Lord, when he was 
passing through the city on his way up to Jerusalem to die. He entertained 
the Saviour that Thursday night, and to him Jesus said "This day is salvation 
come to this house." Luke xix. 9. Rabbinical writings mention a Zaccheus 
who lived in Jericho at this time who was once a publican. 

* Mentioned by St. Paul, II. Tim. iv. 21. ''This is a mistake, for Polycarp was 
the first bishop uf Smyrna. ^^ She w as Timothy's grandmother, II. Tim. i. 5. 


Of Tripoli, Marathones, etc., These are the bishops 

who are intrusted by us with the dioceses in the Lord." ^ 

Saying, " Increase and multiply." ' God blessed man 
and animals, that they might propagate their race. Fol 
lowing this example- the patriarch blessed his eldest son, 
making him heir of his property and priesthood, and 
on his deathbed he blessed all the members of his family. 
At the end of the Temple ceremonial the high priest 
blessed the multitudes, and the Ralibi dismissed the con- 
gregation with his blessing. 

According to these ceremonies of the Jewish Church, 
when ascending into heaven, Christ blessed his dis- 
ciples. "And lifting up his hands he blessed them. 
And it came to pass that whilst he blessed them, he de- 
parted up into heav(3n." ^ Following these examples, the 
celebrant blesses the congregation at the end of Mass. 
This ended Mass in the early Church, and later St. John's 
Gospel was added. Therefore when the people ask priest 
or bishop to bless them they follow the old custom of the 
Hebrew church. This blessing finds it highest form in 
the Apostolic Benediction of tlie Pope, wliich comes 
down from the days of Apostles and Patriarchs. 

Now let us see the vestments Christ and the Apostles 
used at the Last Supper, for in them we will find the 
origin of Church vestments. 

' Apost. Const. B. VII. Sec. iv., xlvi. We ^ive this as a specimen of this pe- 
oiliar ancient work, not vouching for its authenticity. * Gen, i. 22, viii. 17, ix. 1. 
3 Luke xxiv. 50. 


Why do clergymen wear vestments at our altars ? Why 
does the Church clothe her ministers in such peculiar 
robes ? Did Christ and the apostles wear a distinctive 
dress at the Last ^Supper? Can Church vestments in 
material, form and color be traced back to that night of 
the Last Supper? People often ask these questiojis, for 
few writers trace clerical robes and vestments to their 
origin in Temple and Passover. Let us see the reasons 
and the origin of the Church vestments. 

Clothes show a person's position in the community, a 
ragged dirty tramp excites disgust, while a well-dressed 
person inspires respect. An individuaPs clothes, their 
form, color and material strike the eye and make the first 
impression. Hence woman is often honored more than 
man, not because she is his superior, but because she is 
better dressed. 

In all ages dress showed the wearer's position in society, 
and from the beginning officials wore distinctive garments 
and insignia of their office. In the ancient world, the king 
dressed in stately robes. When in patriarchal days the 
priest-king offered sacrifice, he vested in priestly garments. 
Sculptured ruins of Assyria, Persia, Egypt, etc., show kings 
dressed as the high priest of the nation, vested in sandals, 
alb, chasuble, girdle, miter and vestments, offering 
sacrifices, while in Babylonian ruins a mysterious figure 
shows him the forbidden fruit, and near by stands the 
tree of life. It is startling to see the figure of pontiff-king 
of these empires dressed in vestments of the same kind 
and shape as those now used at our altars, showing that 
vestments have hardly (changed since the days before 

Fashions change, tlie old costumes are abandoned new 
styles are taken up ; it is hard to find two men or women 
dressed alike. But the Church never changes her vest- 



ments coming down from the Temple and the Last 
Supper. No Pope, Council or power on earth could forbid 
them because they are of divine origin. 

When fanatic ignorant reformers of the sixteenth 
century swept over the north of Europe, not understand- 
ing the nature of the Eucharistic Sacrifice, they dis- 
mantled churches of religious signs, symbols and em- 
blems, and their ministers preached in ordinary garments. 
But a reaction took place ; ritualism revived, clerical 
robes again were seen in non-Catholic pulpits ; disputes 
waxed warm ; color, shape and number of ecclesiastical 
garments divided denominations, and high ritualistic 
churches introduced vestments. Let us see the origin of 

From the beginning of civilization, the want of a dis- 
tinctive dress was felt, that a man's calling might be seen 
in his clothing. The officer, soldier, sailor, conductor, 
fireman, nurse, judge, ruler, king, wear a distinctive dress 
to picture to the eye the calling, position and office of the 

When God called Aaron and his sons to the priesthood 
of the Hebrew religion, and the sons of Levi for his 
ministers, with a wealth of detail and a striking minute- 
ness, he laid do^vn material, color, shape and ornament of 
vestments worn in public worship, and forbade them at 
any other time. Down the ages in the Temple till its 
destruction by the Romans under Titus, priest and 
Levite wore these vestments Avhile ministering before the 
Lord. A hundred and seventj'-six times they are men- 
tioned in the Old Testament, and fifty-nine texts of the 
New Testament refer to them. 

They were always used in the Church. It was a great 
sin to sacrifice without them. Popes forbade them used 
except in Church functions. Writers of apostolic age 
mention them. Pictures in catacombs show them. The 
great Fathers write of them. Pagans mocked them. All 
Oriental Churches still use them. A thousand proofs 
from the Fathers might be given to prove them used from 
the beginning of Christianity. 

" What is there, I ask, olfensive to God," writes St. 
Jerome, "if I wear a tunic more than ordinarily hand- 
some, or, if bishop, priest, deacon and other ministers of 


the Church come forth in white garments in the adminis- 
tration of the sacrifice ? " 

" We ought not to go into the sanctuary just as we 
please, and in our ordinary clothes defiled by the usages 
of common life, but with a clear conscience, and in clean 
garments handle the sacraments of the Lord." 

Church vestments, altar cloths, etc., are of linen and 
not of byssus, the word given in translations of the Bible. 
Temple vestments, table-cloths, napkins, etc. used at 
Passover in the time of Christ Avere of linen. From that 
time in the Latin Rite linen has always been used for 
altar cloths, purificators, albs, etc., in Church services. 
Why Avas linen and no other material used? 

St. Augustine, explaining the work of the wise woman 
of Proverbs,^ says flax, from which linen is made is 
emblematic of our bodies in which lives the soul. The 
flax is prepared by beating, and then woven into linen, 
as our flesh is purified by suffering. He says the people's 
clothing and the vestments were then of linen.^ 

During the Babylonian Captivity the Hebrews saw 
kings and nobles clothed in silk, and this material, which 
came from China, the Israelites brought back with them 
to Palestine. When Alexander conquered these countries 
he found the same silken clothing, his soldiers brought 
silk to Greece and silk garments spread over the Grecian 
world long before Christ. When the apostles spread the 
Church in the Greek empire they made the altar cloths 
of linen and vestments of this silken material, and that 
is the reason that silk is exclusively used in the Oriental 
Rites, and why our more costly vestments are of silk 
while altar cloths, albs, purificators, etc., are of linen. 

God revealed to Moses the most minute details of ma- 
terial, form and color of the priestly vestments. They 
were to be made only of linen, formed of beaten flax, to 
signify that the perfection of the priest only comes with 
bearing patiently the trials of this life. The colors were 
white, red, violet and green, signifying innocence, 
sufl:'ering, penance and youth. Later, black, typifying 
sorrow, was added. Josephus writes that these colors of 
the vestments of his day were emblematic of the colors 

» Prov. xxxi. 13. 'St Augustioe, Sex'mo xxxvil in Prov, n, v., vi., Contrft 
Faust. L. vi., u. h 


of the sanctufiry of the Lord of hosts, and that they were 
embellished with beautiful embroideries. They are now 
the five colors of Church vestments. 

Gold wire was woven into the cloth. " And he cut thin 
plates of gold, and drew them into small threads that they 
might be twisted with the woof of the aforesaid colors." ^ 
Here for the first time in Holy Writ, we find the famous 
" cloth of gold," still found in vestments, regalia, etc. 
Gold cloth is rare in this countrj-, gilt silver wire called 
" half fine " and brass, gilt or varnished, takes its place. 

Linen, mentioned thirty times under the name of byssus, 
dyed in these dift'erent colors, was used for vestments, 
veils, etc., in tlie Temple.- Linen is made of flax, v/hile 
byssus is formed of the long delicate silky fibers, with 
which the piua, a sliell-fisli of eastern Mediterranean 
waters, attaches itself to the rocks. A careful microscopical 
and chemical examination of ancient Biblical byssus, shows 
it to be linen, proving the Church right in making her 
altar cloths, albs, etc., of linen and not of byssus. 

Around the rockj^ isle on which Canaan's sons built 
Tyre, "The Rock," which Alexander's army captured 
after uniting it with the mainland, in the blue waters of 
the Mediterranean Sea still grows tlie murex, a shell-fish 
of the gasteropod moiusk, which bruised gives forth the 
beautiful crimson and purple colors, in which they dyed 
the garments of high priests, emperors, kings and rulers 
of antiquity. To-day wild waters dash with loud roar 
against that rockbound shore, where Tyre rose in power 
of counnerce and art. For her sins she has fallen as the 
prophet foretold.^ Xo more Tyrian purple clothes kings, 
inr the color is obtained from products of coal tar.* 

It is surprising liow cei' colors distinguished families. 
Ill ilie middle iiges heraldry showed forth in the colors of 
the cham])ions. In the Orient green is the sacred color 
of the false Pi'ophet ; members of Mohammed's family 
;ire always clothed in green fi'om head to foot, and you 
will find Aluslems kissing their hands to show respect. 
Arab chiefs still wear colored turbans, each head of a 
tribe having his proper color. 

The Levites in the Temple dressed in simple white 

* Exod. xxxix. 1-3. » Exod. xxxvi., xxxix., Ix., etc., * Isaias xxili. * See 
Edersheim, Life uf Christ, ii. 27H. 


linen,' till Herod Agrippa IL gave them permission to vest 
in priestly garments, which Josephus saj^s '' was contrary 
to the laws of our country." ^ 

Temple priest and high priest wore four vestments of 
shape and color common to both. To-day priest and 
bishop saying Mass wear identical amice, alb, girdle, stole, 
manuple and chasuble. But the Hebrew ]3ontiff wore 
four other vestments proper to his office, and the bishop in 
addition to the priest's vestments vests in tunic, dalmatic, 
cross, gloves, miter and ring. Let us. see the story of the 
Temple vestments and of the Last Supper, whence came 
Church vestments. 

Born of Aaron's family, bluest blood of glorious high 
priests flowing in his veins, learned in the Torah, the 
Books of Moses, versed in the prophets and in Israel's 
history, bright of mind, spotless of body, — such were the 
requirements of the candidate for the high priesthood of 
the days of Christ. Maimonides mentions a hundred and 
forty defects which would forever debar him, and twenty 
two, which he might in time overcome. St. Paul quotes 
qualities required in a bishop taken from the Temple 
rules relating to the high priest's office.^ 

If he passed the strict examination, his ordination 
lasted seven days, each day being devoted to a part of the 
ceremonial. The first day they poured the holy chrism 
in his head in the form of the Greek *i* not knowing 
it foretold the cross, the oil flowing down on his beard.* 
In former times this was the holy oil with which Moses 
liad consecrated his brother Aaron and his sons, and 
which had been preserved in the sanctuary. 

AVitli this oil they consecrated Saul, David, and the 
kings of David's line, wTien there was no dispute about 
the succession, as well as the ordinary i3riests. The cup 
containing this holy oil, preserved since Moses' day Jere- 
mias hid with the ark in a cave on Nebo. From that time 
the Rabbis claimed the oil was not necessary, as the 
consecration of their fathers sufficed for the priests of the 
time of Christ. The oil was put on the pontiff's head and 
on the priest's hands. This is where bishop and priest 
are anointed with oil in our day. 

1 II. Par. V. 12. 2 Josephus Antiq. XX. 9, G. => I. Tj^im. iii ; Titus i. *Eder3heim, 
Temple, 71. Geikie, Life of Christ, i. 84 to S7, 523, 524. 



Priest and pontiff, before sacrificing victims to the Lord 
of hosts, put on the linen drawers. Over this they wore 
a seamless white linen garment, having sleeves and falling 
down to the feet. In material, shape and color it was 
exactly like the alb of our day. Only descendants of 
Aaron's family could wear it. Christ's grandfather, 
Joachim, had married into Aaron's family ' and his Mother 
made this seamless robe for her Son, because he was a 
Priest as well as Prince of David's line. Christ wore 
this white alb all his life and at the last Supper. It was 
the robe on which the soldiers cast lots, for they could 
not cut and divide it among them without destroying it. 
This was the origin of the alb used at our altars. 

Priest and pontiff bound up this seamless robe with a 
girdle when sacrificing in the Temple and celebrating the 
Passover, "Thus shall you eat it," said the Lord re- 
garding the Passover, " you shall gird your reins," '^ and 
the Hebrew word given in this text is chagar : " to bind 
up." When man first bound a sash round his waist we 
do not find, for the sash or girdle comes down from 
earliest history and was found among all ancient peoples. 

The people of Christ's day wei'e long flat sashes wound 
round the body many times, the folds often serving as 
pockets. The bishop's girdle of our time is flat similar to 
that of the Temple priests, while the priests wear over 
the alb a round linen cord. 

The miter of the Temple priest was called the myg- 
hoath, " hilt-shaped," that is opened, similar to the bish- 
hop's miter in the Latin rite, and was formed like the in- 
verted calyx of a flower. The high priest's miter was 
higher and more ornate, like our bishop's miter. The 
people always wore their turbans in Temple, synagogue 
and at Passover, for to uncover the head would show dis- 
respect during divine worship. These customs of the 
Jewish Church are continued during tjie first part of the 
Mass, during which bishops and priests wear the miter 
and beretta. The drawers, alb, girdle and miter were the 
four vestments common to priests and pontiff in the 

Now let us see the four vestments of the high priest, 
called by Jewish writers " the golden vestments," because 

^ Luke ii. ' Exod. xii. W. 


gold, symbol of purity and authority, was woven through 

The ephod, " garment," called also the me^7, entirely 
made of " woven work," of a dark purple color without 
sleeves covered him to his knees. At the hem it was 
adorned with alternate violet, purple and red pomegran- 
ate blossoms, having seventy-two gold bells between 
them, tinkling when he walked, in memory of the seventy- 
two families descending from Noe's grandsons, which had 
become the great nations of antiquity. This vestment in 
material and shape was like the bishop's rochet to which 
it gave rise.^ 

He wore on his breast the " rational," bearing twelve 
precious stones, each representing one of the twelve tribes 
of Israel. They were embedded in massive gold work, 
arranged in four rows, three in a row, each gem having 
engraved on it ^ one of the Hebrew letters. Before they 
fell into idolatry in the days of Solomon, Jewish writers 
say the stones glowed with a supernatural light one after 
the other enabling them to read Jehovah's decrees.* After 
the destruction of the first Temple the rational was lost, 
and the God of their fathers spoke no more through gems 
of the rational. Nine times the Old Testament mentions 
the rational. 

On his shoulders he wore two great onyx stones, each 
engraved with six names of the twelve Hebrew tribes. 
They were called the Urim and Thummim : " Light and 
Perfection," "Knowledge and Virtue," dogmatic and 
moral theology, to foretell the faith and morals of the 
future priesthood of the Church. 

Aaron's miter, called miznepheth, IMoses made of finest 
white linen with lace and embroidered work, covering his 
head like a crown.^ 

God himself told the Hebrews to vest in sacred garments 
when celebrating the Passover. "And thus shall you 
eat it, you shall gird your reins, and you shall have shoes 
on your feet, holding staves in your hands, and you shall 
eat it in haste, for it is the phase, that is the Passage of the 
Lord." ^ In this account of the first Passover the Hebrews 

* Exod. xxxix. 1-3 ; Migne, Cursus Comp. S. Scripturae ii, 97, 98, vi. 374, 9, 137, 
etc. 2 St. Augustine, Ques, in Jud. L. vii. Ques, Ixi. •'' St. Augustine, Ques. 
in Exod., exvi. and cxxix. * Edersheitn, Temple, 112. ^ See Migne, iii. 924, 925. 
See Babyl. Talmud, Yoinah, 105 ; 73 bells V Migue iii. 931. « Exod. xii. 11. 


celebrated as a nation, we find prescribed b}'' God himself 
tiie bishop's shoes, girdle and crosier. 

But as ages passed, the Hebrews copied the vestments 
of the Temple priests and vested in them for the Pass- 
over, so that at the time of Christ, they celebrated the 
feast vested in the elaborate robes Christ wore at the Last 

But did Christ wear all the vestments of the bishop in 
our day ? We must take into consideration the peculiar 
climate of Judea. Sion is 2,7 00 feet over the sea, while 
the deep Jordan valley and the Dead Sea are 1,800 feet 
below sea level. In April Jerusalem is quite cold, Avhile 
the Jordan plains are excessively hot. The people of 
Judea must be prepared for these changes of climate when 
traveling from the stilling Jordan up to Jerusalem. For 
these reasons Christ and his apostles wore luiiuy garments 
while in Jerusalem, and when celebrating the Last 
Supper. This is the rep.son that the bishop robes in so 
many different vestments wlien pontificating.' Ten gar- 
ments are mentioned as having been worn by Jews of 
that time. The lirst-born among tiie Hebrews always 
dressed in costly garments, and if he belonged to a royal 
family they were purple.* 

In the days of Christ every Hebrew wore the jjliylac- 
tories on In'ow and left arm.' They were capsules of 
I'awhide calf-skins, inclosing four little square parchments, 
on which was written a. part of the law of Moses they 
recited at night and morning prayers. 

The first ])a.rchment had in Hebrew: "Sanctify unto 
me the lirst-born, etc."* The next had : '^ And when the 
Lord shall have brought you into the land of the Canaan- 
ite, etc."^ The third had : " Hear, O Israel, the Lord onr 
God is one Lord, etc." *^ The fonrth had: "If then you 
obey ni}' commandments,"' etc. 

At \h.e present time these four parchments are inclosed 
in little square boxes of rawhide making two square cap- 
sules I of an inch square, the one for the head being called 
the tfli?i-sc/iel-rosh, " tllin-of-the-head," and they wear it 
on tiie top of the head while praying. Leather straps 

' Soe Babvl. Talmiul Tract Ebpl. 38. 40, 41. ^ Micrne, Cursus, S. Script., 5. 04'3. 
3 Migae, CursuH Comp. S. Scripturae, ii. 1347 ; iii. 1005, 1155. * Exod. xii. 2 to lU 
inclusive. * Exod. xiii. 11 to 16 inclnsivp. *• Dent vi. 4 to 9 inclusive. '' Deut. 
ii. 13 to 21 incluoive. See Eder;;heim, Life of Christ, i 7C, 228 ; ii. 408. 


I'Uiining through it bind it to the head, hang down be- 
hind, and the ends are brought forward to hang down on 
the breast. Each side of the capsule has the Hebrew 
letter S. The knot behind the head is tied in the form of 
four squares, making a cross, which they say represents 
the letter D. 

The capsule of the other tflin is worn- on the left arm, 
above the elbow next the heart, and a long strap is wound 
seven times round the arm, brought down, and wound 
three times round the two middle fingers of the left hand, 
the knot tying it to his arm also representing the letter 
D, but it is not in the form of a cross. 

Taking the two Hebrew letters, Sh and D, and putting 
in vowels, we have the word Shadai, "Almighty God," or 
" The Greatest God," the word implying greatness, 
majesty, poAver, etc., to whom prayers are always offered 
in the synagogue in which Elohim represents God in 
strict justice and Adonai, God as Lord or Supreme Ruler. 

When pontificating the high priest wore a gold band as 
a phylactery or tflin across his brow on which was 
engraved " Holiness unto Jehovah," and the straps with 
which it was tied hanging down, gave rise to the two 
bands hanging dow^n behind from the bishop's miter. 
The Day of Atonement he did not wear a gold band across 
the brow when pontificating. The Pharisees very wore 
large phylacteries. Because of the ostentatious way they 
wore them Christ reproved their spirit of pride.' 

There is a dispute regarding the origin of the phy- 
lacteries. Jewish writers say that in the days of Closes 
all kinds of ornaments, armlets, rings, etc., were worn as 
charms and spells, often having immodest pictures, en- 
gravings, sayings, etc., and that God ordered Aloses to 
make the phylacteries for the Hebrews to wean them from 
the Egyptian superstitions, as the Law says : " And it 
shall be as a sign in thy hand, and as a thing hung be- 
tween thy eyes for a remembrance." ^ The Hebrew 
writers before the Babylonian Captivity do not mention 
the phylacteries. 

The Cairo museum, containing the richest collection in 
the world of ancient Egyptian relics and curios, shows that 
they followed all kinds of such superstitious practices. 

1 Matt, xxiii. 5. » Exod. xiii, 9-16 ; Deut. vi. 8, 9. 


Gods and goddesses are on all sides, and statues show kings 
and nobles holding forms of gods. Little scarabs, various 
gods, emblems, jewelry of gold and silver formed into 
charms, tokens and religious emblems filling many cases, 
prove they were very prone to superstitious practices. 
Jews of liberal tendencies of our time condemn the phy- 
lacteries and call the strict Jews who wear them " bridled 
asses." . 

But orthodox Jews hold that the phylacteries came 
from Moses. Eleazar, whom Ptolemy Philade Iphus sent 
as ambassador to the king of Egypt, stated they came 
from Moses. St. Jerome and the Fathers of his day 
write that they were very common in their times. All 
Jews of Christ's day wore them in the Temple, synagogues 
and during their prayers especially at the Passover. Some 
think that Christ and the apostles wore them at the Last 
Supper. But we are not sure of this. Following these 
Jewish high priests, St. John and some of the other 
apostles wore gold plates on their brows when saying 
Mass, similar to the gold phylactery worn by the liigh 
priest when pontificating in the Temple. The early 
Christians wore these phylacteries. But by lapse of time 
the custom degenerated into an abuse, for they were worn 
as charms, seals, pagan devices, arid gave rise to super- 
stitious practices. Popes Gelasius and Gregory I. con- 
demned tlie abuse and the Council of Laodicea forbade 
them. Then Christians began to use crosses, medals, 
etc. ; and religious emblems, and pictures, crucifixes, etc., 

Of the time when men first put on sandals to protect 
the feet history is silent. Egyptian monuments show 
nobles and priests shod in sandals of leather, palm leaves 
or papyrus, while soldiers' sandals were of iron or brass. 
Tliongs passing between the great toe and the next and 
around the heel kept on the sole. These later developed 
into the upper part of the shoe of our day. In Mexico 
and in the Orient poor people still wear the sandals. 

From Egypt the Hebrews brought the shoe. Wealthy 
people of both sexes wore richly ornamented shoes cover- 
ing the whole foot. Babylonian, Assyrian, Persian, and 
other monuments show that kings wore sandals and shoes 
before the time of Abraham. Isaias mentions *' The 


latchet of their shoes," ^ and numerous texts of the Old 
Testament show they were very common.^ 

Sometimes they were of clieap material.' But noble 
Hebrew ladies wore elaborate shoes * of violet color,^ 
with woven greaves coming up almost to the knees. 
They were worn walking outside the house, but put olf at 
the door when entering Temple or house, following Moses' 
example, whom God total to put off his shoes Avhen ap- 
proaching the burning bush.^ In Jericho's plains Josue 
took off his shoes at the angel's orders.'^ Fleeing from 
Absalom, David took off his shoes as a sign of a penance.^ 
Wealthy women wore the costly shoes spoken of in Cant- 
icles,' which God mentioned to the prophet.^'* Judith 
wore these beautiful shoes, or sandals, when she cut off 
Holof ernes' head.^^ Afterwards brides presented costly 
shoes to their betrothed. 

Poor Jews of Christ's time wore sandals or shoes made 
of straw, rushes, etc., tied on with strings, and these are 
the " poor man's shoes," of the prophet Amos.'"^ But shoes 
were generally made of leather, the latter being placed in 
the street to be trampled on till tanned. You may see 
these skins in the streets of Jerusalem to-day trampled 
over by passing people. 

Peculiar customs rose. The wife put on and took off 
her husband's shoes at the door. The widow, whose 
brother-in-law would not marry her, " Shall take off his 
shoe from his foot." '^ Servants and disciples dressed and 
undressed their master's feet,'* and carried their shoes after 
them.'^ As a sign of the contract, the seller gave his shoe 
to the buyer.'" After the shoes were removed the feet 
were washed at the door by the wife, child or servant. 
But if the master Avished to honor his guest he did this 
himself, following the example of Abraham when the 
angels visited his tent.^^ To go barefooted was a sign of 
sorrow, of which the prophet says, " Keep thy foot from 
being bare." ^® 

God forbade the prophet to take off his shoes as a sign 
of sorrow, when his wife died, and told Isaias to go bare- 

1 Isaias v. 27. 2 jy^. x, 4 ; Matt. iii. 11, x. 10 ; Mark i. 17 ; vi. 9 ; John i. 27 ; 
Mi^ne, S. Seripturae iii. 918. ^ Amos ii. 6. * Jud. x. 3. ^ Ezech. xvi. 10. 

« Exod. iii. 5. '' Josue v. 16. « II. Kings xv. 30. «* Cant, of Cant. vii. 1. 
I" Ezech, xxiv. 23 " Judith x. 3, xvi. 11. " Amos ii. 6. i» Dent. xxv. 9 ; 
I-<iiasxx. 2. " Mark i. 7. i^ Matt. iii. 11. i^ Ru^h jy 7 g. " Gen. xviii. 4. 
" II. Kings XV. 30 ; Jeremy ii. 25 ; Ruth iv. 7, 8. 


footed. Temple priests alwa3^s niinisterect barefooted, 
and they complained continual 1}^ of the cold pavements. 
Thus we see how the shoe figured in Hebrew history. 

Some writers hold that Christ went barefooted, others 
that he wore sandals, still others that he wore shoes. 
The latter seems the most probable opinion, for he dressed 
as a noble Jew of his day, and John the Baptist pi'otested 
he w^as not fit to loose the " latchets of his shoes." The 
Jews celebrating the Passover were to wear shoes by 
order of God himself.' This law was strictly follow^ed in 
the time of Christ. Therefore we conclude that the Lord 
and his apostles put on their shoes before beginning the 
Passover. This perhaps is the reason the bishop puts on 
his shoes in the Church before his other vestments when 
he is about to pontificate. Sandals and shoes wei'e com- 
monly worn by the early Christians, and Clement of 
Alexandria '■^ severely condemns the men and women who 
wore highly ornamented ones.^ 

The Jews of the days of Christ wore clothes copied 
from the Temple vestments or followed Greek and Roman 
styles. They were clothed in many different garments, 
because of the changes of climate.* 

AVhy did God order the priests to wear drawers ? We 
must go back to those days when paganism spread over 
the nations, and to which the Hebrews were so addicted. 
Every Friday pagan priests and people worshiped the 
goddess Venus with vile ceremonies, for she was the 
patron of immodest love. Herodotus writes that every 
Avoman of Babylon had to worship her by committing 
adultery once in her life. There she was called Beltis ; 
ill Syria she was Astarte; in Greece Athene, in Rome 
Venus ; but she was known by other names, and unmen- 
tionable wickedness Avas committed in her honor. Going 
up and coming down the stairs from her altars, her vota- 
ries lifted up their clothes exposing themselves.^ As a 
protest against these public immoral ceremonies, God told 
Moses to clothe the Hebrew i3riests, who had to ascend to 
the high sacrificial altar, in linen drawers, and the custom 

1 Exod. xii. 11. ' In Padog. Book II., Cap. ii. » See Misrne, S. Scrlptur® H. 
1153, 1157. 1158; iii. 918; Edersheim, Life of Christ, i. G;24, 026, gives a descrij> 
tion of the clothing Christ wore. * Geikie, Life of Christ, vol. i. pp. 151. 152, 
17.'. 180, etc ; Mig-ne, Cursuo Coinp. S. Seripturse, vol. iii. p. 1025, etc. "• Geikie, 
Life of Christ, i. 26. etc. 


spread among the people and has come down to oiir 

The Jews of the days of Christ clothed themselves in 
a long seamless garment like a cassock, which they called 
the cutoneth and the Greeks the xiton} Josephus writes 
that it was made of a single piece of cloth without seams, 
with or without sleeves, and was closed at the neck with 
a string. The priests always wore it without seams, and 
this was the seamless robe of Christ. 

A modification of it of fine linen worn next the body be- 
came the shirt. Made of wool, covering the person from 
the neck to the feet it was opened in front, but closed with 
little buttons and gathered at the waist with the girdle. 
It was of the same form of the priest's cassock of our 
time. All men of the Orient wear it in our da 3% and it 
has the very same form as the clergyman's cassock. 

Rulers wore this garment of different colors. That of 
the high priest was white, and he wore it all the time, put- 
ting over it his priestly vestments. This is the reason 
the Pope's cassock is white, for he is the High Priest of 
mankind. Jewish Rabbis still wear a white cassock the 
Day of Atonement. 

The Roman emperor's cassock was of brilliant red and 
this color is seen in the cardinal's red cassock. Kings 
and members of royal families wore a purple cassock — 
purple being the mark of authority and dominion. Hence 
high officials of courts wore purple. Members of royal 
families dressed in purple even if their dynasty did not 
sit on the throne. Christ, being a Prince of the House of 
David, highest honored of the Hebrew kings, wore this 
pui^ple garment. He is often represented in art as 
clothed in a purple robe, the cutoneth or xiton. This is 
the reason bishops wear a pur})le cassock, for that was 
the color of Christ's cassock at the Last Supper. 

The Temple priest's cassock was of linen. But laymen 
Avore a w^hite woolen cassock called tlie simehah. The 
desert Arabs, who never change, still wear it as an every- 
day garment. This ga\e rise to the wdiite alb the priest 
wears at jMass ; it was always put on as a sign of gladness 
at feasts and when celebrating the Passover. Christ and 
his apostles, it seems probable, were clothed in it at the 

» Frtrrar, T,ife of Cnrist, II., 2H1 ; E.lershejm, Temple, p. 73. 


the Last Supper. This cassock was worn by both sexes at 
time of Christ. It was sometimes white or of various colors. 
It was the nuptial garment mentioned in the Gospeh* 

Men of the Roman empire wore it covering the whole 
person. In the middle ages it was cut short coming down 
to the knees, and became the frock-coat or " Prince 
Albert '* of our day. The buttons in the back were used 
to fasten on the sword when nearly all men went armed. 
But although the sword has been laid aside the buttons 
have remained. The women's cassock became the gown 
or dress. The women of the Orient still wear it, having 
over it a skirt which they raise up and cover their head 
and upper part of the body with it when they appear in 

To shield the shoulders from the fierce desert sun they 
let the ends of the turban fall down on the back behind. 
You will find the sons of the desert still wearing the 
garment falling down that way. The desert heat is so 
great, and the sunlight reflected from the dry sands so 
piercing, that the skin would be blistered if not shaded. 
This is seen in the Scotch cap, sailor hat, and perhaps 
bands of bishop's miter. 

They came to feast with head and upper part of the 
body protected that way.^ It was a relic of the patriar- 
chal period, when their fathers, as shepherd sheiks, 
pastured their flocks on the borders of the desert. The 
Hebrews celebrating religious, civil, and family feast wore 
it on their shoulders. After the banquet they took it 
off.* Rulers and wealthy persons wore these amices 
made of costly materials.^ Sometimes it was made as 
large as a tunic, and covered the upper part of the body 
to the knees. This Avas the origin of the amice. 

When the cincture was first used Ave know not. We 
first find it in the consecration of Aaron's sons to the 
priesthood.^ In the house the Hebrews in the days of the 
Kings laid it off and put it on when they went out. But 
by lapse of time the Jews wore it all the time.' 

They wore two kinds of girdles in Asia, one was a sash 

' Matt. xxii. 11. ^ Benedict XIV. in his p^reat work, De Missae Sacriflcio, 

Book I., Cap. vii. to Book H. elaborately treats of the vestments and their 
iiiystic meanings. ^ Gen. xxvii. 27 ; Psalm xlv. 9 ; Cant, of Cant. iv. 11. * Ezech. 
vii 20 6 IV. KinpTs v. 5 ; Matt, x, 10 ; James v, 2, " Exod, xxix. 8, ^ See Migne, 
S. Scripturae, iii. 908. 


about six inches wide, which was fixed with a clasp in 
front the ends hanging down. It was of leather/ wool, 
linen, or other material. John the Baptist was clothed 
with a tunic of camel's wool bound up with a leather 
girdle, such as you see to-day worn by the Bedouin of the 
deserts. The wealthy wore girdles of wool, linen, or 
costly material, sometimes of silk woven, embroidered 
and tied in front or at the side.^ 

Women wore the girdle fastened in front with a 
buckle, brooch or other ornament,^ often they were made 
of costly material.* Being wide the folds served as 
pockets. Arabs stick swords, daggers, etc., in the girdles.^ 
These vestments can be seen in the sculptured figures on 
the great platform of Persepolis where stood the palaces 
of the great Persian kings before Alexander conquered 
that country. The girdle survives in the waistbands and 
belts women wear in our day. 

The priestly girdle called the Abnet was a linen band 
three fingers broad, very long, with tassels adorned with 
various colored embroidery work.* Wound around the 
body during his ministry, tlie priest threw the ends over 
his shoulders as the clergymen of the Oriental Rites still 
do.'' Josephus says " the ends were tied in a knot in 
front, and hung down to the feet,'' as the celebrant ties 
the girdle in our day. Tlie men of Palestine still wear 
the girdle wound around their waist many times. 

Girdle and alb are fundamental religious vestments of 
earth and heaven. The beloved apostle saw the Son of 
God thus clothed. "And in the midst of the seven 
golden candlesticks, one like unto the Son of man, clothed 
with a garment down to the feet and girded about near 
the paps with a golden girdle." ® " And the seven angels 
came out of the temple having the seven plagues, clothed 
in clean white linen, girded about the breasts with golden 
girdles." ^ The Church, Bride of the Lamb, thus clothes 
her clergy at her altars as she is vested in heaven. " And 
to her it hath been granted that she should clothe herself 
with fine linen glittering and white. For fine linens are 
the justifications of saints." ^^ Thus all down the ages 

' IV. Kings i. 8. *. Jeremy xiil. 1. 3 Cant. vii. 3. * I. Kinpr.s xxv. 13 ; II. Kings 
xviii. 11, etc. ** II. Kings xx. 8. « gee Migiie. iii.908. '' Exod. xxviii. «, xxxix. 
29- » Apoc. i- 13. » Apoc. xv. 0, i" Apoc. xix. &, 


the white vestments represent the purity and innocence 
of those who minister at our altars. 

The tunic called in Hebrew chaluJc or Jccthoneth^ in 
Greek chiton is found first in history as the garment of 
skins God made for Adam and Eve after the fall.^ When 
weaving was invented, it was made of woven avooI or 
linen and bound round with a girdle. The Temple priest's 
tunic was Avoven without seam, worn next the skin as a 
shirt, covering the linen drawers and flowing down to the 
knees. The shoes they wore in Moses' day were laced 
up to the knees, and youths of both sexes wore long 
tunics failing to the ground like a priest's cassock. John's 
Greek Gospel says Christ wore a tunic which he calls the 
xiton, which was under the seamless garment.^ 

The hrst tunics had no sleeves, but soon short ones 
were added, and later tliey were made to cover the 
arms to the wrist. Babylonians, Persians, Jews, etc., 
\A'ore the tunic as a shirt, and over it another garment 
of more costly material like a cassock.' 

Rabbis, leaders in Israel and wealthy people of Judea 
wore two tunics, the inside one serving as a shirt. The 
over tunic was called the sarbaUn. We find no record, 
but it seems reasonable to suppose, that Christ conformed 
to this custom and wore two tunics at the Last Supper, 
for four times the Gospels mention the two tunics trans- 
lated " coats." This is perhaps the reason that the bishop 
wears two tunics when pontilicating. The inside vest- 
ment is now called the tunic and the outside one the 
dalmatic, because the Dalmatians wore the latter as a 
national distinctive garment.* 

Over the two tunics they wore a large flowing square 
garment called tlie Talith in Hebrew, or Imatian in 
(4reek. It was one of the oldest garments worn by man, 
and is pictured on the monuments of Babylonia, Assyria, 
Persia, etc., as a priestly garment the kings vested in 
when offering sacrifice. 

Wealthy and noble Jews wore it five or six feet wide 
and it hung down Vjchind forming a train. At the neck 
it was fastened with a clasp. In fine weather the front 

^ Gen. iii. 21. » John six. '33. ' Prov. \xx\. 21 ; Mfitt. x. 10 ; Luke ix. 8; 
Mark vi. 9. * Benedict XIV. De SaiTillcio Missae, O. vii. n. 6 ; Migne, Cursus 
Completes, S. Script uree, v, iii. U*50. 


ends were thrown back over the shoulders and hung 
down the back, these being called wings.^ Often they 
threw the two front angles or corners over the left 
shoulder, and carried the trail on the right arm. 

This garment was worn by the Hebrews when leaving 
Egypt, and we read that they carried the dough of the 
Passover in their cloaks.^ The folds of this great mantle 
or cloak, were often used as a pocket.-' The poor rolled 
themselves in its ample folds, folded up their girdle, laid 
it on a stone to serve as a pillow, thus they slept either on 
the floor, or on the ground outside — a custom still followed 
in Palestine and other parts of Asia. For this reason God 
forbade money-lenders to keep this garment oveinight 
when pledged for a loan.* " But thou shall restore it to 
him presently before the going down of the sun, that he 
may sleep in his own raiment." ^ 

In the translations of the Old Testament, this garment 
is rendered by the words cloak, mantle, vestments, etc., and 
is mentioned hundreds of times. At the time of Christ 
money-lenders got around the law by taking the tunic as 
a security.^ 

This great cloak, or cope, changed in size and shape by 
the lapse of time, so that when Christ walked the earth 
and wore it, it had become the Meil, a garment falling to 
the knees with holes for the arms and head. 

Formed of two parts covering the back and breast, it 
was fastened on the sides with clasps of gold adorned 
with jewels.^ Later, sleeves wei'e added to the garment. 
Although it belonged to the liigh priest, by lapse of time 
noble and famous men wore it.** Ezechiel mentions it 
ornamented with embroidered work.'^ The vestment 
was vN'orn in the days of the prophets, for Daniel says a 
modification of it was used as an inside shirt, and the 
sculptures of Babylonia prove his words.'*^ 

This was the prophet's mantle the Hebrews named the 
talith, the Greeks the imatian or elisus. It was a great 
cloak falling from the shoulders to the ground, and cov- 
ering the whole person like the cope worn at vespers.'' 

This was the sign of the prophetic office of these seers 

1 Aggeus ii; 13 ; Zach. viii. 23 ; H. Kin^s xv, 20, » Exod. xiii. 34. ^ IV. Kings 

Iv- S9. ^ Exod. xxu. 26, » Deuc xxiv. 18. »Matt. v. 40. ' Exod. xxviii. 6, 7, etc. 
* Job xxix. 14 ; I. Kinfes xvlii. 41 ; I. Kings vi. 14. ^ Esech. xxri, lo. i' Dan, iii. 21. 
1^ Geikic. Life of Christ, i. 180. 549. 


of old who went before the Lord clothed in this garment 
often made of skins, wandering over Judea, pouring out 
burning words of the Koly Spirit relating to the Redeemer 
of whom the world was not worthy.^ With it Elias, "My 
God is Jehovah," divided the waters of the Jordan.^ Often 
it was made of sackcloth as a sign of penance.^ 

Did Christ wear this prophetic cope at the Last Supper ? 
It was the border of his imatian the woman touched 
when she was healed.* The sick touched his imatian on 
the shores of Galilee and were cured.^ In the trans- 
figuration his imatia, translated vestments, became white 
as snow.^ \Yhen they got through mocking him after 
the flagellation they put on him his imatia ^ the very 
vestments the soldiers divided among themselves on 

The iDrophet's talith, or in Greek imatian, modified be- 
came the Greek sindon, which wealthy Hebrews wore as 
a large over-tt^nic often mentioned in the Old Testament" 
and in the Greek Gospels. Often made of fine linen it 
was worn next the body by the wealthy as a night shirt, 
and became the shroud. It was the great grave-cloth 
in whicli the wealthy Nicodemus and Joseph wrapped the 
body of the dead Christ.^" 

According to the custom of a noble Jew celebrating the 
Passover, Christ put on this Prophet's mantle, in Latin the 
Pluvial, in Greek the imatian, in Hebrew the Taleth," 
its four corners being covered with embroidery called 
Ciccilh, " Fringes," to remind them of the Law of Moses. 
" Speak to the children of Israel, and thou shalt tell them 
to make to themselves fringes in the corners of their 
garment, putting in them ribbons of blue. That when 
they shall see them, they may remember all the com- 
mandments of the Lord." '^ This was the origin of the 
embroideries and decorations of Church vestments. 
These decorations on our vestments represent Christ, his 
Passion, etc., to remind the people of the crucifixion, and 
religious truths. 

This great garment covered the whole person, like a 
cloak, and was al)0ut the shape and form of the cope. In 

1 Heb. ii. 3G, 37. ^ B. C. 8%. IV. Kin^s ii. 8. ' Zach. xiii. 4. « Matt. ix. 20, 21. 
'^Matt. xiv. 3(5. « IMatt. xvii. ;3. ^ Matt, xxvii. Jil. _ » Matt, xxvii. 35. « Judges 
xiv. 12 ; Pi-ov. xxi. ;34 ; Isaias iii. 23. *" Luke xxiii. 53. ^' See (Jeikie, Life of 
Christ, i. 507 aud ii. 380. '^ Numb. xv. 38, .39. 


this form it is still worn by the Greek, Russian, and 
Oriental clergy as a chasuble. This was its form in the 
early Latin Church. The deacon had to lift up the garment 
so the celebrant could put out his hands. But about 
the twelfth century they cut the sides, because they did not 
always have a deacon to serve Mass. That has been the 
form of the chasuble till our day. But as a remnant of 
the deacon holding up the great chasuble, the altar boys 
and the ministers at Mass still hold up the chasuble when 
incensing the altar and at the Consecration. The tunic 
and dalmatic tied or pinned up during Lent are a survival 
of that custom of the middle ages. 

The people, especially the women of that time, wore a 
garment like a cloak the Greeks called the Stole and the 
Romans the Stola.^ The front was an ornamental band 
adorned with embroidered work. They often sent this 
band to friends they wished to honor, who sowed it on 
their stole. By lapse of time, and because they wore so 
many other vestments, this band was worn alone and be- 
came the stole. As the Hebrews wore this at the Pass- 
over and feasts, it came to pass that the clergy of the 
early Church always wore it during religious functions. 
This is the stole of to-day which the higher clergy wear 
in their ministry. 

In the Syro-Chaldaic spoken by the common people of 
Christ's day it was the Arbah Canphoth, " The Four 
Corners." According to the words of God to Moses it 
also had fringes. " Thou shalt make strings in the hem 
at the four corners of thy cloak." ^ The " fringes " or 
" strings " called ciccith or Zizith were to remind them 
of the Law. For that reason they were first of blue, 
the color of the covenant between God and Israel. Later 
Talmudic writers allowed them to be made of white cloth.' 
These had an influence on the embroideries, ornaments, 
and figures of our vestments.* 

Two inches from the corner of the garment, a hole was 
made and seven threads of lamb's wool about half a yard 
long were passed through and doubled. One thread was 
then wound seven times round the others and tied. The 
next was wound nine times and tied, the next eleven 

1 See Geikie, Life of Christ, i. 5G8. ' Deut. xxii. 12 ; Numb. xv. 38. » Talmud, 
Mem. iv. 1. * Geikie, Life of Christ, i. 180. 


times, the next thirteen times, etc., till seven knots were 
tied round the threads, making a little string of seven 
strands, with seven knots hanging down like little tassels. 
This was the origin of the tassels on our stole and manuple. 
These fringes, surviving in Church vestments and Jewish 
praj'er shawl show us liow unchanged have remained the 
custom which came from God himself through Moses. 

The Pharisees used to wear very large " fringes " to 
attract attention to their great piety and respect for the 
T^aw. Lest they might become unclean by touching the 
body, they had a pocket made in the shawl, wherein thej^ 
carried them when not at prayer in the synagogue and 

]Man is spirit and matter, a living soul in an animated 
body, and he receives truth through the senses. There- 
fore God from the beginning taught him through his live 
senses. God ordered " the fringes " on their vesture to 
remind them of the law, and every object of Temple and 
synagogue brought truth to their minds. The early 
Christians used religious emblems, signs, symbols of the 
Jewish Church, and St. Augustine ^ tells us these were 
not forbidden. But the Jewish emblems gradually gave 
way before the Christian symbols, whence statues, paint- 
ings, the sign of the cross, medals, scapularies, beads, etc., 
may in a way be said to have risen or developed from 
these Jewish emblems so counnon at the time of Christ.'' 
In the synagogues the wTiter visited the Jews showed 
him these fringes, and explained their meanings. Tie 
noticed that they held them in their right hands while 
saying their prayers, to remind them of the Law, as Chris- 
tians hold their beads. 

Vesting in the "prayer shawls," as this vestment is 
now called but then named tzitzith,* the Jews first put it 
on the head, and then let it fall down on the shoulders, 
as the celebrant of the Mass puts the amice on his head, 
and then lets it fall down on the shoulders. Putting it 
on they said : " Blessed art thou, O Lord our God, King 
of the Universe, who hast sanctified us with thy com- 
mandments, and hast given us the command of the 
fringes " 

1 See Geikie, Life of Christ, 1. 1R0. » Contra Faustum. 1. xix. n. xvi. » St. 
Augustine, Contra Faustum, 1. xxii. n. : xci. xcii. * Talmud, Succah, vi. 


The Jewish boy of twelve years is still con finned by 
placing on his head and shoulders this prayer shawl, and 
the Rabbis and officers of the synagogue or Temple im- 
posed their hands on him. This is the Jewish confirma- 
tion, the image of the sacrament of confirmation in the 
Church. By this ceremony the boy becomes of age, takes 
part in all meetings of the men, and wears the prayer 
shawl in the synagogues, when praying, and also at the 
Passover. This ceremony was held at the Temple in the 
time of Christ, who was thus confirmed when he was in 
his twelfth year. He remained in the Temple with the 
men talking and disputing with them for three days. 
Before this rite, a boy was treated in Israel as a child, 
after it he was a man. Mary his Mother and Joseph went 
on their way for three days, men and women traveled in 
separate groups, and his Mother supposed he was with 
the men, and Joseph with the women, and that was why 
they did not miss him. 

After being confirmed the Jewish boy makes a speech 
to the congregation from the synagogue pulpit or rostrum. 
A boy, confirmed one day the writer visited a synagogue, 
grew eloquent reciting the glories of the Hebrews, their 
history, religion, and the influence they exerted on the 
world, and told how faithful he would be to Judaism. 
The brilliant mind, the blessings of the patriarchs on the 
race, shone forth in ideas, delivery and enthusiasm. 
Some of the wealthy Jews ornament the shawl with cloth 
of gold. 

They used to wear around the neck a narrow band 
which the Greeks of Christ's day called the xlamos or 
diplois^ and which the Komans named the pallium — both 
words meaning a coverlet. The ends hung in front or on 
one side as far as the knees. That of the Roman officers, 
was sometimes shaped like a cloak being red or purple. 
This was the purple garment of mockery, called the 
plaudamentum, with which they clothed Christ after the 
scourging.^ Ezechiel mentions this garment as coming 
in bales to Tyre.^ 

Worn by the wealthy of both sexes, it was wrapped 
round the body, fastened on the right shoulder with a 
brooch, or was thrown over the left shoulder, the ends 

1 Matt, xxvii. 28 ; Mark xv. 17. * Ezech. xxvii. 24. 



brought across the back under the right arm, and again 
thrown over the shoulder. Being the sign of authority. 
Christ, as Prince of the House of David, we suppose, wore 
this at the Last Supper/ Numerous writers treat of the 
pallium, but they do not go beyond the early Church, ad- 
mitting that they cannot find its origin. From most 
ancient times it vras the insignia of the archbishop, 
primate, or bishop having jurisdiction over other bishops. 
The Orientals call it the Omophorion. The Pope sends 
the pallium taken from Peter's tomb to the archbishop as 
a sign of his authority over the bishops of his province. 

Teachers at that time wore over the shoulders this band 
fastened on the right with a buckle which hung down in 
front in easy folds.^ Eusebius of Caesarea describes a 
statue of Christ he saw at Panias, called also Csesarea 
Philippi, where Christ healed the woman afflicted with an 
issue of blood.^ " At the gates of her house, on a raised 
pedestal, stands a brazen image of a woman on her bended 
knee, with her hands stretched out before her, like one 
entreating. Opposite her is the image of a man erect, of 
the same material, in full Pallium, stretching out his hand 
to the woman." * 

St. Augustine writing about Cicero says teachers in tlie 
academies wore a pallium,^ and the philosophers wore it 
as a sign of their learning.*^ As a teacher in Israel there- 
fore we must conclude that Christ wore a pallium and 
that this is the reason it became the insignia of the high 
officials of the Church. 

The brooches with which garments were fastened, were 
often very costly. In the second story of the Cairo mu- 
seum, on the left at the top of the great stairway in the 
room devoted to jewelry, you will find gold and silver 
brooches, rings, etc., ornamented with precious stones, 
found in Egyptian tombs, and which ornamented the 
bodies of people who lived long before Moses. The de- 
signs are very beautiful and tlie materials costly. 

In the Dublin museum you will find clasps of solid pure 
gold in the shape of a U, used by the clergy of the 
early Irish Church to fasten chasuble and cope. Some of 

^ Baronius, 1. 5 An. Ed. Rom. p. 031. and Chardon, Hist, des Sacraments, in 
Migne's Theo. Cursus Comp. * Geikie, Life of Christ, v. i. p. 567. « Luke ix. 
20 ; Matt. viii. 43, 44. * Geikie, Life of Christ, v, i. p. 428. ^ Contra Acad. 1, iii., 
c. viii. ' De Civitate Dei, I. xiv. c. xx. 


them must weigh more than two pounds, and they are 
as bright as the day they were made. 

The brooch is still seen in the clasp of the cope. When 
the brooch developed into the bishop's i:)ectoral cross we 
do not find. Priests of the earl}^ Church wore a simple 
cross on the breast hanging from the neck with a cord or 
ribbon. Priests of the Russian and Greek rites still wear 
them. It is probable that the bishop's cross was devel- 
oped from these crosses worn in ancient times. 

Jews of both sexes carried a handkerchief, either tied 
to the girdle or hanging from the left arm.^ They placed 
it over the face of the dead. In the original Greek it is 
the soiidarion^ in Latin sudarium^ vi\^'^m\\^ " sweatcloth." 
They tied it into a purse and carried their money in 
it.^ They tied the handkerchief round the neck or used 
it as an apron : the handkerchiefs the apostles wore per- 
formed miracles.* This was the origin of the neckcloth 
or cravat of our times. During church services the hand- 
kerchief was tied to the left arm, and by lapse of time, it 
took the color and ornamentations of the vestments, and 
became the manuple. In the Greek, Sclavonic, Russian 
and Oriental rites two manuples are worn, one on each 
arm, between the elbow and wrist, both lying down flat on 
the arms. 

Princes in Israel, and rulers of the ancient world wore 
a purple garment coming down to their knees. It was 
sometimes made without sleeves and of the same shape 
and color of the bishop's rochet. It gave rise to the 
bishop's rochet and the surplice of our clergy. Being a 
Prince of the House of David, Christ wore this garment 
as Daniel saw him in vision,'^ for all members of royalty 
wore purple in that day, even if their family did not sit 
on the throne. David's sons were highly honored in 
Christ's day. The Talmud tells us that they only had a 
right to sit in the Priests' Court, and tliat when they came 
into the sanctuary heralds cried out, " Give honor to the 
family of David." It seems probable that Christ wore 
this purple rochet. 

In ancient times, people of both sexes tied a string 
around the head to keep the hair in place. That became 

1 IV. Kings V. 23 ; Isaias iii. 18 to 25, " John ii, 44 ; xx. 7. 3 Luke xix. 20. 
* Acts xix, 12. « Dan. x. 2-5. 


the fillet you find represented in ancient art. In the 
days of the patriarchs, a cloth was laid on the head as a 
protection from the sun and to shade the eyes ; falling- 
down on the shoulders it shaded the fierce desert heat. 
The Bedouin of the desert, Isnuiel's sons, wlio never 
changed since Abraham lived, wear that cloth called 
Keffyeh,' which they keep on the head with two colored 
fillets of camel's hair about a inch in diameter, wound 
around the brow. A corps of the Turkish army wear a 
head-dress of that kind. During the lapse of ages this 
head covering developed into the hat, and the head-band, 
with its bow-knot, is a survival of the knotted fillet. 

In the days of the patriarchs the head-cloth becoming 
large, and wound round the head, gave rise to the turban 
or kerbela of the Orient. When this took place we do 
not know. Kings and rulers wore elaborate turbans, 
which later became the king's diadem and crown. Mar- 
dochai "shone in royal apparel, to wit of violet and sky- 
color, wearing a gold crown on his head, and clothed with 
a, cloak of silk and purple." ^ Even the common people 
were well dressed in that age, as we read that the three 
Hebrews were thrown, into the fiery furnace, "with 
their coats, and their caps, and their shoes, and their 
garments." ^ 

After the return from the Babylonian Captivity, the 
Hebrews shaped the white linen turban into a high miter 
like that of the high priest.* Pontificating on the great 
feasts of Israel, the high priest wore a magnificent miter 
of gold cloth encrusted with gems, but on the Day of 
Atonement he used a simple miter of white linen shaped 
like the calyx of a flower.^ 

The turban, in Hebrew Megba'ah, in Syro-Chaldaic 
Mecnepheth, Semitic words meaning " to bind round," ac- 
cording to St. Jerome coming down from earliest history, 
is still worn in the Orient, Africa, India, etc., where 
people have not changed since the days of Abraham. 
The miter of high priest and bisliop, the kingly crown and 
the Pope's tiara are but modifications of it. 

While shoes or sandals were left at the door of house 

1 Goikie. Life of Christ, i. 179. * Esther viii. 15. » Dan. iii. 21. * Josephus, 
Antiq. B. iii.. C'. vii. n. 7; Exod. xxviii 40; xxix. 9, xxxix. 26 ; Bruch. v. 2. 
* See Exod. xxviii. 4, xxix. y, xxxix. 2G, SO ; Levit. viii. 13. 


and gate of Temple, the turban was always -worn during 
divine services and in the house. To uncover the head is 
still a sign of disrespect in the Orient. The master of the 
feast of the Passover wore a large high turban like that 
of the presiding judge of the Supreme Court of the Jews, 
and this was copied from the tiara of the high priest. The 
Machabsean priest-kings put three circles on their miter, 
making it into the tiara worn by Caii)has at the time of 
Christ. This is the reason the Pope, high priest of the 
Church, wears a tiara-miter different from that of other 

Before the Jews reclined at the table to celebrate the 
Passover, they removed their head-coverings, for they 
could not wear them while reclining. This is the reason 
the bishop and clergy remove miter and beretta when 
going up to the altar during the celebration of Mass. 

By lapse of time the miter became more ornamental, 
and was worn by both sexes of rich or noble families.^ 
Kings developed still more elaborate head-coverings, 
which became the crown of gold adorned with precious 

The Rabbi, the Hassan and officers of the synagogue 
wore black four-cornered caps very like the bercttas of 
our clergy. At present they wear these head-coverings 
during the services both standing and sitting. In an- 
cient times they wore them only when sitting. These 
gave rise to the beretta of the clergy, worn when sitting 
during Mass and church functions. 

In France the judges wear similar coverings for the 
head when on the iDcnch. Judges of other European 
countries follow rules coming down from time imme- 
morial, they being dressed in long gowns like the priestly 

English magistrates wear wig and silken gown. The 
latter came in after the Restoration, but the wig or judicial 
cap dates as far back as the English courts — to the 
time when the lawyers were priests. Before the wig 
took its present shape, a small piece of lace, called the 
coif, was also worn, and later judges cut a hole in the wig 
so the coif would be seen. At the present time the Lord 
Chief Justice of England has a round space in his wig 

1 See Geikie, Life of Christ, ii. 437. 2 IV. Kings ix. 30. 


covered with black silk where the ancient coif, since left 
off, used to appear. When pronouncing the death sen- 
tence, the English judge covered his coif with a black 
cap, a ceremony still followed. 

At the death of tlie daughter of James II., courts went 
into mourning, and the lawyers, called barristers, put on 
black silk gowns, which they have retained since. They 
used to give their services freely, but a triangular piece 
of cloth hanging down behind, like a monk's cowl, 
formed a pocket into which the clients used to put their 
fees, when the man of law was not looking, much against 
the lawyer's will, we may be sure. 

The English courts have long since gotten over their 
grief for the death of the king's daughter, but they are 
so conservative of old customs, that the judges and 
barristers still wear the black robes and wig when 
sitting on " the woolsack," as the bench is called. The 
barristers, as the lawyers are called, must dress in black 
when pleading in Canada and the colonies. Peculiar 
neckties distinguish the English barrister who appears 
in court from the counsel, the lawyer who prepares the 
case, and every frill, furbelow and ceremony of olden 
times are followed; few being able to give origin or 
reason for the numerous court ceremonies. 

Only in the courts of British Columbia do the judges 
of America wear the wig, but in 1905 a law was passed 
abolishing it. A few years ago the judges of the U. 8. 
Supreme Court put on the long silk gown, and judges of 
botli federal and state courts are following the example. 
We have given these details to show how natural it is for 
man to vest in robes emblematic of his office. 

But why do bishop, judge and priest cover the head in 
court and church, while every other man must uncover 
his head ? In ancient times they covered the head as a 
sign of respect. When Moses approached the fiery bush, 
God told him to take off his shoes, and Moses "hid his 
face, for he durst not look at God." ^ To show respect for 
the holy sanctuary the priests always wore their miters in 
Temple, during the synagogue prayers, and before they re- 
clined at the Passover table. During first part of Mass, 
that is from the beginning to the canon which was 

1 Exod. iii. G. 


founded on the Jewish Temple services, bishop and priest 
cover the head with miter and beretta when sitting at 
Mass. But times and customs have changed since the 
days of Christ, and to show respect we now take off our 
hats. But what was the origin of the bishop's ring ? 

The ring, mentioned thirty-one times in the Old Testa- 
ment, first a plain band of brass, ivory, bronze, silver, gold 
or other precious material, is found in many ruins, tombs 
and monuments of the ancient world. Later it was or- 
namented with the figure of a god, a scarabseus, a sacred 
emblem, or a cherished legend, and used as a seal to 
certify ofiicial documents. 

Thamar took Juda's ring and staff as a pledge.^ Pharao 
took off his ring from his finger and gave it to Joseph to 
wear as a sign of authority, when he made him his prime 
minister.^ Judith wore her rings when she went forth 
to meet Holofernes.^ Assuerus gave his official ring to 
Aman as a sign of authority,* and to seal the letters of ex- 
termination against the Hebrews. When the king found 
out the plot, he took the ring from him and gave it to 
Mardochai who sealed with it the letters revoking the 
decree.^ Hebrew kings sealed with their official ring 
their state documents.^ The prophet tells the Hebrews 
their ornaments of rings and jewels will be taken from 
them.' Solomon writes of the " signet of an emerald in a 
work of gold," ^ worn as a ring. 

The ring often of costly material, was handed down 
from father to son.^ Hebrew ladies of the time of Christ 
had rings set with precious stones, rubies, emeralds, the 
chrysolite being most common. The art of cutting dia- 
monds was known and diamond rings were worn at that 
time. In the days of Solon every Greek freeman wore a 
signet ring of gold, silver or bronze ; but the Spartans 
took pride in a simple plain iron ring. Kings became so 
common that the Athenians and Lacedemonians made 
laws against them. 

Pliny says the Romans derived the custom of wearing 
a ring from the Greeks. Floras writes the Etruscans first 
wore it in Italy, while Livy ascribes it to the Sabines. 
Gold rings were given later to ambassadors with their 

^ Gen. xxxviii. 18. ^ Qen. xli. 42. » Judith x. 3. * Esther iii. 10. ^ Esther 
Via. 8-10. • III. Kings xxi, 8. ^ Isaias iii. 21. ' Eccle. xxxii. 8. ^ Luke xv. 22. 


ofTicJal dress. Senators and judges enjoyed what they 
called the " jus annuli aurei," (the right of wearing a 
gold ring). Hannibal sent to Carthage three modii of 
gold rings taken from the fingers of slain Roman ofificers.' 
During the Roman empire, the emperors reserved the 
right of wearing a ring to high officers, magistrates and 
governors of provinces, and conferred it as a decoration on 
persons they wished to honor. In the time of Tiberius, 
who reigned when Christ was put to death, many saved 
themselves from punishment for breaking the laws on 
the plea that they wore a ring, and a law was made re- 
stricting it to freemen, whose fathers possessed not less 
than $400,000 worth of property. 

Aurelian extended the right to all soldiers, and Justin- 
ian to all citizens. The Romans, like the Greeks, Egyp- 
tians and Orientals, used to cover their fingers with many 
costly rings, ^fartial says Charinus wore ten on each 
finger, making eighty, and fops had rings for different 

From ancient Egypt, Babylonia, etc., came the custom 
of engraving on rings images of animals, mottoes, portraits 
of gods, heroes, etc., and using them as signets and seals. 
Sometimes they were of immense value, and one the em- 
press Faustina wore was worth $200,000, while Domitia's 
ring cost $300,000. 

High priests, common priests, Levites, Rabbis, leaders 
in Israel and Avealthy people of Judea in the time of 
Christ wore rings.^ Did Christ wear a ring? We fail to 
find any record. But as he conformed to every custom 
of his people, as he was the Lion of the tribe of Juda, 
Prince of the House of David and a Leader, we think he 
followed the universal custom and wore a ring. As we 
trace all the bishop's vestments back to the Last Supper, 
we ask where did the bishop's ring come from if not fi'om 
the same origin as the other vestments? From the be- 
ginning of the Church the bishops have worn the episco- 
pal ring. The stone usually is a violet amethyst men- 
tioned three times in the Bible,^ one of the stones of the 
high priest's breastplate* and as forming one of the 
foundation stones of the New Jerusalem.'^ 

^ St. AufTUstine. De Civitate Dei. I. iii., o. xix. ' Edrr^slvim. TemplR. Sketches 
of Jewish Lifo, p. ;317. etc. p K.Kod. xxviii. I'J. * Exod. xxxix. \2. •'* Apoc. xxi. 20. 


When preparing for a feast like the Passover, when 
washing the hands they removed the ring, lest the finger 
might not be cleaned under the band. As they wore 
gloves at Passover, they put the ring on over them, be- 
cause the glove was too small for the ring, and to show 
their beautiful signet rings, signs of their wealth and 
authority. This is the reason that the bishop wears his 
ring over the glove when pontificating. We mentioned 
the glove, now let us see its origin and history. 

The glove as a covering for the hand with a separate 
sheath for each finger. Homer writes, was Avorn by 
Laertes to protect his hands when working in his garden. 
Xenophon says Cyrus sometimes went vvithouthis gloves. 
In the most ancient times the glove was given as a pledge 
when concluding a contract, and that gave rise to throw- 
ing down the glove as a challenge to a duel. The glove 
is not mentioned in the Bible, but from other works we 
learn that in the days of Christ, kings, princes, and lead- 
ing men of his day wore them, often ornamented with gold 
embroidery and precious stones. 

The Talmud tells us the story of Issachar of Kefar, who 
was a member of the Jewish Supreme Court which con- 
demned Christ to death. After the ascension he was 
elected high priest, but when pontificating in the Temple 
he wore silk gloves, lest he might soil his dainty hands 
with the blood of the sacrifices. One day, a dispute rose 
between Herod and his wife whether roasted lamb or kid 
was the better eating, and they agreed to refer the matter 
to Issachar, who was a glutton. The latter coming into 
the throiie room waved his hand in a flippant manner at 
Herod, who ordered his body-guard to strike off his hand, 
Issacliar bribed the guard to cut off his left hand, but 
when Herod heard it he ordered the other amputated also, 
as it was with the right he insulted him, and thus he lost 
both hands which he had raised against Christ. Did Christ 
wear gloves at the Last Supper? There is no record. 
But whence came the bishop's gloves if he did not, for 
the bishops have used them since the apostolic age. 

The patriarch shepherds carried a staff, in Hebrew 
maggel, " rod," having a bent crook with which to lead 
back to the flock the stray sheep,^ and twenty-seven times 

^ Gen. xxxii. 10, xxxvlii. 18-35. 


the Old Testament speak of it. The staff was a sign of 
power and authority in these days when every object had 
a mystic meaning relating to the expected Christ. Jacob 
fleeing from his brother when praying for aid said : " with 
my staff I passed over tliis Jordan." ^ The angel who ap- 
peared to Gideon carried a staff, as also David did when 
he went forth against Goliath. 

In Hebrew the word for staff is also shehet^ " rod," 
" reed," and in Greek sJcemtron^ " scepter." The rod of 
authority developed into the religious staff of the prophets 
and tlie scepter of the king.^ Leaders in Israel carried a 
staff as a sign of authority .^^ The staff was first made of 
wood and that was the kind of staff or rod Moses carried 
as a sign of authority and with which he brought the 
plagues on Egypt. But the scepter of the Persian king 
was of massive gold,* and Avhen he inclined it towards a 
subject it was a sign of favor and the latter kissed it as a 
sign of homage."'^ A carved ivory scepter was discovered 
at Nimroud ^ and another in Egyptian ruins.' 

Patriarchs and prophets with their staff of authority 
foretold Christ who was to come into the world with his 
divine power, holding his staff, at the Last Supper, and in 
the Eucharist give life to human nature dead through 
Adam's sin. Let us quote the great bishop of Hippo, St. 

" God the Son sent the law of the Old Testament 
through his servant Moses, but he himself gave grace. 
Look at Eliseus in the great and deep mystery not only 
by Avords but by actions foretelling the future. The son 
of his host died. What does this dead boy signify but the 
human race dead in Adam ? The news was told the holy 
prophet bearing in his prophecy a type of our Lord Jesus 
Christ. He sent by his servant his staff* and said, ' Go, 
put it on the dead child.' He went as an obedient servant. 
The prophet knew what he was to do. He put the staff' 
on the dead boy, but he did not come to life. * For if 
there had been a law given which could have given life, 
truly justice should have been by the law.' ^ The Jewish 
law could not give life. Then the great prophet came to 

* Gen. xxxii. 10. ' Levit. xxvii. 32; Mich. vii. 14. ' Judg. v. 14 ; Gen. xlix. 10 ; 
Numb. xxiv. 17 ; Psalm, xlv. G ; Isaias xiv. T) ; Amos i. 5 ; Ezech. x. 11 ; Wisdom 
X. 14, etc. * Esther iv. 11 ; Zenoph. Cyrop. viii. 7, Sec. 13. " Estlier, iv.ll,v.2. 
*Layard, Nim. and Babji. 195. ' Wilkinson, Anc. Eg. i. 276. • Galatians iii. 21. 


the dead child — the livmg to the dead. He came and 
what did he do ? He went up and lay upon the child, and 
he put his mouth upon his mouth, and his eyes upon his 
eyes, and his hands upon his hands, and he bowed him- 
self down upon him/ ' He,' the Son of God ' debased 
himself, taking the form of a servant, being made to the 
likeness of men and in shape found as a man.' ^ ' Who 
will reform the body of our lowness, made like the body 
of his glory.' ^ Thus in this type of Christ the dead race 
of mankind brought by Christ back to life was fore- 
told, and the wicked who would be justified. This foretold 
grace, this is the grace of Christians gained by the Man, the 
Mediator who suffered, died, rose from the dead, ascended 
into heaven, led captivity captive and gave gifts to men." * 

First, it was used as an aid in walking, then to keep the 
sheep in order, then as sign of Moses' divine power, then 
in hands of prophets, then as a type of the Law given 
to Israel. Every Hebrew carried his staff while eating the 
Passover, as the Lord commanded. " Thus shall you eat 
it," " gird your reins," " have shoes on your feet, holding 
staves in your hands " ^ " for it is the Passover of the 
Lord." ^ Thus stood the Lord and his apostles round the 
Passover supper table, each holding the staff of patriarchs, 
prophets and the holy seers of old. The Lord's staff 
was type of power divine, shown forth by Moses in his 
Law, and an image of all the prophecies uttered by the 
Holy Ghost. Law and Prophecy were then about to be 
fulfilled in the First Mass and in the Crucifixion. 

When Christ sent his apostles into Judea before he 
gave them power over unclean spirits, he told them not 
to take a staff,' but when he gave them that power as 
exorcists he told them to take their staff.® Jews of that 
time, especially leaders in Israel, always carried these 
staffs as a sign of their authority, but they were forbidden 
to take them into the Temple.^ In the Temple ceremonial 
of Passover, two long lines of priests held each a staff- 
one line having gold staffs, those of the other line were 
of silver, and with them they kept order among the 
throngs of people. To-day, as a relic of that custom, of- 

1 IV. Kin^s iv. 34. " Philip, ii. 7. 3 phillp. iii. 21. * St. Augustine, Sermo 
xxvi., de Verb. Ps. xciv., n. xi. ^ In Hebrew niaggel, " rod." ^ Exod. xii. 11. 
» Matt. X. 11. 8 Mark vi, 8. » Edersheim, Temple, 42. 


ficials in the aiurch of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, 
at Easter, have long ornamental staffs, with which they 
strike the pavement and keep order as they precede the 
clergy marching round the Tomb of Christ. In France 
and other countries the beadle has a staff when he goes 
before the clergy, with which he keeps order durmg 









If a reporter had been present when the Lord and his 
apostles prepared for and said the first Mass, with what 
avidity we would now read the account. But, the Gospels 
excepted, no details have been recorded, and we must 
look to the Jewish rites and customs of that epoch. 

In Hebrew writings, Temple and synagogue services, 
in the works of the Fathers, in Catholic and non- Catholic 
writings relating to the Passover, we find a wealth of 
lore we now weave together to tell the story of the first 
Mass. We do not hold that they are absolutely exact, 
but they are as nearly true as possible after the lapse of 

It was the eve of Passover, the 13th day of the moon 
of the month of Abib or Nisan,^ after the spring equinox, 
corresponding to our 6th of April ; in the year A. D. 34 ; 
4088 years after Adam's creation, 788 after Rome's 
foundation,' the ninth year of Pilate's government, when 
Herod Antipas had ruled Galilee thirty-three years, Pom- 
ponius Flaccus, father of the emperor, being ruler of Syria, 
when Tiberius had sat twenty years on Caesar's throne, 
when Joseph Caiphas had pontificated for sixteen years, 
forty-four years after Herod dedicated his famous Tem- 
ple, that our story begins. A month before the Jews be- 
gan these preparations they called the Paraceve.* They 

t Babyl. Talmud, Tract Pesachim, c. i. ' Stapfer. Palestine, p. 474. ' Mat. 
zxvii. 62 ; Mark xv, 42 ; Luke xxiii, 54 ; John xix. 14, 31, 42. 



had fixed the roads leading up to the sacred city, white- 
washed the tombs, cleaned the streets, set their houses in 
order to receive the great throngs of strangers from all the 
nations, who would flock to Jerusalem to celebrate the 
Passover. The Law of Moses required every Hebrew 
within fifteen miles of the city, who was of age, and free 
from legal blemish, " to appear before the Lord " in his 
sanctuary on this day they called Ilaggadah, " Showing 
Forth," because every Jew was to come up to Jerusalem 
and "show himself" in the Temple as the Lord had com- 
manded.^ This law bound every Hebrew, who was not 
defiled, sick, or had a legal reason for not coming. Those 
who could not come this day were to come and be present 
at the second Passover held for them a month later. 

They divided up into " bands " of ten to twenty mem- 
bers, each bringing his gifts for the feast. Generally the 
leader of each " band " brought the lamb on his shoulders 
to the Temple. One would buy the wine, another the 
flour for the cakes, another the bitter herbs, another the 
candles, and the others the food required. This custom 
was continued in the early Church, and they brought 
gifts each Sunday and placed them on a table in the 
sanctuary at the ofi'ertory of the Mass, whence the name 
"offertory," from the offerings of the people, which in 
that day were divided into different parts, — one for the 
support of the clergy, another for the maintaining of the 
religious buildings, and another for the support of the 
poor, the widows and orphans. 

In the days of Christ, Jerusalem was much larger than 
now, extending south and taking in the large Sion quarter. 
The fixed population of the city was about 100,000 in- 
habitants, whole families living in one small room. But 
at Passover nearly 3,000,000 strangers from all the 
nations into which the Jews had scattered and engaged 
in trade used to come up to the Holy City, according to 
the Laws of Moses, to celebrate the feast. They camped 
on the hills and filled the valleys all around the sacred 
city, covering the country for miles in all directions. 

Since Moses' day they had chosen the lamb on the 10th 
day of the moon of the lunar month of Abib or Msan,'' 

^ Exod. xiii. 8 : Edersheim. Temple, 183 ; Life of Christ, I., 229 to 246, 366, 378 ; 
V. II., 479 to 619, etc. * Exod. xii. 3-6. 


and condemned the victim to death. There was a proph- 
ecy in this. For this year the lOtli day fell on Monday, 
and that day the local Sanhedrin or the Jerusalem 
Jewish Court, met and handed down a decree to execute 
the death sentence on Jesus, pronounced a month before 
by the great national Court of seventy-one judges.^ 

The sentence was to put him to death as soon as they 
could without rousing the people. But the prophecies 
stated and the Temple ceremonial showed that he was to 
die not that day but on the following Friday. Therefore 
Christ did not return to Bethany that night, for they 
would find him in Lazarus' house and kill him. Where 
did he hide ? 

A little below the summit of Olivet, whence he later 
ascended, was a cave in the dry limestone rock, its mouth 
then hidden by bushes, where watchmen guarding flocks 
and watching gardens retired in storms and slept at 
night. The cave extended forty feet north and south 
and was about fifteen feet wide. In it were four tables, 
seats, beds, etc. There the Lord with his apostles spent 
the three nights before his death. There he had taught 
his apostles the Lord's Prayer. There before tliey sepa- 
rated after the ascension, they composed the Apostles' 
Creed. It is called now the Grotto of the Creed. In the 
same inclosure, a little higher up, now stands a large 
building erected by a French countess, with the Lord's 
Prayer carved in thirty-five languages of the great nations 
on its walls. The first bishops of Jerusalem mention the 
Grotto of the Creed, many writers visited it, and in the 
early ages pilgrimages used to be made to it. A few 
hundred feet lower rises the church of the Dominus flevit : 
" The Lord wept," where Jesus wept over Jerusalem. 
Measuring with instruments, the floor of the church was 
found to be on a level with the spring of the arch of the 
Mosque of Omar, so that before his eyes across the Ced- 
ron vale, then rose the great buildings of the famous 
Temple A little south of the Grotto you can enter the 
tombs of the Hebrew prophets, who foretold in minute 
details the Saviour's life and death. But because they 
had denounced the Hebrews for their sins, the most of 
them were killed. Down deep in the limestone rock, you 

1 John xi. 47-53. 


will find half-circle galleries and places for thirty-one 
bodies ; but they are empty now. 

The great throngs were very busy that Monday ; all 
was turmoil, talk and excitement, for that day they 
selected the lambs for the Passover. The men of the 
bands first bought and washed the lamb, and called it 
" The Lamb of God " as they condemned it to death. 

First they washed the victim to image the Passover 
bath the Lord took with his apostles before the Last 
Supper. They scented the animal with costly perfume,^ 
to foretell the perfume of holiness and good works per- 
formed by Jesus. Then they tied the little victim to a 
colored stake ^ emblematic of Jesus fastened to his bloody 
cross. This was the way the lamb was prepared from 
Moses' day to prophesy the future Passion of the " Lamb 
of God," who was to take away the sins of the world.^ A 
hundred and forty times the Old Testament mentions the 
lamb as a type of Christ, and thirty-four times calls the 
Lord " the Lamb." ' 

Each morning the Lord, leading his band of twelve 
apostles, went out of his hiding-place in the Grotto, went 
down the hill thronged with Jews born of Juda's tribe, 
and passed the day in the Temple instructing, preaching, 
healing all diseases, and at nightfall he returned to his 
hiding-place. The sermons in the Temple, his burning 
denouncement of the Scribes and Pharisees will be found 
in the Gospels. The money-changers used to turn into 
the Temple treasury, as discounts, $380,000 a year, and 
$45,000 of that went into the pockets of the high priests. 
When Christ drove them out of the Women's Court, 
which they disturbed during divine service, he roused 
the priests to the highest fury. But they feared the 
people during the day and they could not find him at 
niglit on Olivet. 

Eve of Passover, of Pentecost, of Day of Atonement 
were days of fasting and of prayer,* and the custom 
comes down to us in fasting and prayers on the eves of 
feasts.'^ Therefore Christ with his apostles passed Wed- 
nesday in the Grotto in fasting and praying, preparing for 

» Edersheim, Life of Christ, i. 343. * Zanolini, De Festis Judaeorum, C. 4. 

» John 1. 29. * Babyl. Tahnud, Tract Taaneth, " Fasting," pp. 80, 88, 89, etc. 

^ St. Augustine, Euar. in Psalnii Ixxxv. n, xxiv. 


his death, and that retreat was the model of these retreats 
people make before ordination or undertaking important 

From the clays of Esdras Thursday was a day of fasting 
and prayer,^ because that day Moses began his fast on 
Sinai before receiving the Ten Commandments and the 
Law.^ The Jews, who could not attend the Temple serv- 
ices, fasted in their homes or synagogues for four days 
before the Passover, taking neither food or drink till sun- 

In memory of the escape of the first-born of the He- 
brews when the Angel of death killed the first-born of 
every Egyptian family the night of the flight from 
Egyptian bondage, the first-born of every family down 
the ages kept a still stricter fast on the day of the Pass- 
over. This fast the Jews still observe, and their Form 
of Service of the Passover of our day has the following 
rubric : " All the first-born fast in commemoration of the 
deliverance of the first-Toorn of the Israelites when God 
smote all the first-born of the Egyptians" (p. 3). 

Christ and his apostles were therefore obliged to fast, 
because it was the eve of the feast and because it was 
Thursday.* The Lord was bound by the law of the first- 
born, and they came to the Last Supper fasting. Therefore 
in every age coming down from the apostles, Church law 
and custom have prevailed, that the celebrant of the Mass 
and those who receive Communion must be fasting, the 
sick alone excepted. It is still the law in every Oriental 

Law and custom enforced not only fasting, but directed 
every Hebrew on the eve of the Day of Atonement and 
of Passover to take part in the Temple ceremonial of pre- 
paration for the feast. There they prayed and confessed 
their sins, as to-day the people come to the church to 
confess and to prepare for our feasts. Let us see what 
Jewish writers say of these preparations we imagine 
Christ and his apostles attended because they followed 
every law and custom of their glorious Temple.^ 

1 Palestine in Days of Christ, p. 381. 2 Babyl. Talmud, Baba Kamma, vol. 82-1; 
Edersheim, Life of Christ, ii. 291 ; Levit. xvi. 29 ; Joel i. 14<; Acts xiii. 2, etc • 
Judges XX. 26; 1. Kincs vii. 6, etc. ^ Edersheim, Temple, 300 ; Zanolini, De Festis 
Judseorum, C. 4. * Babyl. Talmud, Tract Taanith, cap. iv, p. 78, etc. * See 
Passover, cap. iii. pp. 95, 97, Tract Taauith, pp. 36, 42, 75. 



A whole Tract of the Talmud ' devoted to this subject 
of fasting, gives minute details of the Jewish fasts before 
great feasts, and in times of public calamities. The de- 
tails are too numerous to give here. They were also for- 
bidden to do any kind of work, light a fire, or even prepare 
food, and Jews of our day observe some of these regula- 

This eve, of Passover and of Sabbath was called by 
Grecian Jews the Paraceve, " preparation." ^ St. Augus- 
tine says that in his day Christians called the eve of Easter 
the " pure supper." * The Passover being the greatest of 
the Jewish feasts, as Easter is the chief Church feast, the 
Hebrews began the solemn preparations in the Temple 
and synagogues the evening before — that is, on the eve of 
the Passover. St. Augustine writes that the eve of 
Easter, now called Holy Saturday, is the mother of all the 
eves of the feasts of the Church.^ Let us see what the 
Talmud says regarding the preparations for the Passover. 

"Mishna: The following religious acts may be done 
during the whole of the day on which they are obligatory : 
The reading of the Megilla, tlie Hallel, the sounding of 
the trumpet, the handling of the Lalub, the prayer at 
the additional offerhig, the additional offering, the con- 
fession of sin at the sacrificing of the bulls, the confession 
to be made on bringing the second tithe, the confession 
of sin by the high-priest on the Day of Atonement, the 
imposition of hands on the sacrifice, the slaughtering of 
a sacrifice, the waving of the oft'ering. (In the form of a 
cross as already explained) the bringing it to the altar, 
the taking of the handful of flour '^ the burning with 
insence of the fat of a sacrifice on the altar." ^ 

The Talmud goes into minute details of the services 
and ceremonials of the Jewish church at the time it was 
written, many of these ceremonies with hardly a change 
Ave find in the ceremonies of the Church. AVe cannot giv^e 
them all because they would alone fill a large book. But 
we will here show how they prepared for the Passover 
on the paraceve, " the preparation." ^ 

" On the eve of the Day of Atonement (or of Passover) 

* Taanith, "Fasting." ' Babyl. Talmud, cap x., p. 224. ' Dupreon, Concor. 
S. Scripturse, Paraceve. * Serino ccxxi. In Vej^el Pas. iii. * Sermo ccxix. in 
Vigil Paschge 1. « Levit. i. 15. ' Babyl. Talmud, Tract Megilla, Cap. ii. 55. 
» See Babyl. Talmud, Passover xi. 210. 


it is forbidden to eat and drink, to wash, anoint, lace 
shoes or have sexual intercourse/ The one who broke 
these laws suffered Kareth, " excommunication." Chil- 
dren need not fast, but when one to two years old they 
must, so as to become accustomed to obey the re- 
ligious commandments. If one has eaten or drunk 
through forgetfulness, he must bring a sin-offering ; if he 
has eaten and worked he must bring two. From dawn 
of day (This was Wednesday of Passion week) they must 
begin, but a pregnant woman who longs for food, and the 
sick were allowed to eat a little, the food being given 
them under medical direction." 

To the Temple came the people on the eve of the feast 
to confess their sins, each bringing different offerings and 
victims to be sacrificed for different sins.^ They excited 
themselves to acts of sorrow and contrition and were 
truly penitent, many pages are devoted to this subject. 
Let us take a passage. 

" Penance is great, so that it brings redemption. ' And 
there shall come a Redeemer to Sion, and to them that 
return from iniquity in Jacob, saith tlie Lord,'^ which 
means, ' Why is the Redeemer come ? ' Because Jacob 
has returned from transgression. Penance is great, even 
the sins that have been done intentionally, are considered 
as done unintentionally, as it is written, ' Return, O Israel, 
to the Lord thy God, for thou hast fallen down by thy 
iniquity.' * Penitence is great. * And when the wicked 
shall depart from his wickedness, and shall do judgments 
and justice, he shall live in them.' ^ One is from love, the 
other from fear. Penitence is great, it causes a man to 
live long, as it is written, * he shall live.' The way of 
the Holy One, blessed be He, are not like the ways of 

They came into the Temple and confessed their sins to 
the priests as to-day Christians come to the churches to 
confession the day before the Easter feast. They humbled 
themselves before the Eternal of their forefathers, and 
over them the priests prayed for forgiveness. 

" The Rabbis taught : The sins one has confessed on one 
Day of Atonement, he need not confess on the next Day 

* Deut. viii. 3. » See Edersheim, Temple p. 87. ^ Isaias lix. 20. * Osee xiv. 2. 
^ Ezechiel xxxiii. 19. ^ Yomah viii. lo6. 


of Atonement. This is the case if he has not repeated 
his sin, but in that case, he should repeat the confession. 
If without having sinned again, he confessed again, then 
to him applies the verse, ' As the dog retuineth to his 
vomit, so is the fool that repeateth his folly.' ^ Rabbi ben 
Jacob however said, ' So much the more he may be 
praised as it is written,^ For I know my iniquity, and 
my sin is always before me.' " ^ 

" When he confesses, he must specify his sin, as it is 
written, * This people hath sinned a grievous sin, and 
they have made themselves gods of gold.' " * Why then 
has Moses specified the sin ? 

The Rabbis taught the duty of confession is on the eve 
of the Day of Atonement (and Passover) when it grows 
dark. Still the Rabbis said, one should confess pre- 
viously to the meal, for if something happened to him at 
his meal, he will have remained without confession. But 
although one has confessed before the meal, he should 
confess again in the evening, and once more the next 
morning, and in the additional Minchab prayer and the 
concluding N'ilah prayer.^ 

" At what place in the prayer should he confess ? an in- 
dividual at the end of the prayer, and the reader of the 
congregation in the middle of the prayer. What shall he 
say ? He shall begin : ' Thou knowest the secrets of the 
world.' * From the depths of the heart.' * In thy Law it 
is written thus.' ' Lord of the Universe, not for our merits 
do we pray Thy mercy.' ' Our transgressions are too 
numerous to be counted, and our sins too mighty to be 
told.' * My God, before I was created, I had not been 
worthy to be made, and now when I am created, I am the 
same as before. I am earth during my life, and so much 
more when I am dead. May it be Thy will that I may 
sin no more. I am a vessel before Thee full of disgrace 
and shame.' " 

As a sign of sorrow they struck their breasts as tlie 
celebrant and his ministers still do at the General Con- 
fession at Mass " Lamenting is by striking the breast for 
thus it is written." ^ 

That vast congregation, formed of Jews from fartherest 2 Yomah viii. 137. 'Psalm. 1.5. ♦ Exod. xxxii. 31. '^Yomah 
Viii. 140, 141, « Isaias xxii. 13 ; Luke xviii. 23-48. 


ends of earth that Wednesday evening, bent their bodies 
down before the veil closing the dread Holy of Holies, 
of the Lord of hosts, where formerly, in the form of the 
Shekina, God Eternal their King dwelled. It was the 
morning light of Christianity rising over mankind. 
Silently, walked the Levites with torches lighting the 
thousands of candles to illuminate the courts with the 
prayer : 

" Blessed art thou, O Lord, King of the Universe, who 
hast sanctified us by Thy commandments, and ordered us 
to kindle the Passover light." 

They began the evening prayers with the Shema : 
" Hear, O Israel," etc., and then said the following prayers : 

" Thou hast chosen us from all peoples," etc. " O, our 
God, and the God of our fathers, may our remembrance 
rise, and come, and be accepted before Thee, with the 
remembrance of our fathers ; of the Messiah the Son of 
David, thy servant ; of Jerusalem the holy city, and of all 
Thy people, the house of Israel, bringing deliverance and 
well-being, grace and loving-kindness, mercy, life and 
peace on this Day of Atonement.^ Remember us, O Lord, 
our God, for our well-being ; be mindful of us for bless- 
ing, and save us unto life ; by Thy promise of salvation 
and mercy spare us, and be gracious unto us. Have 
mercy on us, and save us, for our eyes are bent on Thee, 
because thou art a gracious and merciful God and King." 

Unseen grace coming from future merits of the Cruci- 
fied streamed down that night into repenting hearts of 
Israel's children, rousing them to realize the wickedness 
of sin. Brighter rose the aurora, the morning light of 
Christianity, since Moses, coming from the foreknowledge 
of the true Day of Atonement, that terrible Good Friday 
of the crucifixion. In the days of which we write, during 
the Ten Days of Penance, on the New Moon, on the 
Seven days of Passover, on the eve of the Atonement, 
great throngs gathered in the Temple, body and soul 
bowed down before the Holy of Holies, while that cry of 
anguish poured out the following before the Lord of 
hosts : 

0, our FatUr, Our King. \ ^^ '^l Z'lt^^:^^: 

We have sinned before Thee, 
We have ] 

* Or of the Passover. 



' Deal with us for Thy name's sake. 
Let a happy year begin for us. 
Nullify all evil decrees against us. 
NuUifj'^ the designs of those who hate us. 
Make the counsel of our enemies of no effect. 
Rid us of every oppressor and adversary. 
^lose the mouths of our adversaries and accusers. 
Of pestilence, sword, famine, captivity and destruction rid 

the children of Thy covenant. 
Withhold the plague from Thine inheritance. 
Forgive and pardon all our iniquities. 
^ { Blot out our sins and make tiiem pass awaj^ before Thine eyes. 
Erase, in Thine abundant mercies, all records of guilt. 
Bring us back in perfect repentance unto Thee. 
Send perfect healing to the sick of Thy people. 
Let Thy remembrance of us be for good. 
Write us in the book of happy life. 
Inscribe us in the book of redemption and salvation. 
Let salvation soon spring forth for us. 
Exalt the Horn of Israel Thy people. 
Hear our voice, spare us, and have mercy on us. 
Open the gates of Jieaven unto our prayer. 
We pray Thee turn us not back empty from Thy presence. 

The priestly iind Levite choirs formed of 1,000 men 
sang the first words, " O, our Father, onr King," and the 
vast congregation filling the great Courts sang the forty- 
three responses. The high priest ended the Litany with 
these words : 

"O, our Father, our King, be gracious unto us, and 
answer us, for we have no good work of our own, deal 
with us in charity and kindness and save us. 

" In the book of life with blessing, peace and good 
sustenance, may we be remembered and inscribed before 
thee, we and all thy people, the house of Israel, for a 
happy life, and for peace. Blessed art Thou, O Lord, who 
makest peace. 

"O, our God, and the God of our fathers, let our 
prayer come before Thee ; hide not thyself from our sup- 
plications, for we are not arrogant and stift'-necked, that 
we should say before Thee, O Lord, our God, and the God 
of our fathers, we are not righteous we have sinned; 
truly we have sinned. 

" We have trespassed ; we have been faithless ; we 
have robbed ; we have spoken basely ; we have committed 
iniquity; we have worked injustice; we have been x>i'e- 
sumptuous ; we have done violence ; we have forged lies ; 



we have counseled evil ; we have spoken falsely ; we 
have scoffed ; we have revolted ; we have blasphemed ; 
we have acted perversely ; we have transgressed ; we 
have been rebellious ; we have been stiff-necked ; we have 
done wickedly ; we have corrupted ourselves ; we have 
committed abomination ; we have gone astray ; we have 
been led astray. 

" We have turned aside from Thy commandments and 
good judgments, and it hath profited us naught. But 
Thou art just in all that is come upon us, for Thou hast 
acted truthfully, but we have wrought injustice. 

" What shall we say before Thee, O Thou, who 
dwellest on high, and what shall we recount unto Thee, 
wlio abidest in the heavens ? dost Tliou not know all 
things, both hidden and revealed ? 

" Thou knowest the secrets of eternity, and the most 
hidden mysteries of all living. Thou searchest the inner- 
most recesses, and triest the reins and heart. Naught is 
concealed from Thee, or hidden from Thine eyes. 

" May it then be thy will, O Lord, our God, and the 
God of our fathers, to forgive us for all our sins, to pardon 
us for all our iniquities, and to grant us forgiveness for 
all our transgressions. 





Under compulsion or of our own wiU. 

In the hardening of the heart. 


With the utterance of the lips. 

By unchastity. 

Openly and secretly. 

Knowing and deceitfully. 

In speech. 

By wronging our neighbor. 

By the sinful meditating of the heart. 

By associating with impurity. 

B}' confession with the mouth alone. 

By despising parents and teachers. 

In presumption or in error. 

By violence. 

By the profanation of the divine Name. 

By unclean lips. 

By folly of the mouth. 

By evil inclination. 

Wittingly or unwittingly, etc. 

The petitions numbered fifty-four, of which we have 
given the first twenty. At the end of each petition the 


high priest prayed in a mournful chanting tone while 
cries and sobs fills Jehovah's sacred building. 

" For all these, O God of forgiveness and pardon, grant 
us remission." 

Did Christ say over his apostles the words of absolution 
forgiving them their sins, that in the state of grace they 
might receive the two sacraments of Holy Orders and 
Communion the next day at the Passover? We find no 
record. But it is probable, for He forgave the sins of 
others.^ These sacraments must now be received in a 
state of grace. After the resurrection he gave them 
power to forgive sins, saying, " Whose sins you shall for- 
give, they are forgiven them ; and whose you shall retain 
they are retained." ^ There was nothing striking or un- 
usual to them in confession of sins, for they had seen 
multitudes go to confession every eve of Atonement and 
of Passover whenever they attended the Temple on these 
days. Christ simply raised the Temple sacramental con- 
fession of the old Testament coming down from Moses, to 
the higher dignity of a sacrament of the New Testament. 

The Temple Litany we have given was the origin of 
the General Confession or Confiteor said at the beginning of 
Mass, and was the model of the Litanies of the Church. 
The Great Petition of St. Chi-ysostom's Liturgy followed 
to-day b}^ the Greek, Sclavonic and Oriental Christians, 
resembles this Temple Litany. 

The Talmud goes into minute details regarding this 
general confession in the Temple and Jews followed the 
custom in the synagogues down to our day. 

Confession has been fiercely attacked by people who do 
not know the Temple customs of the time of Christ. The 
Jew confessed his sins with sorrow for his wickedness, 
and he was animated with the love of God when he re- 
cited each day the Shema, "Thou shalt love the Lord," etc.^ 
Those who had a perfect love of God above all, received 
forgiveness, because perfect love — called perfect charity — 
wiped out sin in every age. This was the way patriarchs, 
holy prophets, priests and saints of the Old Testament 
received forgiveness of their sins. The Jews of our time 
do not carry out all these rites regarding confession on the 
eve of the Passover. But on the Day of Atonement, they 

1 Matt, ix. 2 ; Mark ii, 5-9 ; Luke v. 20, vii. 48. « Jolm xx. 23. ' Deut. vi. 5. 


gather in their synagogues, and observe many of these 
regulations. Religious communities still tell their faults 
and their infractions of the Rule before the whole com- 
munity, or to the superior. But they are forbidden to tell 
their sins except to a duly authorized priest. Often at 
prayer meetings members of Protestant denominations 
tell their sins and the graces they received — the custom 
coming down from before the reformation. 

The exercises in the early Church on Holy Satui-day, 
preparing for Easter, copied from these Temple customs, 
were very long. St. Augustine tells us that he was so 
tired after these exercises one Easter that he could only 
preach a short sermon of only eleven lines.^ 

Priests, Levites, men and women, not only confessed 
their sins in public in the Temple but asked the others 
to pray for them, and the high priest and the priest said 
prayers of absolution over them, as the celebrant of the 
Mass still says the words of absolution over the people 
after the general Confession at Mass. 

Following this Temple ceremony, the early Christians 
confessed their sins to the bishop and his twelve priests — 
forming a court — whence confession is called a tribunal, 
and the bishop and priests pronounced the words of ab- 
solution over them. Before this court, in public, men and 
women confessed before the congregation their sins, and 
these so shocked the people that the Church made a law 
that in future sins must be confessed in private to the 
bishop and his court. Later the custom obtained of con- 
fessing to a priest in private, and thus began our present 
discipline relating to confession.^ 

The high priest chants in mournful minor key : 

" And also for the sins for which we are liable to any of 
the four death penalties inflicted by the court — stoning, 
burning, beheading and strangling, for the violation of 
positive, or for the violation of negative precepts, whether 
the latter do or do not admit of a remedy by the subsequent 
fulfilment of a positive command,^ for all our sins, whether 
they be or not be manifest to us. Such sins as are mani- 

' St. Augustine, Sermon, 320, die Paschae. See Migne, Cursus Comp. S. Scrip- 
tural, iii. 1052. 2 See Chardon, Histoire des Sacraments, in Migne, Cursus 
Com. S. Theologia. ' A Note in the Liturgy says ; " Such for example are 

the laws forbidding work on the Sabbath, and leaven bread to be eaten on the 
Passover, to each of them the statement applies," 


fest to us, we have already declared and confessed unto 
Thee, while such as are not manifest ^ unto us are known 
to Thee, according to the word that has been spoken. 
* The secret things belong unto the Lord, our God, but 
the things that are revealed belong unto us, and to our 
children forever,' that we may do all the words of this 
Law. For thou art the forgiver of Israel, and the par- 
doner of the tribes of Jeshurun in every generation, and 
beside Thee we have no king, who pardoneth and for- 

The Temple gates of massive bronze were closed every 
night, locked, and the keys placed in a recess under a stone 
in the Chamber of the Beth Ha Moked, " The House of 
Stones," on which a priest slept. But this Wednesday 
night the gates were left open, for great crowds were 
continually passing back and forth. The Courts were 
filled with people, some standing, some kneeling, some 
prostrated on the ground, others spent the night bowing 
down till their foreheads touched the marble pavement. 
When you enter a church to-day on Easter eve and see 
the people gathered there in prayer and meditation con- 
fessing their sins, you can go back in thought to the 
Temple of Jehovah and imagine that scene when Jesus 
Christ with his apostles iu his " Father's House "^ prepared 
for the Last Supper and the awful scenes of his Passion. 

When did Christ and his apostles leave the Temple for 
the Grotto on Olivet? Did he spend the whole night in 
the Temple in prayer as many pious Jews did before the 
Passover ? we find no replies to these questions. 

The next day, Thursday, at 9 a. m., they sacrificed the 
lamb with the daily ceremonial and began the sacrifice of 
the afternoon service, not at 3 p. ivr. as was the custom on 
ordinary days, but at 2.30 in order to get ready for the 
sacrifices of the paschal lambs they were to eat that even- 
ing in synagogue and homes of Jerusalem. 

At two o'clock that Thursday afternoon, the chief 
Temple chassan notified the priests stationed on the Temple 
tower, at the southeast corner of the area, to sound the 
trumpets ' to tell the assembled people that they were ready 
to sacrifice the paschal lambs.* At that moment Jesus 

1 That is, forgotten. * John ii. IG. » Edersheim, Temple, 151. * Qeikie, Life 
of Christ, i. 2;il, 2;i2 ; li. p. 4;)G. 


Christ with his apostles came out of the Grotto, and went 
down the western slope of Olivet. According to the cus- 
tom, Jesus, as Master of the band, carried the lamb on his 
shoulders as he is represented in the Catacombs and in 
Christian art. 

By heart they knew the Psalms of the Temple Hymn- 
book, and they went down singing what the Jews called 
Maaloth^ " the Pilgrims' Psalms." This the Hebrews 
always did when coming to the great feast of Israel.* 
Christ, the Master, of the " band " intoned the first verse, 
the apostles resjDonded with the second verse, and thus 
the}'' went down the Olivet hill praising God in words of 
his father, tlie roytil prophet David.^ 

•' I have lifted up my eyes to the mountains, " etc.'^ 
" Praise the Lord, for he is good," etc.^ 

They pass on the right Annas' summer-house called 
the Beth Ini, " House of figs " shaded by two large cedars, 
with the dovecots, where this avaricious Jew had four 
shops for the sale of religious articles for the Temple 
services. There, more than thirty-four years before, the 
Lord's Mother, Mary, had bought the two pigeons she 
offered in the Temple the day of her purification. 

The path leads down to the north of Gethsemane's 
walls, crosses the road leading out what is now called St. 
Stephen's Gate, running down through the Cedron vale, 
then over the southern slope of Olivet by Bethany down 
to Jericho. They crossed the bridge the high priests long 
before had thrown over the Cedron brook, that bridge 
over which the victims were driven for the Temple sacri- 
fices, and over wbieli they dragged the Lord that mid- 
night after his arrest to fulfil these types. 

They ascend the hill east of the Temple area, pass 
along the road leading to the Golden Gate entering into 
the sacred inclosure. That part, east of the Temple 
outside the walls, was then covered with houses belong- 
ing to the wealthy Nicodemus, Joseph of Arimathea and 
Joseph Caiphas the high priest. 

They enter the rooms of the Gate where the judges 
used to hold court, and mount the steps leading up into 
the Temple area. That gate is now closed, for the prophet 

1 Psalms cxx. to cxxxv. 2 Ps, cxx. ^ pg qxxxv. 


foretold ^ the Lord the Conqueror would enter by it, and 
the Moslems think some future victor will enter through 
it and capture the city. 

Great multitudes filled the great Temple area, about 
1,000 feet square.^ They had gathered there from all the 
nations into which their fathers had been exiled since the 
Babylonian Captivity. There were merchant princes from 
Africa, strangers from Cyrene, now a part of Tunis, to 
which Ptolomeus had banished 110,000 of their fathers, 
members of the Scaramella family bankers of Alexandria, 
whose fathers had sent the magnificent bronzes of the 
Nicanor Gate, Jewish writers say was shipwrecked but 
saved by a miracle ; Arab sheiks Avere seen with venerable 
white locks of hair hanging from under white turbans ; 
leaders of desert tribes surrounded by their families 
with dark fillets of camel hair keeping on the turban ; 
Scythian Jews from the north of Asia, garbed in fur of 
wolf and bear ; Assyrian nobles clothed in purple and 
gold ; Greco-Hebrews of noble bearing, instinct with the 
arts of Ja van's sons, witli whom they were reared and edu- 
cated ; Israelites from Germany, called by their brethren 
Askanez Jews ; traders from imperial Rome and from 
Italian cities decked in toga and bejeweled in rare gems 
— Hebrews from all nations were there that day divided 
into bands of ten or more men, each leader of the band 
with a little kimb.^ 

All were talking or walking back and forth in the great 
cloisters, filling the Choi, mixing with heathens and 
crowding the Chel, where Israelites alone could enter. 
They were talking, disputing, arguing about the most 
minute points of the Law, the Prophecies, the Passover, 
the Temple and its services. Priests and officers of the 
Temple passed through the throngs, examining the 
lambs, and passing seals to leaders, whose lambs they^^ 
found without blemish.* 

The most interesting items of news related to the Rabbi 
Carpenter of Nazareth, who for more than three years had 
been going around Judea with twelve apostles and seven- 
two disciples, foHowed by great nmltitudes of people he 
had healed of various diseases. He claimed to be the Mes- 

> F:zech. xliv. 2. * Kdeisheim, Temple, 184. » See Geikie. Life of Christ, i. 470. 
* See Edersheiin, Temple, 183 ; Geikie, Life of Christ, i., 470. 


siah foretold by the prophets. But they were not sure. 
How many false Messiahs had risen and led them to death ? 
But, they argued, this man was different. He had done 
Avonders. He had even raised from the dead Eleazar, 
whom the Greeks named Lazarus, of Bethany, laid to rest 
in the tomb twenty-eight steps down in the rock at 
Bethany, after he had been four days dead. Did not the 
great prophet of David's family, Isaias, say " God him- 
self will come and will save you. Then shall the eyes of 
the blind be opened, and the ears of the deaf be un- 
stopped. Then shall the lame leap as the hart, and the 
tongue of the dumb be free." ^ 

This new Rabbi of Galilee had denounced the Scribes 
and Pharisees, foretold the destruction of the city, the 
ruin of the Temple. The priests had ejected him from 
the sanctuary because he had driven out the money- 
changers from the courts, etc. These were the discus- 
sions and the disputes heard on every side among the 
vast crowds filling the Temple area. 

It was nearly half-past three when Christ leading his 
band of twelve apostles entered the great Nicanor Gate 
of Corinthian bronze. The lamb had been sacrificed, the 
incense offered in the Holies, and the priests and Levites 
were ready to immolate the paschal lambs. Twenty-four 
Levites formed two long lines leading up to the great gate. 
One line had gold staves and the other silver staves in their 
hands to keep order. Each strikes the pavement with his 
staff as a sign of authority, while the chief chazzan cries 
out, " People of the Lord, listen, the time for sacrificing 
the paschal lamb has arrived in the name of Him who 
rests in this holy house." ^ 

With two other bands the Lord and his apostles enter 
the Priest's Court, Christ carrying the lamb on his 
shoulders as leader.^ To the north of the great altar 
with its three ever-burning fires on top, they pass and 
Christ lays down the lamb. A priest comes forward 
and receives the seal the examiner had given them without 
the Courts, testifying that the lamb was Avithout blemish. 

They pour a chalice of wine on the lamb, emblem of 
the Eucharist, uniting Passover and Mass with Temple 

* Isaias xxxv. 4-G. 2 Talmud, Yomah, Appendix. ' Exod. xxiii. 15 ; Deut. 
xvi. 17 ; Mishna, Chag. 1, 2, etc. 


sacrifices. They tie his feet with a cord, the right fore foot 
to the left hind foot, and tiie left fore foot to the right hind 
foot, making with the cord a cross, uniting the lamb with 
Calvary's cross.' They wash again the victim with per- 
fumed water, showing forth the odor of miracles of Christ's 
humanity. They give it a drink of water to prophesy the 
vinegar and gall they offered the Victim of the cross.^ 

The members of each band now appi'oach, lay their 
hands on the lamb's head, while the attending priests lay 
on their hands — all hands are held with thumbs crossed, 
]jalms down while they together recite.^ 

" Ah, Jehovah, they have committed iniquity — they 
have transgressed ; the}^ have simied — Thy people, the 
house of Israel. Oh, then, Jehovah, cover over, I entreat 
Thee, cover over their transgressions, and their sins, 
•which they have wickedly committed, transgressed, and 
sinned before Thee — Thy people, the house of Israel, as 
it is WTitten in the Law of ^Nloses, saying, " For on that 
day it shall be covered for you, to make you clean from 
all your sins, l)eforc Jeliovah ye shall be cleansed." 

The J' put their hands under the lamb, raise him up as 
higli as their heads, and offer him to the Lord as a victim of 
their sins. Thus from Moses' day the victims foretold 
Christ raised up on the cross.* Lowering him a little they 
"wave him " to the north, south, east and west, making 
with him a cross, to foretell the world's Victim crucified. 
These two ceremonies were carried out with every offer- 
ing of Temple and Passover, and are still continued in the 
Mass, when the celebrant ofters the bread and wine. 

On the steps of the Xicanor Gate leading up from the 
AVomen's Court into the Court of Israel, its great bronze 
doors given by the S(.'aramella family of ])ankers of Alexan- 
dria, now swung wide open, stands a choir of 500 Levites, 
vested in white albs, bound by wide girdles with miters 
on their heads and the Book of the Psalms in their 
hands. Their sons stand Avith them and many have 
flute, cornet, harp and cymbals in theii' liands as the great 
organ with bellows of elephant hide burst forth in dia- 
pason melody and the men begin the base, the youths 
tenor, and the young boys soprano. 

* See Balvl. Talmud. Passover, 255. * See Palestine ; Edersheim. Life of 
Christ, i. 878 ; Geikip. r.ife of Christ, etc. s See Bay!. Talmud, pp. 119, 1^0, l.o5. 
* Levic. iv. 15, xiv. iJl, xvi. 01, iii. 3-8 ; Edersheim, Temple, 88, i)2, 2o0. 


In the Priests' Court, stand 500 priests of the rank of 
Abia, " the eighth," vested in rich robes of cloth of gold, 
embroidered in white, green, violet, and red, the sacred 
colors of the sanctuary of the Lord of hosts, God told 
Moses to make for Aaron and his sons. Miters are on 
their heads, their brows are bound round with tephilim, 
phylacteries are on their left arms next the heart, the 
strap wound round their arm seven times and circle their 
two fingers, but the feet are bare, for the ground where 
Abraham offered Isaac is holy. 

All turn their backs to the east to mock the pagans 
worshiping the rising sun, moon and stars. They face 
the Holies and the Holy of Holies, where the Shekina, the 
Holy Ghost, once dwelled in their fathers' days. They 
face to the west, waiting, praying for, and expecting the 
Messiah, who was foretold to come, end, seal up, and 
fulfil these sacrificial types. They did not know it, but 
they faced towards that Calvary, 1,000 feet west, outside 
the walls, where the next day their Saviour was to die. 

The priest drawn for that purpose, robed in red, now 
comes forward, and with sacrificial gem-incrusted knife 
he cuts the lamb's throat. Two long lines of priests 
vested in red robes magnificently embroidered in white, 
green, purple and red, range from the lamb on the north 
to the south side of the great altar, the priests of one line 
having each a gold cos or chalice and the priests of the 
other line silver chalices in their hands. Each cos was 
without a pedestal, so they could not be put down lest 
the blood might coagulate. The nearest priest catches 
the blood from the lamb's wounded throat in his cos 
held in his right hand, turns round, passes it into the 
right hand of the next priest, and takes the empty chalice 
from him. To do this, each must cross his arms. The 
one who receives the filled chalice turns around, jiiid in 
the same way hands it to the next; thus forming a cross 
with their arms, as dying Jacob blessed Joseph's two sons,^ 
the blood passes along that line of priests to the passage 
on the south leading up to the great altar. Thus the 
ceremony foretold the sacrifice of the cross. 

The last priest of the lines to receive the chalice mounts 
to the altar up the inclined passage on the south side, 

* Gen. xlviii. 14 to 10. 


walks along the balustrade, and on the southeast horn he 
splashes the blood from below up, then another splash 
across. He does the same on the northeast, northwest and 
southwest horns — thus they mark the four horns of the 
great altar with a bloody cross to foretell Calvary's cross.' 

Rapidly they go through the ceremonial they practised 
for a month, for there are thousands of lambs to be sacri- 
ficed before sunset. The lamb is now hung up on a hook 
from the marble pillar, his skin taken oft", as the Lord 
was hung up to a pillar the next day and his skin torn 
oft' by the scourges. The entrails and fat are taken out, 
with the tail salted and burned on the altar as an oftering 
to the Lord. The body of the lamb is rolled in the skin, 
Christ takes it again on his shoulders, and they pass out, 
their places being taken by another band. 

During this sacrificial ceremony, on the steps of the 
Nicanor Gate stand 500 Levites who with young men 
and sons of the tribe and people sing the Plallel.'^ They 
begin with the Hebrew Hallelu-jah which now we pro- 
nounce Alleluia, " Praise Jehovah." 

The Levites. Hallelu Jah. 

The People. Hallelu Jah. 

The Levites. Praise, O servants of Jehovah. 

The People Hallelu Jah. 

The Levites. Praise the name of Jehovah. 

The People. Hallelu Jah. 

The Levites. When Israel went out of Egypt. 

The People. When Israel went out of Egypt. 

The Levites. The house of Jacob from a barbarous 

The People. Judea was made his sanctuary, Israel his 

dominion, etc. 

Thus they sang to the end Psalm cxiii., then the next 

*' I have loved because the Lord will hear the voice of my 

prayer," etc.^ 
•* I liave believed, therefore have I spoken." 
" But I have been humbled exceedingly," etc.* 
" O the Lord, all ye nations," etc.* 
" Give praise to the Lord, for he is good," etc.* 

1 Edersheim, Temple, p. 88. * (Jeikie. Life of Christ, i. 373. » Psalm cxiv. 
• Psaim cxv. ** Psalm ex vj. « Psalm cxvii. 


When they came to the twenty-fifth verse of this 
Psalm its Hebrew words, Anna Adonai hoscihanna, "O 
Lord, save me : O Lord, give good success," are shouted 
as Hosanna with a mighty sound from the choirs of 
priests, Levites and people. This word is sung by the 
choir at every High Mass, at the Sanctus before the 
"Lamb of God " is sacrificed. 

Hebrew writers tell us this was the great Egyptian 
Hallel, which diftered from the common Hallel formed 
of Psalms cxix to cxxxv and pointed to five religious 
truths — the Delivery of the Hebrews from Egypt, the 
Passage through the Red Sea, the giving of the Law on 
Sinai, the coming of the Messiah and the general resur- 
rection of the Dead. 

The Son of God, carrying the laml) on his shoulders, 
with his apostles passes through the Women's Court 
down the Nicanor Gate steps, down into the Chel, down 
and into the Choi. For the last time leaves his Father's 
Temple he had visited and worshiped in so often since 
he had been confirmed at twelve with the laying on of the 
hands of its priesthood, when he argued with the doctors.' 

The Temple of Moriah, "Jehovah provides," whose 
priesthood should have formed the foundations of his 
Church, had rejected him and condennied him to death. 
The magnificent ceremonial of the Sanctuary of the Lord 
foretelling him was to be comj^leted and finished by pass- 
ing into the Church ceremonies. But the Hebrew priest- 
hood was to end as the prophets had foretold. But he 
would not leave the world without an official teaching 
body, else the modern world would have been inferior to 
the olden days. 

He was about to found a priesthood, which was not to 
pass away like that of Aaron sacrificing suffering victims 
in the Temple. That new priesthood was to be an eternal 
order of priests, according to that of jMelchisedech, offering 
hiui under forms of bread and wine among the nations till 
the end. 

A great bi-idge then led from Moriah with its Temple 
to that other, higher and holier hill, Sion, mentioned a 
hundred and seventy-one times in the Old Testament. 
Patriarch, prophet and ancient seers of Israel seem to 

1 Luke ii. 43. 


exhaust words foretelliug Siou's glorious future, because 
there the first Mass was to be offered. Numerous are the 
Scripture texts of prophets hundreds of years before 
foretelling Christ that day leading his apostles to Sion, 
to say the first Mass and ordain them bishops, that they 
might sit on their episcopal thrones among the heathens. 
We will cite only two texts. 

"The Lord hath prepared his arm, 
In the sight of all the Gentiles. 
Depart ye, go out from thence, 
Touch no unclean thing. 
Go out of the midst of her. 
Be clean you that carry 
The vessels of Jehovah. 
For Jehovah shall go before you, 
And the Lord, the God of Israel, 
Will gather you together." ^ 

"For the Lord hath chosen Sion, 
He hath chosen it for his dwelling place. 
This is my rest forever and ever ; 
Here will I dwell, for I have chosen it. 
I will clothe her priests with salvation, 
And let thy saints rejoice, 
Tlie Lord liath sworn the truth to David, 
And he will not make it void, 

Of the fruit of thy body I will set upon thy throne. 
Their children forevermore shall sit upon thy throne."' 

There was foretold his Church wherein the Prince of 
the House of David now rests enthroned in our taber- 
nacle and sacrificed by priests according to Melchisedech's 
order, the patriarchal priesthood of the fathers of our race 
coming down from Abel and from Adam. 

What did Christ do when the Temple priesthood re- 
jected him? He went beyond the Temple ceremoni;il 
and Jewish priesthood to the patriarchal Passover, and 
changed it into the new and eternal sacrifice. He did not 
found his Church and priesthood on the Temple and its 
priesthood, for these were to pass away. The Mass with 
its ceremonial comes directly from the Passover and only 
indirectly from the Temple, for the latter was but an 
extension, a development of the ancient Passover Al- 
though we find the Temple ceremonies in the Mass and 
in our Church ceremonial, yet we trace them directly to 

^ Isaias Hi. 10. - Psalm cxxxi. 8-14. 


the Last Supper which Christ and his apostles held tliat 
night as the Hebrew Passover. 

The apostles wondered where they were to hold the 
feast, and while crossing the great bridge they turn to 
Jesus. ' Whither wilt thou that we go and prepare to 
eat the pasch ? ' ^ And he said to Peter and John, 
' Go and prepare us the pasch that we may eat.' But 
they said : ' Whither wilt thou that we prepare ? ' And 
he said to them, ' Behold as you go into the city, there 
shall meet you a man carrying a pitcher of water, follow 
him into the house, which he entereth, and you shall say 
to the master of the house, say to him the Master saith, 
* My time is near at hand. I will keep the pasch at thy 
house with my disciples.' ^ ' The Master saith to thee, 
' Where is the guest-chamber, where I may eat the pasch 
with my disciples ? ' ' And he will show you a large 
dining-room furnished, and there prepare for us.' And 
his disciples went their way and came into the city, and 
they found as he had told them, and they prepared the 
pasch." ^ 

They were crossing the bridge when Jesus sent his 
two chief apostles on ahead. Herod the Great had built 
this bridge to replace the one Solomon had stretched 
across the Tyropoeon vale separating Moriah from Sion. 
In the middle of the valley far below, separating the 
sacred hills within the Holy City, then ran north and 
south the Cheesemongers' Street, Avhere farmers gathered 
on Mondays, Thursdays and feasts to sell their produce. 
The bridge Avas of the yellow limestone of Judea, 125 
feet over the street, supported by arches 41-} feet wide 
east and west by 50 feet, the width of the bridge, 
which was 350 feet long, uniting Moriah and Sion, its 
eastern end debouching into tlie southern part of the 
Temple area. Some of the stones were from 20 to 40 
feet long, weighing over 109 tons. The writer measured 
one of the stones laid by Solomon in the Temple founda- 
tions near where this bridge ended, and found it 17i long 
and three feet high— how far it extended into the wall he 
could not tell.* The broken eastern abutment of the 
fallen bridge is now called " Robinson's Arch." 

1 Mark xiv. 12. 2 Matt. xxvi. 18. ^ Luke xxii. 11 ; Mark xiv. 16. * See 
Edersheim, Temple, p. 19. 


Peter and John hurried ahead, crossed the bridge to 
David Street, turned soutli, passed Annas' and Caiphas' 
palaces, and near the Sion Gate they met the man with a 
pitcher of the " Water of Precept," tor the Passover. 
The man, whose name is not given by any writer, had 
drawn that water from a well dug deep down in the Inne- 
stone rock at the eastern end of a bridge the high priests 
had stretched over the Cedron brook a little south of 
Gethsemane where the well may still be seen. 

The man was bringing that water to the Cenacle to 
mix with the flour for the Passover cakes. To him they 
told the Master's message, then they followed him to 
the tomb of David, and told the keeper of the Cenacle 
what the Lord had directed them to say. 

Jerusalem belonged to all the people of Israel. The 
line dividing the lands of Juda's tribe from the Benja- 
mites passed through the center of the Temple, and con- 
tinued westward till it divided Calvary at the spot where 
next day stood the cross. This division was made so no 
tribe could claim the Holy City as its own property. 
Whence no one owned a house in Jerusalem, for it be- 
longed to all the tribes.* Tlie families who lived in the 
houses had only the right of occupation. They were for- 
bidden to rent a house, and dwelling-houses and lands 
were given by lot. At the Passover, every house was 
open to the strangers, no one was ever refused bed and 
board at this time, and hospitality was boundless during 
the feasts.^ The man who would refuse a Passover pil- 
grim the use of his house would expose his family to tlie 
execration of the whole population.^ 

The celebrated Chamber over tlie tombs of the kings, 
the Greeks called Anageon, the Hebrews Aliyah, mean- 
ing" High," or "Beautiful," and the Romans, tlie Cenacle, 
"The Banquet Ilall." St. Luke's Greek Gospel has the 
words : " And he will show you the great Cenacle fur- 
nished, there prepare." * The word is estromenon "fur- 
nished," and the words mean the same as what we say 
when we speak of." a furnished house " ready to be oc- 
cupied. The Cenacle or upper chamber had the Bema or 

* Talmud, Yomah, 12a. ^ See Migne, Cursus Comp. S. Scriptume, v. ii. 918, 
1172, etc. 3 Edersheim, Temple, p. 17 ; Life of Christ, ii. p. 484 ; Acts xii. 13 ; 
Geikie, Life of Christ, ii. 116, 484. 578. * Luke xxii, 12. 


sanctuary for the synagogue services, the Aaron with the 
sacred Scrolls, the hanging lamb before the Law, the 
candles on the ark, the seven-branched candlestick, 
the pulpit, the table in the middle of the chamber, the 
couches on which to recline and all things required for 
the great feast of Israel. 

The Cenacle was filled with people preparing for the 
feast, and according to the custom, entering the two 
apostles said : Shalom Lachem, " Peace to you," ^ or 
" Peace be with this house " and the people replied : 
" May your heart be enlarged." This was the Marahaba 
of the Hebrews, the Alaic of the Talmud, the Shelama of 
the ancient days of Melchisedech and Abraham, the name 
the former called Sion, Salem, " Peace," the greeting of 
friends as we say : " How do you do ? " They used to 
greet each other with the words : " Peace be with you," 
as the pontificating bishop says to the people, or " The 
Lord be with you," as the priest says seven times during 
Mass sending the Holy Spirit to the people with his seven- 
fold gifts,'' — the greetings going back, in sentiment at 
least, to the days when the great high priest Melchisedech 
founded Jerusalem. 

To the keeper of the Cenacle the apostles delivered 
the Master's message. Christ was the Prince of the 
House of David, heir of the great kings sleeping in the 
rocky tombs beneath, and the palace belonged to his 
family. Through his Mother he was the direct repre- 
sentative of David's royal family, had the highest title to 
the building and that was the reason that the Cenacle was 
given him in which to celebrate the feast with his apostles. 

All in the place gather round the two apostles, for this 
day of the Passover, stranger was more honored than the 
master of the house. For days they had been preparing 
for the great feast. They had cleaned and washed the 
floors of the great Cenacle Hall, wherein synagogue Sab- 
bath and feasts had been celebrated since Herod had built 
the great Chamber over the tombs of Juda's famous kings. 
Peter and John, following their Master's words, " And 
there prepare for us," ^ went to work helping in the Pass- 
over preparations.* 

1 Judges xix. 20. - Isaias ii. 2. ' Luke xxii. 12 ; Mark xiv. 15. * Geikie, Life 
of Christ, i, 132 to 207 ; ii. 434 to 475, etc. 


'J'lie blaster, suiTouiided by liisten apostles, soon came 
with the sacrificed, skinned lamb, rolled in its skin on his 
shoulders, while the others carried the flour, wine, bitter 
lierbs, salt, vinegar, apples, nuts, almonds, candles and 
things required for the feast. At the door the Lord 
gave the lamb's skin to the keeper of the Cenacle, ac- 
cording to the custom.^ 

They laid the lamb on a table, and drove a stick of pome- 
granate wood, called meclina^ through his bod}^, along the 
backbone and through the tendons of his hind feet. 
Carefully they open out the chest, as butchers still some- 
times do, and place another stick of the same wood into the 
tendons and small bones of the forefeet, opening out the 
body so it will better roast.^ 

They are very careful not to break a bone, or they will 
be punished with thirty-nine stripes.* This was the way 
the lamb was crucified down the ages since Moses' day 
to prophesy the body of the dead crucified Christ hang- 
ing by the nails through his feet and hands. The Jews 
not wishing to see such a striking emblem of the dead 
Christ, left these details out of the Talmud. But the 
early writers mention the crucified lamb and how it was 

Carefully they carry the lamb out into the yard, and 
place it in the earthenware oven shaped like ancient round 
beehive, and filled with burning charcoal. They rested 
the lamb entirely on his cross because Jesus the next day 
hung entirely from the nails. If any part of the lamb 
touched the sides or door of the oven it was cut off as 
being unclean.^ 

One stood by and turned the lamb, so the flesh might be 
well roasted. The fire penetrates all j)arts, ns the fire of 
the Holy Ghost filled Christ, inspiring him with the l(i\;> 
of all mankind, moving him to die for our salvation. The 
roasted, skinned lamb looked when done like the dciul 
body of Christ, his skin torn off with scourges, his wounds 
yellow with dried serum. When he lay dead his body 
looked as though it had been roasted. Thus was the 
victim of the Passover prepared, sacrificed, skinned, cru- 

^ See Edersheim, Life of Christ, 492-505, for description of Last Sunpf>r. 
' Talmud, Pesaehim. vii. 12. ' Justin Martyr, Dialog, rum Trvplio. Mainion. 
etc.; Uf'ikip. Life of Christ, i. 206, etc. * Exod. xii. 4G. ^E-^od. x'ii. 9 ; \\ Parap. 
XXXV. 13, etc. 


cified, roasted and eaten, down the ages, to foretell the 
Lord condemned to death, arrested, scourged, crucified 
and partaken in the Eucharist. 

With the " water of precept," the man had drawn 
from the deep well in the Cedron valley, the women mix 
flour and make a dough they call the Mazzoth. They 
roll the mass as thin as possible into four cakes called 
ashishah^ each as large as a dinner-plate. They imprint 
in them with their fingers five holes, challoth^ as they 
thought to make them bake better, not knowing they 
foretold the five wounds in the Lord's body when he was 

Perhaps these five finger-marks of the Passover cakes 
give rise to the figures on our altar-breads. The best 
examples we now see of these unleaven cakes are the altar 
breads used in churches of the Latin Rite. Biscuits 
"twice baked," crackers, etc., are made somewhat like 
the unleaven bread and have designs like these ancient 

They prepare the three tables and the table linens, for 
three cloths Avere spread over the cross table, the ends 
lianging down to the floor, as you will see the ends of the 
upper of the three altar cloths hangs down. 

They get ready the candlesticks for the beeswax 
candles, for no religious services was ever carried out in 
Israel without these candles to remind them of the Mes- 
siah foretold to come and enlighten them with his teach- 
ings. Some not going deeply into Jewish rites think the 
candles on our altars came from the Catacombs. But the 
early Christians of Rome when using martyrs' tombs as 
altars placed the candles on them because it was the 
custom at the Jewish Passover and because they were 
used at the Last Supper. 

When the four cakes are baked, they anoint them with 
olive oil in the form of the Greek cross, according to the 
ancient custom, to make them emblematic of the expected 
Messiah, in Hebrew " The Anointed," in Greek " The 
Christ." These cakes were made generally the day before, 
each of the four cakes being called kiccar^ " circle." One 
cake called the challah^ "tithe of the dough," or mata- 
noth they sent to the Temple priests as an offering. The 

1 Migne, Cursus Com. S, Scripturse, ii. 1335, 1045. 


other three cakes they sprinkled with incense ' to repre- 
sent the Lord's body prepared with incense for the tomb. 

They mix sage, raisins, chestnuts, figs, apples, vinegar, 
etc., which they pound in a mortar and form into a 
kind of salad they called the chaseroth^ to remind them 
of the mortar their fathers were forced to make ni Egypt 
under the Pharaohs. This is the way the dish is prepared 
in our day. They used also eggs, Zis Sadai, and meat to 
remind them of the Leviathan, " the elephant," and the 
Behemoth." ^ Many strange fictions the Talmud gives 
of these animals.^ 

They prepare the couches round the tables for the 
members of the " band," called mesabhim^ " the recliners," 
and get ready all things required for this great feast of 
Israel, of which Moses wrote : " Butter of the herd, and 
milk of the sheep, with the fat of lambs, and of the rams, 
of the breed of Basan, and goats, with the marrow of 
wheat, and might drink the purest blood of the grape." * 

On the table they place terra cotta lamps,^ and bees- 
wax candles, for the feast takes place at night, and they 
must have light to read the words of the Passover Seder, 
" Section." They decorate the table with vases of flowers, 
and these are still continued in the candles and decora- 
tions of our altars.*^ Two flagons, one of wine, the other 
of water, are on a small table on the left of the IMaster's 
place, but on your right, for the Master faced the con- 
gregation, this table being in memory of the gold table in 
the Holies of the Temple, on which rested the twelve 
cakes and twelve gold flasks of the wine of proposition. 

They adorn the walls of the Cenacle with green bows, 
palm branches, and costly curtains, in remembrance of 
the thirteen veils of the Temple. On the floor they spread 
the rare rugs of Persia, with carpets cover the stone floor.'' 
They set the table with the hacJicUmnaim " beautiful 
vases " or " dishes," but before the Master's place is a large 
plate for the three cakes, and another for the chasoreth. 

With fire from the ever-burning lamp, hanging before 
the Holy Scrolls, the Pentateuch, which the Jews call the 

1 Eflersheiin, Temple, 333 ; Zanolini, I)e Festis .TudaRorum, C. 4. note. 2 job 
iii. 8, xl. 20; Isaias xxvii. 1, etc. ^ See Mi^ne, Cursus Conip. S. Scripture, iii. 
873-1071. * Deut. xxxii. 14. '' Mif^ne, Cnr-;ns Completus, S. ScM-iptura», iii. lOGl. 
« Migiie, Cursus Compl. S. Scriptural, iii. 800. ^ Zauolini, De Festis Jud., C. 4, 
p. 41, 


Torah, " The Law," they light the lamps of the peven- 
branched candlestick in the Bema, the candles on the 
table, and the other candles round the room. This is tlie 
reason that candles burn on the walls of a church during 
its dedication ceremonies.^ They light each candle with 
the words : 

" Blessed art thou, O Lord our God, King of the Uni- 
verse, who hast sanctified us by thy commandments, and 
hast commanded us to kindle the festival lights." 

How many candles did they light? After sundown 
each Friday of Sabbath eve, and on the Passover they 
lighted six lamps or candles. To each lamp or candle 
they held out the hands and praj^ed for the repose of the 
souls of the dead. The Jews of that day piously believed 
that while the candles of Sabbath and feast burned, God 
allowed the souls in purgatory to cool themselves in cold 
water, remaining there while the candles burned.^ We 
conclude therefore that six wax candles burned at the 
Last Supper, and these are continued in the six candles 
of Pontifical and High Mass. 

The women liglited lamps and candles in that day, be- 
cause, as the Jews say, the men were occupied with the 
preparations outside, Avhile the women prepared within. 
They give another queer reason the reader may accept or 
not. When Eve offered Adam the apple and he refused 
to eat, she struck him and beat him with rods till he 
agreed to eat the forbidden fruit, which brought such 
misfortunes on the race. Therefore women had to light 
the lights as a sign of the prophesied Seed of the woman, 
who would come to enlighten the world with his teach- 
ings.^ The women covered the table with its three linen 
cloths, chalices and dishes. On one dish they put the 
three cakes of unfermented bread, one in memory of the 
manna of their fathers, the second cake to remind them of 
the double portion which fell on the Sabbath, and the 
third was for the Passover feast."^ 

According to immemorial custom copied from the 
Temple, each took a bath before beginning the Passover. 
The bath was emblematic of innocence of soul required 

* Edersheim, Life of Christ, ii. 165, 445, etc. - Zanolini, Disp. et Sectis Jud., 
Cap. I. in Note. 'Zanolini, De Festis Judaeorum, C. I., Note 4. See Edersheiin, 
Life of Christ, ii, 150 to 160. * Ibidem, Note 3. 


to eat the Lamb in Comin union, and prophetic of Christian 
baptism. The Rabbis of that time practised three kinds 
of bathing, for the Wilderness bath using five and a half 
gallons of water, taking the Jerusalem bath with eight 
and a half gallons and the Sepphoris, " The Legal Bath," 
with sometimes sixty gallons. Stone jars, called metretes^ 
translated in the King James Bible as " firkins," held the 
water." ^ 

This was the reason that Jesus said at supper, "He 
that is washed needeth but to wash his feet, but is clean 
wholly : and you are clean, but not all. For he knew who 
would betray him." ^ Their feet had become soiled in 
walking over the floors, and by a play of words Christ 
applied the bath to the innocence of soul all had, but 
Judas with murder in his mind, for he had made an 
agreement with the priests to deliver up to them his 
Master that they might inflict on him a horrible death. 

The Passover began at Ben aharbaim, " Between the 
two vespers," according to the words of God to Moses, 
giving place and time, " In the place, which the Lord shall 
choose that his name may dwell there, thou shalt immolate 
the Passover in the evening, at the going down of the 
sun, at which time thou caniest out of Egypt." ^ The 
Hebrew has " between the two vespers." 

What is the meaning of " the first " and " the second " 
vespers ? The Jews of that time called the afternoon, 
that is after three o'clock, when the lamb was sacrificed, 
the "first vespers," and in our Gospel the words are 
translated " evening." * During this " first vespers," the 
Lord fed the multitude with the miraculous loaves and 
fishes, and in the " second vespers " he Avent to pray. 
Writers disagree regarding tlie exact time when the 
" second " vespers began, but the most probable opinion 
is that of Rabbi Aben Esra, quoted in the Talmud, that 
it was between sunset and darkness, that is, in the gloam- 
ing these second vespers began. The first night of the 
Passover, therefore when darkness fell on the earth, the 
Jews began the Passover prayers in the synagogues in 
the time of Christ. The Jews of our day do not begin 
the Passover till it is dark. Now let us see these prayers 
and ceremonies in the Cenacle. 

1 John ii. 6. 2 John Jiii. 10, 11. ^ ^^jut. xvi. 5, G. * JIatt. jciv. 15-S3. 


Ox the high tower at the southeast corner of the sacred 
area now stands the chief Temple chassan or porter, with 
a silver trumpet in his hands watching the sun setting 
behind the western hills. 

Gazing intently on the sky, when he sees the first star, 
he blows a loud blast, emblematic of the coming of the 
expected Messiah, and all the people in the country start 
for the city. When he sees the second star he blows 
again, the sound signifying God's providence over the 
world, and all the people go home. When he sees the 
third star he sounds again to remind them of the trum- 
pet tone of the Last Judgment and then the Passover has 
begun, " between the two ve8})ers." 

Thus when darkness deepens, they began the synagogue 
services, the evening prayers witli Psalm, petition, versicle, 
response, the reading of the Old Testament relating to 
the feast, — the services we described when treating of the 

Sabbaths, Mondays and Thursdays they held these 
services with special devotions in Temple and synagogue, 
and they were prolonged so that the Passover lasted till 
nearly midnight.* This year the Passover fell on Thurs- 
day and therefore they had sj^ecial devotions with the 
full synagogue service. 

The Temple hassan, then called the chassan, first saw 
the evening star the Greeks called Hesperos, the Romans 
Venus, or any bright star, and that time they called ves- 
pers, "evening-' and from that Temple time of prayer 
came the Vesper service of the Catholic Church. 

In desert wanderings, the ram's horn called the people 
to prayer, but by lapse of time this was replaced by the 
silver trumpet, and all Temi^le services were regulated 

^ Talmud, Baracotli xii, JJ, etc, 



by the trumpet's tone. We read in the Babylonian Tal- 
mud the following.' 

"Mishna. In the Temple they never blew less than 
tw^enty-one times a day, nor oftener than forty-eight 
times. They daily blew the trumpet twenty-one times, 
thrice at the gates, nine times at the daily morning offer- 
ing, and nine times at the daily evening offering. When 
additional offerings Avere brought, they blew nine times 
more. On the eve of the Sabbath they blew six times 
more, thrice to interdict the people from doing work, and 
thrice to separate the holy day from the work d'dj. But 
on the eve of the Sabbath or during a festival, they blew 
forty-eight times; thrice at the opening of the gates, 
thrice at the upper gate, thrice at the lower gate, thrice 
at the drawing of water, thrice over the altar, nine times 
at the daily morning offering, nine times at the daily even- 
ing offermg, nine times at the additional offerings, thrice 
to interdict the people from doing work, and thrice to 
separate the holy day from the work day." 

We have given this quotation to show how the trumpet 
tone sounding over the sacred city from the Temple tower 
regulated the movements of Passover preparation. This 
was the way the priests had notified the multitudes that 
Thursday afternoon, that they were ready to sacrifice the 
paschal lambs. The sound rang out again for the last 
time that evening " between the two vespers " when the 
watchers saw the third star. 

At that moment Christ with his apostles, disciples, and 
the crowds which followed him, ascended the stone steps 
on the outside leading to the Cenacle, walked over the 
stone roof of the adjoining building, turned to the left and 
entered the holy historic room. Passing through the door, 
each touches the JMuzuzzah, the little box hanging on the 
right door jamb.'^ Each recites the following prayer 
written on the enclosed parchment: 

" May the Lord keep thy coming in and thy going out 
from henceforth and forever." ^ 

They always said this prayer entering Temple or 
synagogue to remind them of the blood of the paschal lamb 
on the door-posts of their fathers the night the Hebrews 

» Tract Succah, " Booths," 8'). » Tx^ut. iv. 9, xi. 13-21 ; Edersheim, life of 
Christ, 1, 76 ; Talmud, Josephus, etc. ' Psalm cxx. H. 


were delivered from Egyptian slavery, when they became 
a nation through the sacrifice of the paschal lamb. Chris- 
tians take holy water at the church door and cross them- 
selves with a prayer, to remind them of their delivery 
through baptism from the bondage of the demon. 

They pass by the table prepared in the middle of the 
room and walk towards the Bema or sanctuary where the 
synagogue services are to be held. According to the 
Temple custom the lowest in dignity goes first, then the 
others in order according to rank, last coming the Prince 
of the House of David. From this Jewish processional 
came the custom found in all the Christian Rites, the 
lowest in dignity marches first and the highest or the 
celebrant comes last. 

The immolated lamb of Abel and of the antediluvian 
patriarchs, the sacrifices of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, 
the rivers of blood reddening the Temple, the ceremonial 
of the synagogue, the mystic meanings of the Hebrew 
religion, the prophetic words of the great men of the Old 
Testament are about to be fulfilled, sealed up and ac- 
complished in the awful Tragedy of Calvary the next day. 
Then the Temple will have fulfilled its mission, and in 
thirty-six years Titus with his Roman armies will take 
the city and destroy that sanctuary.' But by the provi- 
dence of God, the Temple ceremonial with all its symbolic 
rites had been introduced into the synagogue, and Christ 
was about to set his sacred seal, the sanction of his 
Divinity, on these synagogue and Temple rites, and incor- 
porate them into the everlasting ceremonial of the Eucha- 
tistic Sacrifice. Whence, while the Temple building 
passed away, its striking and imposing ceremonial comes 
down to us two forms, one in the synagogue the other in 
the Mass. The Temple ceremonies were loaded with type, 
image, and figure of the long-looked-for Messiah — every 
movement of its ministers and every object told of Him 
to come in the future, as now in the Mass every ceremony 
and object shows us that he came and fulfilled them. 

They began the Passover with the synagogue service, 
Christ acting as the Rabbi or leader of the congregation. 
The words of the Liturgy Avere sung in chant, response, 
versicle and prayer, as in the early Church ^ when there 

* Dan. ix. ; Josephus, Jewish Wars vi. 4, 5. 2 g, Augustine, ix. De Decim Chor. 


was a bishop in every city with Ijis twelve priests, images 
of Christ with his twelve apostles at the Last Supper. 

"Without doubt," says St. Augustine, "that is es- 
])ecially to be done, whicli can ])e proved by Scripture, 
as the singing of liynnis and Psalms, because we have the 
documents, example and commands of the Lord regarding 
these things." ' 

Numerous quotations from the Fathers and writers of 
the early Church show that the Mass was always sung by 
the bishop and priests. Ages afterwards, when Christians 
liad multiplied, a priest was placed over a church as 
pastor. Often having no ministers to aidliim the custom 
obtained of saying a low Mass. 

The Last Supper was therefore a pontifical High Mass 
with Christ as the Celebrant, assisted by the apostles. 
To-day, when the bishop pontificates Avitli his ministers, 
with choir and clergy assisting, he says the Mass more 
according to the Last Supper than Avhen the priest says 
a low Mass. Thus the bishops have better preserved the 
customs and rites of the early Church. 

When the bishop pontificates surrounded by his minis- 
ters, waited on by all, when the Avhole external ceremonial 
seems to refer to him, when his honors look to lift him 
into dignities higher that should be given any man, let the 
reader go back in thouglit to that Cenacle, tliat night we 
are describing, when the Celel)rant of the ^Fass was the 
Word made fiesli. There all the ceremonial of the Mass 
find its origin and completeness. 

As God acts in the highest, Christ said the first Mass 
therefore not as simple j^riest, but as "the Pastor and 
Bishop of our souls." ^ As a Bishop he pontificated, that 
night and consecrated the apostles bishops so the}^ might 
say the Mnss with him, and that they might consecrate 
bishops in the churches they were to establish. 

When they went forth into the nations, when they 
formed a band of converts, they consecrated bishops and 
placed one over every church. Therefore in the early 
ages every church had a bishop. These ordained twelve 
priests forming the presbytery of the diocese, an image of 
the apostolic college, and later these priests became the 
cathedral chapter. When the priesthood rose out of the 

J Ojx'ra ornniii. Mellier's Edition, Paris, )8.;(), Vt^l. :.VS p. ry.M. » I. Pi-L«;r, ii. So. 


episcopate we do not find. But centuries later the monks 
were ordained priests 

St. Augustine says that Christ at the Passover cele- 
brated the evening prayers of the first day of unleaven 
bread.^ This was the synagogue service we will give. 

The Lord himself revealed the very place of the Last 
Supper, the Sion mount, the graces of Communion, the 
spiritual nourishment of souls among the nations. Lsaias, 
Israel's greatest prophet, uttered these words : " And the 
Lord of hosts shall make unto all people in this mountain 
a feast of fat things, a feast of wine, of fat things full of 
marrow, of wine purified from the lees." ^ 

The chains of pagan errors, the bondage of heathen 
sacrifices he will destroy, the Mass will take the place of 
pagan worship, says the prophet in the next verse : " And 
he shall destroy in this mountain the face of the bond 
with which all people were tied, and the web that the 
demon began over all nations. He shall cast down death 
headlong forever '"* etc."^ 

Now let us penetrate into the deep meaning of this 

The word Tsaias uses for mountain is hai\ "a hill " ; the 
word translated " Lord " is Jehovah, and that for hosts is 
tsaha^ "warfare," "service," "a disciplined army." The 
word translated feast is mishteh^ "drinking," "a feast," 
with the bread and wine the elements of the Last Supper 
and the Mass. The word translated " death," " which he 
will cast down headlong forever," * is the Hebrew muth^ 
"a violent death," "a murder,"^ the demon brought on 
mankind because of Adam's sin; it is the word God used 
when he forbade under penalty of death, our first parents to 
eat of the forbidden fruit.*^ The Hebrew word translated 
" victory " is neisacK " prominence," " j)re-eminence " fore- 
telling the power of the prophesied Prince of Peace 
about to celebrate the Last Supper. 

The first part of the Last Supper, that is the synagogue 
prayers, took place within the Bema; the "chancel" or 
"sanctuary " ; the name is still used for sanctuary by the 
Greek and Oriental Christians. This Cenacle sanctuary 
was approached by steps, as steps lead up to the altar 

1 Ibidem, torn 41, p. 242. » lsaias xxv. 6. » leaias xxv, 7, 8. * Ibidem, 8. 
* Numlb. XXXV. 31. ^Qen.iii 3,4. 


railing in a church. IIow many steps were there ? "We 
do not know. The Benia of the Cenacle is now nearly three 
feet higher than the floor of the nave. St. Augustine 
twice uses the word Benm for sanctuary. To the IMani- 
cheans he wrote, "I used to ask you in those days wliat 
was the reason you used to celebrate the Lord's Passover 
generally with a lukewarm or hardly any celebration, 
with no watchings, no long fasting, no festive solemnity, 
while the day Manichseus was killed, your Bema, ap- 
proached by five steps, is adorned with precious linens 
put before the worshipers in which you show him such 
honors." ^ 

The Saviour with his apostles enter the sanctuary for 
celebration of the evening prayers prescribed before the 
Passover Su])per. The seventy-two discnples and the 
Lord's converts gather in the nave of the Cenacle to take 
part in the service before they separate into " bands " to 
celebrate the feast. 

We must remember that the Jewish Church, with its 
Temple and synagogue, its Old Testament, its religious 
rites coming down from IMoses and the j^atriarchs, its 
traditions and sole pure worship of God amid the pagan 
rites, was the true spouse of Jesus Christ.'^ The sacra- 
mentals of the Jewish Church we have described did not 
of themselves give grace. They were only images of the 
foretold glories and greater graces of the Christian sacra- 
ments. These Hebrew sacramentals Christ raised up to 
be the materials of the seven sacraments of the New Law. 
The grace and salvation of the Hebrew people depended 
on the pious dispositions of the worshipers, ex opere 
operantis^ while the sacraments of the Church of them 
selves produce their effects in the soul if the receiver place 
no obstacle, ex opere operato. 

The Talnmd tells the time, the prayers and the cere- 
monial of the Passover before they sat at the table.^ They 
always began the Passover with the synagogue prayers. 
This was Thursday, when special services were held in all 
the synagogues ; this was the evening of the Passover ; this 
was a time of special devotions in all the realms of Jewry, 

' S. Augustine. Contra Epist. Manichaei. L. I. n. \x. ' S. Thomas iii. q. 8, Art 
5 ad, 3, etc. ^ Baracoth, Palestine in the Tinie of Christ, p. 380 ; Oeikie, Life 
of Christ, i. p. 204 ; Edersheim, Life of Christ ; Talmud, MuKJUa, etc. 


when each band of Jews had ts own leader who led the 

Let us see how the Son of God, the Word made flesh, 
the Memra, Logos, " Wisdom," carried out the first part 
of the Mass. It was foretold, that according to the syna- 
gogue custom of his time, as Jews still do in our day, that 
he would select seven men to aid him in the ceremonial. 

" Wisdom hath built himself a house, he hath hewn out 
seven pillars. He hath slain his victims, mingled his 
wine and set forth his table. He hath sent his maids to 
invite to the tower, and to the halls of the city. Whosoever 
is a little one let him come to me. And to the unwise he 
said, * Come and eat my bread and drink the wine I have 
prepared.' " ^ 

What was the house Wisdom the Divine Word was 
to "build" but the Church Universal? What were 
the victims he had " slain " but the paschal lamb then 
roasting in the oven ? What was the " tower " foretold 
but the Cenacle rising from Sion's heights ? What was 
the foretold " bread and wine " but that we have de- 
scribed ? 

Christ therefore acting as Rabbi about to lead in the 
synagogue service, chose seven men to aid him. Who were 
these? history is silent. Peter, leader of the apostolic 
band, to whom after the resurrection the Lord gave full 
power to feed and govern his lambfolds and sheepfolds, 
as the Gospel tells in the original Greek,^ perhaps waited 
on him at his right. James and John were Temple priests. 
The priest was always given the place of honor in the 
synagogue, perhaps they stood on the right and left of 
the Lord. Who were the two acting as deacons of honor 
and the two masters of ceremonies ? we do not know. It 
seems that these seven officials of the synagogue were 
types of, or gave rise to, the assistant priest, deacon, 
subdeacon, deacons of honor, and masters of ceremony 
of the pontifical Mass. We only throw this out as a 
suggestion, as these officials are found in all Rites when 
the bishop pontificates, as in the earlj^ Church the arch- 
priest, archdeacon and chief subdeacon, " pillars," of the 
diocese, attended the bishop when he said Mass. 

Often the feast was held in the nave of the synagogue 

^ Prov. ix. 1-5. - John xxi. 15-17. 


building, or in a room attached, but never in the sanctuary 
itself. The sanctuary of the Cenacle was an inclosed 
place separated from the great room by a railing copied 
after the Temple railing separating the Holies from the 
Priest's Court. In this sanctuary the prayers were said, 
after which they reclined at the tables set in the large 
room called the Cenacle, the arrangement being like a 
church and its sanctuarj'. 

First they silently meditate on the law relating to the 
Tephillin, the Greeks called Philacteries,' each saying : 
" He commanded us to lay the Tephillin upon the hand, 
as a memorial of His outstretched arm, opposite the heart 
to indicate the duty of subjecting the longings and designs 
of our heart to his service, blessed be He ; and upon the 
the head, over against the brain, thereby teaching that 
the mind, whose seat is the brain, together with all senses 
and faculties, are to be subjected to His services, blessed 
be He, etc." 

Each places his Tephillah on his arm saying : " Blessed 
art thou, O Lord our God, King of the universe, who 
hast sanctified us by thy conunandments, and hast com- 
manded us to lay the Tephillin. Winding the Retsuah, 
"leather strap," around the arm and lingers, they say : 

" And I will betroth thee unto me forever, yea, I will 
betroth thee unto me in justice, and in judgment, and 
in lovingkindness, and in mercy, I will even betroth thee 
unto me in faithfulness, and thou shalt know the Lord." 
Putting on the Tephillah on the forehead. 

" Blessed art thou, O Lord our God, King of the Uni- 
verse, who hast sanctified us by thy commandments, and 
hast given us command concerning the precept of the 
Tephillin. Blessed be His name, whose glorious kingdom 
is for ever and ever." 

They meditate on the mystery of the Tallith, " Prayer- 
shawl," saying each in a low voice. 

"I am here enwrapping myself in this fringed robe, in 
fulfilment of the command of my Creator, as it is written 
in the Law : ' Thou shalt make strings in the hem at the 
four corners of thy cloak.' ^ And even as I cover myself 

» Geikie, Life of Christ, i. 181, 814 ; ii. 121, 293. See Edersheim. Life of Christ, 
i. 2r/; Matt, xxiii. 5; Luke viii. 44; Numb. xv. 88; Dent. xxii. 12; PalestiBe, 
?{0r ; Sketch«6, 221 to 324, etc. * Deul . xxii. 12. 


with the; Tallith in this world, so nuiy my soul deserve to 
be clothed Avith a beauteous spiritual robe in the world 
to come, in the garden of Eden, Amen." Putting it on 
they say : " Blessed art thou, O Lord our God, King of 
the universe, who hast sanctified us with thy command- 
ments, and hast commanded us to enwrap ourselves in 
the fringed garment." 

They first put the Tallith on their heads, then let it 
fall down on their shoulders the way the celebrant puts 
on the amice. The Jews still put on the prayer-shawls . 
in this way. 

The common belief then was that when the Messiah 
would come he would gather the patriarchs and all the 
members of the Jewish people to a great feast the prophet 
had foretold : " And the Lord of hosts shall make unto 
all people, on this mountain, a feast of fat things, a feast 
of wine, of fat things full of marrow, of wine purified 
from the lees." ^ 

The Rabbis held the most wild and exaggerated ideas 
regarding these words prophetic of the Last Supper. 
All animals used for food would be there. The Levia- 
than,'^ the Behemoth ^ with the gigantic bird Jochani.* 
And the wine the Messiah shall use shall be made of 
grapes kept from the foundations of the world. 

From the days of the prophets came down a tradition, 
crystallized into Jewish writings of the time of Christ, 
that the Messiah would robe himself in seven vestments 
— the first of honor and glory at creation,' of majesty at 
the Red Sea,*^ of strength when giving the Law, or Torah 
on Sinai : ^ of white, when he would blot out Israel's sins : ^ 
of zeal when ho avenged them of their enemies,'^ of justice 
Avhen he would be revealed,'" and of red when he would 
take vengeance on Edom." This last was the vision of 
the Lord the prophet saw when Jesus sweated blood in 

The commentary continues : " But the garment with 
which He will clothe the Messiah, its splendors will ex- 
tend from one end of the world to the other, as it is 
written ; " As a bridegroom priestly in headgear." '^ And 

1 Isaias xxv. 6, 2 Talmud. B. Bath. 75a. ' Ibidem, Pirk«, d. Eliez. II. etc. 
* B Bath, 73b Bekhor, 5Tb. ^ Psalm, civ. 1. « Psalm xcii. ^ xeiii. 1. * Dan. 
viii. 14. » Isalas llx. 17. »" lijaiag lix. 20. i' Isaias Ixiii. l to 4. " igajas Ixi. 10. 


Israel will be astounded at his light, and will say : 
" Blessed the hour in which the Messiah cometh. Blessed 
the womb whence he issued. Blessed the generation 
that shall see him. Blessed the eye worthy to behold 

" The opening of his lips is blessing and peace. His 
speech is a quieting of the spirit. Glory and majesty are 
in his vestments, and contidence and quietness in his 
words, and on his tongue compassion and forgiveness. 
His prayer is a sweetly-smelling odor, and his supplica- 
tion holiness and purity. Happy Israel that these are 
reserved for you," etc.^ The revelations coming down not 
only in the Bible but in sacred words of prophet, seer and 
holy ones of Hebrew race are about to be fulfilled in the 
Messiah, the Grecian Jews called Epxomenos, " The Com- 
ing One." 

The synagogue services were not only sung by the 
Rabbi and his ministers, but the people also took part in 
the congregational singing. There was a niglit foretold 
by Israel's great prophet, when the Lord Messiah would 
come and sing the Passover service. In the original 
Hebrew it is " You shall have a song as in the night of 
the solemn Festival,^ and joy of heart as when one goeth 
with a pipe, to come into mountain of the Lord (Sion), to 
the mighty One of Israel (Christ). And the Lord shall 
make his glorious {hod^ 'beautiful,') voice: (r/c>/, sound,) 
to be heard." ^ The latter part of this chapter shows that 
the prophet foresaw Christ chanting the Last Supper 
service. Numberless proofs force us to believe that the 
Last Supper was a pontifical High Mass sung by the 
Lord, his apostles and the people taking part in congre- 
gational singing. 

We said that the word Isaias uses is the Hebrew chag^^ 
" a sacred dance," which is translated " solemn festival " 
in our jjible. Was there a dance at the Last Supper, as 
Ave understand the word ? Certainly not. VV^hy then 
did the prophet prophesy a dance ? Let the reader ob- 
serve a Pontifical High IVIass while the bishop with his 
deacon, subdeacon, deacons of honor and ministers, robed 
in glorious vestments go through the ceremonial. The 
organ plays, the priests chant, the choir sings, and the 

^ Pesiqta ed Ruber, p. 1 1'J a. b. ^ Chat?, " A holy dance." ^ Isaias xxx. 29-30. 


worshiping laity fill the building. Bishop and clergy, 
trained for years in the service, each pass back and forth, 
follow rules, observe forms and rites, carry out ceremonies 
proper to their office, resembling in a way the movements 
of a dance, and thus the prophet described the Last 
Supper. Whence St. Augustine says : ^ " You hear the 
singers, let us hear the dancers, understand the customs 
of the dancers with the movement of their members. 
Desire is driven out, charity takes its place." He com- 
pares the Mass to a holy dance following the Jewish idea 
that the Temple, Passover, and synagogue worship was 
a solemn festival of joy unto the Lord. The word chag, 
" solemnity " is used in the Old Testament a number of 
times for the Passover.^ 

They are about to begin the synagogue prayers in the 
Cenacle, as was the custom at that time. " For what 
purpose should the Kiddush be recited in the synagogue ? 
In order to afford the guests, who eat, drink and sleep in 
the synagogues, an opportunity to hear it. Samuel thus 
holds to his theory that the duty of hearing the Kiddush 
recited can be only acquitted in the place where the per- 
son takes his meals." ^ 

The Lord gave special directions regarding the vest- 
ments they were to wear during the Egyptian Passover, 
" And thus shall you eat it, you shall gird your reins, and 
you shall have shoes on your feet, holding staves in your 
hands." * By lapse of time these developed into the Pass- 
over vestments. The Lord was clothed in purple for he 
was the Prince of David's dynasty. Without removing 
his purple cassock he clothed himself in the vestments 
of a Rabbi, while the seven apostles vested in sacred 
Passover robes. Every vestment w-as embroidered in 
Avhite, red, green and violet, the colors of the Temple, as 
was then the custom. 

Having robed themselves in the vestments we de- 
scribed in a former chapter, Clirlst, with his seven apostles 
beside him, comes to the steps leading up to the ark, the 
Aaron or Tevah, " the chest," or " Hechal," called the 
Little Temple," containing the sacred Books of Moses. 

* Sermo cccxi. in Nat. Cyp. M. in vii. ^ psalms Ixxiii. 4, Ixxxi. : Isaias xxx. 
29 ; II. Esdras viii. 18 ; Ezeeh. xlvi. 11 ; Zach. xix. 10, 18, 19. 2 Babyl. Talmud, 
Cap. X., p. 212. * Exod. xii. 11. 


There the\^ stand, and put hands together, eyes on the 
floor as become suppliants in the presence of their God 
and Creator. These were the customary postures of 
prayer in the time of Clirist,' as still seen at the beginning 
of Mass. First they bow deeply down before the Holy 
Scrolls in the ark, as the celebrant of the Mass bows 
down before the altar.- Thus they began the synagogue 
l">rayers always said before the celebration of tlie Pass- 

According to the Temple custom they recite the 
Versicle and the Psalm — the jMaster beginning, the 
ministers responding. 

" I will go into the altar of God, to God \vho giveth jo}^ 
to my youth. 

" Judge me, O God, and distinguish my cause from the 
nation that is not holy," etc. ^ 

Christ beginning and the apostles responding, thus they 
recited the whole Psalm. In the Liturgy St. Peter com- 
posed at Antioch, still followed by the Maronites, they 
follow this custom of Temple and Cenacle, beginning this 
Psalm when entering the sanctuary. But the celebrant 
of the Latin Mass says it at the foot of the altar. 

" I will go into tlie altar of God, etc. 

"Bless ye the Lord, Avho is to be blessed. 

" Blessed is the Lord, who is to be blessed for ever and 

'•Blessed, praised, glorified, exalted and extolled, be 
the name of the supreme King of kings, the Holy One, 
blessed be he, who is the first and the last, and beside 
him there is no God. Exalt ye him that rideth upon the 
heavens by his name Jah, and rejoice before him. His 
name is exalted above all blessing and praise. Blessed 
be his name whose glorious kingdom is for ever and ever. 
Let the name of the Lord be blessed from this time forth 
and for evermore. 

" Blessed art thou, O Lord, our God, king of the Uni- 
verse, who formest light, and createst darkness, who 
makest peace and createst all things. 

" How goodly are thy tents, O Jacob, and thy dwelling- 
place, O Israel ! As for me, in the abundance of thy 

1 Edersheixn. Temple, 127. » Oeikie, Life of Christ, i., 167 to 190, Mign©, Cur- 
BUS Completus, 8. Scripturae iii. I'UH. * Psalm xlii. 


loving-kindness, I will come into thy house. I will 
worsliip toward thy holy Temple in the fear of thee. Lord, 
I have loved the habitation of thy house, and the place 
where thy glory dwelleth. I will worship and bow down. 
I will bend the knee before the Lord, ni}^ Maker. May 
my prayers unto thee, O Lord, be in an acceptable time. 
O God, in the abundance of thy loving-kindness answer me 
in the truth of thy salvation." 

Filled with sorrow for their sins, like the penitent 
hosts of Israel on the eve of the Day of the Atonement, 
they stT'ike their breasts, as the Talmud tells us, "They 
shall strike on the breast lamenting. Clapping is done 
with the hands, and striking is done with the feet." ^ It 
is evident that from this Temple and synagogue custom 
came the ceremony of striking the breast at the Confiteor, 
" the General Confession," during Mass. 

This was the custom from the beginning of the Church. 
" Who does penance is mad with himself. For if he is 
not sincere, vrhy is the breast struck ? Why do you do 
it if you are not mad ? When therefore you strike your 
breast, you are mad in your heart that you may satisfy 
your Lord, and thus may these words be understood. 
"Be angry and sin not." ^ "And tlie publican standing 
afar off would not so much as lift up his eyes to heaven, 
but struck his breast saying : " O God, be merciful to me 
a sinner." ^ Striking the breast is the sorrow of the heart. 
AVhat does the stroke on the breast mean ? " O God, be 
merciful to me a sinner." And what was the sentence 
of the Lord ? " Amen I say unto you, that publican went 
down to his house justified rather than the other."* 
This great doctor tells us that when the people heard the 
General Confession at Mass they struck their breasts.^ 
lie says that in his time the bishop and clergj^ struck 
their breasts at ^ the Confession. Did Christ and his 
apostles, following this Temple ceremony, strike their 
breasts as the clergy and people still do at the heginning 
of Mass? We find no record. 

After the prayers at the foot of the staircase, Christ 
with his two ministers went up to the ark and kissed 

1 Tract Ebel Babyl. Talmud, p. 87. * Psalm iv. 5. Sermo xix. in Ps. 1. n. 11. 
* Luke xviii, 13. ♦ Luke xviii. 14; St. Ausrustine Enar. ii. in Ps. xxxi. n. xi. 

6 FU. Augustine, Enar. in l^s, cy.ii, ft, i, Enar, in Ps, p^xxvii, n, 11 ; P« PiscipJino 
Clirjstiana, n. xi., ei.c. 


the place where the holy Scrolls rested, — tliat was a syna- 
gogue ceremony, a sign of their love of the Law. This 
the celebrant of the Mass now does. 

The Lord takes the censer, puts incense on the burning 
coals with blessing, and with an apostle on each side of 
him, bows deeply down before the holy Scrolls of Moses 
and the Prophets, the Torali and the Heptorath. First 
he incenses the Torah in the middle, then on each side 
where rest the other sacred Books of the Old Testament.^ 
While offering incense, they recited the words of the 
Psalm said in the Temple since David's day. 

" Let my prayer be directed as incense in thy sight, 
the lifting up of my hands as evening sacrifice. Set a 
watch, O Lord, before my mouth, and a door round about 
my lips. Incline not my heart to evil words, to make 
excuse in sins with men that work iniquity, and I will 
not communicate with the choicest of them." etc.^ 

Handing the censer to one of the apostles at the right 
side of the ark the latter incenses him as the Rabbi, then 
they go to the middle, bow deeply down before the holy 
Scrolls, and return to the floor of the Bema. 

The ceremony of incensing the Scrolls, and Rolls of 
the Prophets and ark in the synagogue, was in memory 
of the incense offered in the Holies of the Temple before 
the sacrifice of the lamb twice a day, at nine and three 
o'clock, with the Psalm we have given. This ceremony 
without a change is carried out at the High Mass. 

When Israel fought against the Amalecites, Moses 
held up his hands — hands and body forming a cross — 
foretelling the crucifixion. While he held them that way 
the Hebrews prevailed. When he tired, and let his 
hands fall, Amalec overcame. Aaron and Hur held up 
his hands, and the battle of Raphidim was gained.^ God 
commaiided Moses to wi'ite the history of this battle in a 
book, because it foretold that at a future day the Lord 
on Calvary would sti'ctch out his hands, nailed to the 
Cross, in superhuman patience till his death, in which he 
conquered mankind's eneni}^ the demon.* 

When saying the T(Mn])le prayers the high priest held 
out his hands like JNIoscs blessing the people. The 

' See Ederslieim, Temple, 130 to 1 11, etc. * P.salm cxl. ' Exod. xvii. 8 to 15. 
* Hee Habyl. Talmud, Taanith iv. 


Talmud tells us, "At three periods of the year the 
priests should raise their hands at each prayer, and dur- 
ing such periods there are days when this is done four 
times during the day, viz : during the morning, and ad- 
ditional, the afternoon and the closing prayers. In all 
the four prayers, mentioned above, the priests are to raise 
up their hands." ^ 

Did Christ hold out his hands with his body forming 
a cross, as he stretched out his hands when he was cruci- 
fied, as the celebrant of the Mass holds his hands ? The 
Talmud says they held outtheir hands this way in Temple 
and synagogue prayers, and that they were forbidden 
to hold them higher than the Phylactery on their brow. 
Isaias foretelling Christ celebrating the Last Supper says, 
" And he shall spread forth his hands in the midst of 
them as he that swimmeth spreads forth his hands to 
swim." ^ We conclude therefore that Christ stretched 
out his hands during the prayers as now the celebrant of 
the Mass holds his hands during the prayers. 

The following prayers almost word for word are taken 
from the Old Testament. The word Selah, given seventy- 
one times in the Psalms and prophetic books, is found 
only in Hebrew poetic works and at the end of a verse. 
The Jewish writers, say it means "forever and ever," or 
" in the world to come." It is rendered in the Latin Mass : 
" Per omnia saecula sseculorum, For ever and ever," or 
" Through the ages of ages." The Church Fathers and 
many writers have treated the subject. Some think it 
means that the music should stop, that the tone should 
be changed, or the instruments taken up. But it seems 
to be a sign to raise up the hands in prayer, although 
the rabbinical writers lead by tradition as given above 
offer the most reasonable meaning. The Lord and his 
apostles continue the prayers as follows. 

" Blessed be Thou, O Lord, King of the Universe, who 
formest the light, and createst darkness, who maketh 
peace and createst every thing, who in mercy doth give 
light to the eai-th, and to those who dwell on it, and in 
thy goodness day by day reneweth the works of creation. 
Blessed be the Lord our God for the glory of Ilis handi- 
work and for the lightgiving lights which He made for 

* Talmud Tracts TuauiLhi, Fasting, Gemara, 81. * Isaias xxv. 11. 



His praise. Selah, Blessed be the Lord our God, who 
hath formed the lights. 

" With great love hast Thou loved us, O Lord, our God, 
and with much overflowing pity hast Thou pitied us, our 
Father, and our King. For th(^ sake of our fathers, wlio 
trusted in Thee, Thou taughtest them the statutes of life ; 
have mercy on us and teach us. pjilighten our eyes in 
Thy law, cause our hearts to cleave to Thy command- 
ments, unite our hearts to love and fear Thy name, and 
we shall not be put to shame forever and ever. For 
Thou art a God who preparest salvation, and thou hast 
chosen us from all nations and tongues, and in truth 
Thou hast brought us near to Thy great name — Selah — 
that we may lovingly praise Tliee and thy Oneness. 
Blessed be the Lord, who in love chose His people Israel." 

To each prayer the apostles replied Amen, " Let it be 
so." The first prayer was said in the morning and gave 
rise to the prayer for peace in the Christian Liturgies the 
second prayer was added at the evening service. 

" The prayer Sch'mone Esre : " Eighteen Benedictions," 
was drawn up in the years 348-342 before Christ. The 
Jews say Esdras was its author.^ But some believed 
that the 14th and 17th petitions were added later. The 
whole petition was spoken in a low tone by the congre- 
gation and allowed by the Rabbi. Three times a day 
every Israelite repeated it after he had recited the 
Sch'ma, "Hear," morning and evening. During these 
prayers the congregation stood immovable, faced towards 
the shrine, feet close together, mind fixed in devotion. 
At the beginning and end of the first and sixteenth Bene- 
diction, all bent tlie knee, and bowed their heads dow^n 
towards the earth. It seems that this is the reason the 
congregation in our churches stand during the Gospel, 
and bend the knee at the end.^ 


" Be Thou praised, O Lord our God, the God of our 
fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac and of Jacob, the 
great, mighty and dreadful God, the Supreme Being, 
Dispenser of benefits and of favors, and the Creator of all 

» Seo Cohen, p. 191 ; Jos, V, I. p 30, V. II. Wi, etc, » See Geikle, Life ut 

Chribl, y. 1. p. 183. 


things. Thou rememberest the piety of the Patriarchs, 
and Thou wilt send a Deliverer to their children to glorify 
thy name, to show forth TJiy love, O King, our help, our 
strength. Be Thou praised, O Lord, tlie shield of Ahrahaiii. 

" Thou livest forever. Almighty Lord. Thou dr)st 
raise the dead, Thou art almighty to help. Thou dost 
make the winds to blow and the rain to fall. (This \A'as 
said only in time of bad weather from the Feast of 
Tabernacles to the Passover.) Thou dost sustain all that 
live by Thy grace. Thou dost raise the dead of Thy great 
mercy. Thou dost uphold those who fall. Thou dost 
heal the sick. Thou dost free the prisoners and dost 
keep Thy promises to those who sleep in the earth. Who 
is mighty like unto Thee, O Lord? Who can be com- 
pared to Thee ? O our King, it is Thou who killest and 
makest alive ; from Thee comes all our help. Thou wilt 
fulfil Thy promise to raise the dead. Praise be Thou, O 
Lord, who raisest the dead. 

" Thou art holy. Thy Saints glorify Thee day by day. 
Selah. Praised be Thou, O Lord, the Holy God. 

" Thou givest man wisdom, and fiUest him with under- 
standing. Praised be Thou, O Lord, the Dispenser of 

" Bring us back to thy law, O our Father ; bring us 
back, O King, into Thy service, bring us back to Thee by 
true repentance. Praised be Thou, O Lord, who dost 
receive our repentance. 

"Pardon us, O our Father, for we have sinned. Ab- 
solve us, O our King, for wc have offended against Thee. 
Thou art a God, who dost pardon and absolve. Praised 
be Thou, O Lord, who of Thy mercy dost pardon many 
times and forever. 

" Look on our misery, O Lord, and be Thou our De- 
fender. Deliver us quickly for Thy glory, for Thou art 
an Almighty Deliverer. Praised be Thou, O Lord the 
Deliverer of Israel. 

" Heal us, O Lord, and we shall be healed. Help us 
and we shall be helped. Thou art the object of our praise. 
Wilt Thou therefore bring effectual healing for all our 
ills? Thou art the King Almighty, our true Physician, 
full of mercy. Praised be Thou, 6 Lord, who healest the 
^<^X of th^ <?hUclreii of Thy people. 


" O Lord our God, bless this year and these harvests, 
give dew and rain (these words were added in winter), 
give thy blessing to the ground. Satisfy us with thy 
goodness, and make this year as the good years. Praised 
be Thou, O Lord, Avho blesseth the years. 

"Sound the trumpet of deliverance, lift up the stand- 
ard which will gather together the dispersed of our 
nation and bring us all quickly again from the ends of 
the earth. Praised be Thou, O Lord, who gathereth to- 
gether the outcasts of Israel. 

" Let our judges be restored as before, and our magis- 
trates, as in the times past. Deliver us from afflictions 
and anguish. Reign Thou over us, O Lord, by thy grace 
and mercy, and let not Thy judgments come upon us. 
Praised be Thou, O Lord, who lovest truth and justice. 

" Let the slanderers be put to shame, let all the Avorkers 
of iniquity and the rebellious be destroyed, let the might 
of the proud be humbled. Praised be Thou, O Lord, who 
doth trample on Thine enemies, and abase the proud. 
(This was said twice.) 

" Let Thy mercy, O Lord, shine on the upright, the 
humble, the rulers of Thy people Israel, and may the 
teachers be favorable to the pious strangers among us, 
and to us all. Grant a good reward to those who sincerely 
trust in Thy name, that our lot may be cast among them 
in the world to come, that our hope be not deceived. We 
also put our trust in Thee. Praised be Thou, O Lord, 
who art the hope and the confidence of the faithful. 

" Return Thou in thy mercy to Thy city Jerusalem. 
Make it Thine abode, as Thou hast promised. Let it be 
built again in our days. Let it never be destroyed. 
Restore thou quickly the throne of David. Praised be 
Thou, O Lord, who (lost rebuild Jerusalem." 

These relate to the destruction of the Holy City when 
the Israelites were carried away to Babylon. On the 
Feast of the 9th of the month of Ab, the following 
words were added : 

" O Lord, our God, comfort those who mourn for Jeru- 
salem and Sion, Have pity on this city which is filled 
with mourning, desolation, and contempt. She bears the 
grief of the children she has lost. Her palaces are broken 
down, her glory is passed away. She is overthrown. 


desolate and without inhabitants. She is forsaken, her 
head is covered like a barren woman who has borne no 
children. The legions of the enemy have laid her waste, 
the idolators have taken possession of her. They have 
slain thy people Israel. They have slaughtered without 
pity the saints of the Most High. Therefore Sion weeps 
with bitter tears, and Jerusalem lifts up her voice. My 
heart, my heart bleeds for these martyrs ; my bowels, my 
bowels are torn for these massacres. But Thou, my God 
who hast consumed this city with fire, Thou wilt rebuild 
it by fire, for thus it is written, Zach. ii. 5, " For I saith 
the Lord, will be unto her a wall of fire round about, and 
I will be the glory in the midst thereof. 

" Cause the stem of David to spring quickly forth, and 
make it glorious by Thy strength, for in Thee do we hope 
all the day. Praised be Thou, O Lord, who dost make 
Thy salvation glorious. 

" Hear our supplications, O Lord, our God, protect us, 
have pity on us. Hear our prayers in Thy loving-kind- 
ness, for Thou art the God who heareth prayers and sup- 
plications. Send us not away, O our King, until Thou 
hast heard us, Thou dost graciously receive the prayers of 
Thy people Israel. Praised be Thou, O Lord, who heareth 

" Let thy people Israel, and their prayers be acceptable 
to Thee. Restore thou the service in the courts of Thy 
house. Of Thy favor, receive the offerings of Israel, and 
their prayers, and let the worship of Thy people be ever 
acceptable to Thee. May our eyes see the day when Thou 
in Thy mercy will return to Sion. Praised be Thou, O 
Lord, who will establish Thy dwelling-place in Sion. 

" We confess that Thou art the Lord our God, and the 
God of our fathers for ever and ever. Thou art the rock 
of our life, the shield of our salvation from generation to 
generation. Blessing and praise be to Thy great and 
holy name, for the life which Thou hast given us, for our 
souls which Thou doth sustain, for the daily miracles 
which Thou doth work in our behalf, for the wonderful 
loving-kindness with which Thou dost surround us at all 
times — in the morning, at mid-day, and in the evening. 
O God of all goodness. Thy mercy is infinite, Thy faith- 
fulness fails not. We hope in Thee forever. For all 


these Thy benefits let Thy name be praised forever and 
ever. Let all that live praise Thee. Selah. Let them 
praise Thy name in sincerity. Praised be Thou, O Lord, 
Thy name alone is good, and Thou alone art worthy to 
be praised. 

" O our Father, let peace and prosperity. Thy blessing, 
Thy favor, Thy grace and mercy be on us, and on all Thy 
people Israel. Bless us all with the light of thy face, for 
it is by this light, O Lord our God, that Thou hast given 
us an eternal law, the love of justice and uprightness, 
T)lessing, mercy, life, peace. May it j^lease Thee to bless 
Thy people Israel at all times, and in all places, and to 
give them peace. Praised be Thou, O Lord, who giveth 
peace to Thy people Israel. 

" The breath of every living being shall bless Thy name, 
O Lord, our God, and the spirit of all flesh shall contin- 
ually glorify and exalt Thy memorial, O our King, from 
everlasting to everlasting Thou art God, and besides Thee 
we have no King, who redeemeth, saveth, setteth free and 
delivereth, who supporteth, and hath mercy in all times 
of trouble and distress, j^ea we have no King but Thee. 

" He is God of the first and of the last, the God of all 
creatures, the Lord of all generations, who is extolled 
with many praises, and guideth the world with loving- 
kindness, and his creatures with tender mercies. The 
Lord slumbereth not, nor sleepeth ; he arouses the sleepers, 
and awakeneth the slumberers. He maketh the dumb to 
speak, looseneth the bound, supporteth the falling and 
raiseth up the bowed. 

" To Thee alone we give thanks. Though our mouths 
were full of song as the sea, and our tongues of exulta- 
tion as the multitude of its waves, and our lips of praise 
as the wide-extended firmament, though our eyes slione 
with light like the sun and moon, and our liands were 
spread forth like the eagles of heaven, and our feet Avere 
swift as hinds, we should still be unable to thank Thee, 
and bless Thy name, O Lord, our God, and God of our 
fathers, for one thousandth, or one ten-thousandth part of 
the bounties which Thou hast bestowed on our fathers, 
and upon us. 

" Thou didst redeem us from Egypt, O Lord our God, 
and didst release us from the hou^je of bondage ; during 


famine Thou didst feed us, and didst sustain us in plenty, 
from the sword thou didst rescue us, from pestilence Thou 
didst save us, and from sore and lasting disease Thou 
didst deliver us. Hitherto thy tender mercies have 
helped us, and thy loving-kindness has not left us, forsake 
us not, O Lord, our God, forever. 

" Therefore, the limbs which thou hast spread forth 
upon us, and the spirit and breath which thou hast 
breathed into our nostrils, and the tongue which thou 
hast set in our mouths, lo, they shall thank, bless, praise, 
glorify, extol, revere, hallow and assign Kingship to thy 
name, O our King. For every mouth shall give thanks 
unto thee, and every tongue shall swear unto thee, every 
knee shall bow to thee, and whatsoever is lofty shall 
prostrate itself before thee, all hearts shall fear thee, and 
all the inward parts and reins shall sing unto thy name, 
according to the word that is written : * All my bones shall 
say. Lord who is like unto thee? ' ^ 

" Praised be thy name forever, O our King, the great and 
holy God, and King in heaven and earth. For unto thee, 
O Lord, our God, and God of our fathers, song and praise 
are becoming ; hymn and psalm, strength and dominion, 
victory, greatness and might, renown and glory, holiness 
and sovereignty, blessing and thankgiving, from hence- 
forth, ever and forever. Blessed art thou, O Lord, God, and 
King, great in praises, God of thanksgivings. Lord of 
wonders, who makest choice of song and psalm, O King, 
and God, the life of all worlds. 

" O Lord, open thou my lips, and my mouth shall de- 
clare thy praise. 

" Blessed art thou, O Lord, our God, and God of our 
fathers, God of Abraham, God of Isaac, and God of Jacob, 
the great, mightj^ and revered God, the most high God, 
who bestowest loving-kindness and poscessest all things, 
who remembered the pious deeds of the patriarchs, and 
in love wilt bring a Redeemer to their children's children 
for thy name's sake. 

" We will sanctify thy name in thy world, even as they 
sanctify it in the highest heavens, as it is written by the 
hand of thy prophet " And they called one to the other 
and said : 

^ Psalm xxxiv. 10. 


"Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord of hosts, the whole 
earth is full of his glory.' 

" Those over against them say. Blessed— 

" Blessed be the glory of the Lord from his place. 

" And in the Holy Words it is written saying : 

" The Lord shall reign forever, thy God, O Sion, unto 
all venerations. Praise ye the Lord. 

"Unto all generations we will declare thy greatness, 
and unto all eternity we will proclaim thy holmess, and 
thy praise, O our God, shall not depart from our mouth 
forever, for thou, art a great and holy God and lung. 
Blessed art thou, O Lord the holy God. 

" Quickly cause the offspring of David thy servant to 
flourish, and let his horn be exalted by thy salvation 
because we wait for thy salvation all the day Blessed 
art thou, O Lord, who causest the horn ot salvation to 

'^" Our God, and the God of our fathers, may our re- 
membrance rise, come and be accepted before thee with 
the remembrance of our fathers, of the Messiah the Son 
of David thy servant, of Jerusalem thy holy city and 
of all thy people, tlie house of Israel, bringing deliver- 
ince and well-being, peace and loving-kindness, mercy 
and iSace on this day of the Feast of the Unleaven 

' Thev e:o up the steps to the ark, and deeply bow down 
before the Law. They open the ark and reverently take 
out the Scrolls of the Law, all together saying: 

" And it came to pass when the ark set forward, that 
Moses said, ' Rise up, O Lord and tl^if/^^^^l^^.^^^/jj^jj^^^^ 
scattered, and they that hate thee shall flee be ore thee 
'For out of Sion shall go forth the Law, and the word of 
the Lord from Jerusalem.- Blessed be he who in his 
holiness gave the Law to his people Israel. 

As Leader, the Lord takes the Scroll of the Law say- 

^''" Magnify the Lord with me, and let us exalt his name 

^""^^Thhi^ O Lord, is the greatness, and the POwer and 
the glory, and the victory, and the majesty, for all that 
is in heaVen and on the earth is thine. Thine, O Lord, is 

1 isaias vi. 3. ^ Numb. x. 35. » Isaias ii. 3. 


the kingdom, and the supremacy as head over all. Exalt 
ye the Lord our God, and worship at his holy mount, for 
the Lord our God is holy. 

" May the Father of mercy have mercy on the people 
that have been borne by him. May he remember the 
covenant with the patriarchs, deliver our souls from evil 
hours, check the evil inclination in them that have been 
carried by him, grant us grace of an everlasting deliver- 
ance, and in the attribute of his goodness, fill our desires 
by salvation and mercy. 

They place the Scrolls on the reading desk, and the 
Lord unrolls them till he comes to the place to be read, 
saying : 

" And may his kingdom be soon revealed, and made 
visible to us, and may he be gracious to the house of 
Israel, granting them grace, kindness, mercy and favor, 
and let us say Amen. Ascribe all of you greatness unto 
our God and render honor to the law." 

" Blessed be he who in his holiness gave the Law to 
his people Israel. The Law of the Lord is perfect re- 
storing the soul, the testimony of the Lord is faithful, 
making wise the simple. The precepts of the Lord are 
right, rejoicing the heart. The commandment of the 
Lord is pure, enlightening the eyes. The Lord Avill give 
strength to his people. The Lord will bless his people 
with peace. As for God, his way is perfect. The word 
of the Lord is tried. He is a shield to all them that 
trust in him." 

Those called to read say : " Bless ye the Lord, who is 
to be blessed," while all the others replj^ "Blessed be the 
Lord, who is to be blessed for ever and ever." The others 

" Blessed art thou, O Lord, our God, King of the Uni- 
verse, who hast chosen us from all peoples, and hast given 
us thy Law. Blessed art thou, O Lord, who givest the 

Mondays and Thursdays three sections of the Law 
were read. But on the Passover and feasts, they read 
seven sections, with two sections from the Prophets, 
making the nine lessons, like the nine Lessons of Matins. 
If a priest or Levite were present in the congregation, he 
read the last section in honor of the priesthood of Aaron 


and of the tribe of Levi. Jiiines and John were of the 
priestly family, and perhaps they stood next the Master, 
as the deacon and subdeacon stand by the bishop,' and 
read the last sections. 

They read the parts of the Scriptures relating to the 
feast as the Epistle is now read in our churches. This 
custom Hebrew writers trace back to the times of 
David and Samuel. Each of the men came up and read 
a part, one standing by and pointing out to him the 
words, so he would not miss any part. After reading his 
part, the reader kissed the sacred Scrolls at the place 
where he began to read. This is why the celebrant 
kisses the Gospel after reading it. In the synagogues of 
our day they wipe the sacred text with the corner of the 
prayer shawl and kiss this. 

Who were the nine apostles who read that day we know 
not. As Rabbi leading the service, Christ first read the 
whole text, as the celebrant now does at Mass. Did one 
stand by and translate the Hebrew text into the Syro- 
Chaldaic spoken that day in Judea? we know not.^ 
Unrolling the Scrolls till they come to the history of the 
Passover called the Megillah, they say " Blessed be He, 
who in his holiness gave the Law to his people Israel." 


"And the Lord spoke to Closes and Aaron, in the 
land of Egypt. This month shall be to you the beginning 
of months, it shall be the first in the months of the year. 
Speak ye to the whole assemljly of the children of Israel, 
and say to them : 

" On the tenth day of this month, let every man take a 
lamb by their families and houses. But if the number 
be less than may suffice to eat the lamb, he shall take 
unto himself his neighbor that joineth to his house, ac- 
cording to the number of souls, which may be enough to 
eat the lamb. And it shall be a lamb without blemish, a 
male of one year, according to which rite you shall take 
a kid. And you shall keep it till the fourteenth of this 
month, and the whole multitude shall sacrifice it in the 

1 See Geikie, Life of Christ, i. 18t ; ii. 5S1, etc. - See Babyl. Talmud, Megilla, 
Cap. ix. p. 85-87. * Exodus xii. 


evening. And tliey shall take of the blood thereof, and 
put it on both the side-posts, and on the upper door-posts 
of the house wherein they shall eat it. 

" And they shall eat the flesh that night roasted at the 
fire, and unleavened bread with wild lettuce. You shall 
not eat thereof anything raw, and boiled in water, but 
only roasted at the fire. You shall eat the head with the 
feet and entrails thereof. Neither shall there remain 
anything of it until morning. If there be anything left, 
you shall burn it with fire. And thus you shall eat it, 
you shall gird your reins, holding staves in your hands, 
and you shall eat in haste, for it is the Phase, that is the 
Passage of the Lord. 

"And I will pass through the land of Egypt that night, 
and will kill every first-born in the land of Egypt, both 
man and beast, and against all the gods of Egypt I will 
execute judgments. I am the Lord. And the blood shall 
be to you for a sign in the houses where you shall be, and 
I shall see the blood and shall pass over you, and the 
plague shall not be on you to destroy you, when I shall 
strike the land of Egypt. 

" And this day shall be for a memorial for you, and you 
shall keep it a feast to the Lord in your generations, for 
an everlasting observance. Seven days shall you eat un- 
leavened bread. On the first day there shall be no leaven 
in your houses, whosoever shall eat anything leavened 
from the first day until the seventh day shall perish out 
of Israel. The first day shall be holy and solemn, and the 
seventh day shall be kept with the like solemnity, you 
shall do no work in them, except those things that be- 
long to eating. And you shall observe the feast of the 
unleaven bread for in this same day I will bring you out 
of the land of Egypt and you shall keep this day in your 
generations by perpetual observances. 

" The first month, the fourteenth day of the month, in 
the evening, you shall eat unleavened bread until the one 
and twentieth day in the evening. Seven days there shall 
not be found any leaven in your houses, he that shall eat 
leaven bread his soul shall perish out of the assembly of 
Israel, whether he be born or a stranger in the land. 
You shall not eat anything leaven, in all your habitations 
you shall eat unleavened bread. 


" And Moses called all the ancients of the children of 
Israel and said to -them, " Go and take a lamb by your 
families, and sacrifice the Phase. And dip a bunch of 
hyssop in the blood that is at the door, and sprinkle the 
transom of the door therewith and, both the door-cheeks; 
let none of you go out of the door of his house till morn- 
ing. For the Lord will pass through striking the Egyp- 
tians, and when he shall see the blood on the transom 
and on both the posts he will pass over the door of tlie 
house and not suffer the destroyer to come into your 
house, and to hurt you. 

" Thou shalt keep this thing as a law for thee and thy 
children forever. And when you have entered into the 
land, which the Lord will give you, as he hath promised, 
you shall observe these ceremonies. And when your 
children shall say to you, " What is the meaning of this 
service ? " You shall say to them, " It is the victim of 
the passage of the Lord, when he passed over the houses 
of the children of Israel, striking the Egyptians and 
saving our houses," And the people bowing themselves 

" And the children of Israel going forth did as the Lord 
had commanded Moses and Aaron. And it came to pass 
at midnight the Lord slew every first-born in the land of 
Egypt, from the first-born of Pharao, who sat on the 
throne, unto the first-born captive man that was in the 
prison and all the first-born of cattle. 

" And Pharao arose in the night, and all his servants, 
and all Egypt and there arose a great cry in Egypt, for 
there was not a house wherein there lay not one dead. 
And Pharao calling Moses and Aaron in the night said. 
Arise and go forth from among my people, you and the 
children of Israel ; go sacrifice to the Lord, as you say 
you sacrifice to the Lord in due season." 

Did the Son of God, leading in this solemn synagogue 
service, explain in a sermon to the congregation that eating 
the lamb with the bread and drinking the wine from 
patriarchal times foretold Calvary and the Eucharist ? We 
know not; history is silent on the details of that Last 
Supper. But his sermon in the synagogue of Caphar- 
naum, had prepared them for the change he was about to 
make in the Passover. We beg the indulgence of the 


reader and give his words ' as the Gospel of this, the first 

" I am the bread of life. Your fathers did eat manna 
in the desert, and they died. This is the bread descend- 
ing down from heaven, that if any one eat of it he may 
not die. I am the living bread, which came down from 
heaven. If any man eat of this bread he shall live for- 
ever : and the bread which I will give, is my flesh for the 
life of the world. The Jews therefore debated among 
themselves saying : " How can this man give us his flesh 
to eat ? " 

" Then Jesus said to them. ' Amen, amen I say to you : 
Unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his 
blood, you shall not have life in you. He that eateth my 
flesh and drinketh my blood hath everlasting life, and I 
will raise him up on the last day. For my flesh is meat 
indeed, and my blood is drink indeed. He that eateth 
my flesh, and drinketh my blood abideth in me and I in 

" As the living Father hath sent me, and I live by the 
Father, so he that eateth me the same shall live by me. 
This is the bread that came down from heaven. Not as 
your fathers did eat manna and died. He that eateth this 
bread shall live forever.' 

"These things he said teaching in the synagogue in 

When they read the Scriptures in the Temple or syna- 
gogue the clergy stood, while the congregation sat. 
That is the reason the celebrant and ministers stand and 
the people sit during the reading of the Epistle in all the 
Christian Rites. But when they said the Shema, the 
Jewish Creed, either in the synagogue or in private they 
always stood. Perhaps this is the reason we stand during 
the Creed. The congregation rises and stands while all 
recite the Jewish Creed. 

The Jewish Creed was the Shema, which the Jews now 
pronounce Sh'ma : " Hear," the opening word. The 
prayer is composed of Moses' words,^ and was the Creed 
of the Hebrew church protesting against paganism, with 
its multitude of gods and vile worship. Twice a day in 
Temple and synagogue this Creed was sung long before 

» John vi. 2 John vi. 51-60. ^ Deut. vi. 4-9, and xi. 13-21, with Numb. xv. 37-41. 


Christ as the Talmud saj^s.' It was also recited during the 
morning and evening prayers by every male at his bed- 
side, with his phylacteries on, standing beside his couch. 
This prayer every orthodox Jew still says wearing his 
phylacteries on brow and arm. 

After the unity of the Godhead comes the love of God 
above all, which Christian writers call charity, which 
forgives sin when the sacraments cannot be received. By 
and through this love the Saints of the Old Testament 
saved their souls through God's foreknowledge of Christ's 

While reciting this Temple Creed, at what precise time 
in the prayer we cannot find out, they brought in the 
roasted lamb and laid it on the table, as the chief victim 
of patriarchal and of the Temple worship. Who brought 
in the lamb ? It was becoming for a Temple priest to 
bring in its victim, to link together patriarchs. Temple, 
synagogue. Last Supper and Eucharist. James was u 
Temple priest. He was, as we explained, the quasi deacon 
of the Last Supper, while his brother John acted as the 
subdeacon. The deacon during Mass represents the 
Catholic Church while the subdeacon typifies the Jewish 

It was just and right therefore that James, a Temple 
priest, might bring in the lamb at this Passover which 
was to fulfil the Passovers celebrated down the ages, 
for now the great yearly feast was about to ijass into the 
eternal Passover, the Eucharistic Sacrifice the great An- 
titype of them all. 

While singing the Creed, James went to the credence 
table where with the wine and water rested on its cross 
the roasted lamb. He takes up the i^late on which it 
rests, passes by where the Lord and his ministers are in 
the sanctuary, bows deeply down before his Lord and 
jNIaster, and goes to the table in the middle of the Cenacle. 
On the table he spreads a linen cloth, on that lays the 
dish with the lamb, returns into the sanctuary, bows tO' 
the Lord, and sits in his place beside his INIaster. 

To-day that very ceremony is seen at every Pligh Mass 
while the Creed is sung. The deacon bows to the celebrant,, 
goes to the credence table, takes the burse with its cor- 

» Ber. i. 3. 


^i i) 

poral, bows to the celebrant, goes and spreads the corporal 
on the altar, returns, bows to the celebrant and sits in 
his place. 

But the Shema, or Creed of the Jewish Church would 
not suffice for the Christian Church because new elements, 
the Divinity of Christ, the doctrine of the Holy Spirit, 
baptism, and other truths had been added to the Hebrew 

After the coming of the Holy Ghost, the apostles 
gathered in the Grotto on Olivet, where they had hid 
with their Master from Monday till that Thursday after- 
noon before the crucifixion. There they formed what is 
now called the Apostles' Creed, each one forming, it is 
said, one of its doctrines. This Creed, a little modified 
by ancient councils when its articles had been attacked, 
became the Creed now sung at every High Mass as the 
Jewish Creed was sung at the Last Supper. 

Deut. VI. 4-9. 

" Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord. Thou 
shalt love the Lord thy God, with thy whole heart and 
with thy whole soul and with thy whole strength. And 
these words which I command thee this day shall be in 
thy heart. And thou shalt tell them to thy children, and 
thou shalt meditate on them sitting in thy house and 
walking on thy journey, sleeping and rising. And thou 
shalt bind them as a sign on thy hand, and they shall be, 
and shall move between thy eyes. And thou shalt write 
them in the entry and on the doors of thy house " ' 

Deut. xi. 13-21. 

"If then you obey my commandments, which I com- 
mand you this day, that you love the Lord your God, and 
serve him with all your heart and with all your soul, he 
will give to your land the early rain, and the latter rain, 
that you may gather in your corn, and your wine and 
your oil, and your hay out of the fields to feed your cattle, 
and that you may eat and be filled. Beware lest perhaps 
your heart be deceived and you depart from the l.ord 

J ^ee Edersheim, Ufe of Cbrtst, i. 268. 


and serve strange gods and adore them ; and the Lord 
being angry, shut up heaven that the rain come not down, 
and the earth yield not her fruit, and you perish quickly 
from the excellent land, which the Lord will give you. 
Lay up these my words in your hearts and minds, and 
hang them for a sign on your hands, and place them be- 
tween your eyes. Teach your children that they may 
meditate on them when thou sittest in thy house, and 
when thou walkest on the way, and when thou liest down 
and risest up. Thou shalt write them on the posts, and 
the doors of thy house. That thy days may be multi- 
plied, and the days of thy children in the land which the 
Lord swore to thy fathers that he would give them as 
long as the heavens hangeth over the earth. 

Numb. xv. 37-41. 

" The Lord said also to Moses : Speak to the children 
of Israel and thou shall tell them to make to themselves 
fringes in the corners of their garments putting in them 
ribands of blue. That when they shall see them, they 
shall remember all the connnandments of the Lord and 
not follow their own thoughts and eyes, going astray after 
diverse things. But rather being mindful of the precepts 
of the Lord, they may do them and be holy to their God." ^ 

Christ : " Hear, O Israel the Lord our God the Lord is 

Apostles : " One is our God, great is our Lord : holy is 
his name. 

Christ : " Magnify the Lord with me and let us exalt his 
name together. Thine, O Lord, is the greatness, and the 
power, and the glory, and the victory, and the majesty, 
for all that is in heaven and on earth is thine. Thine, O 
Lord, is the kingdom, and the supremacy as head over all. 
Kxalt ye the Lord our God, and worship at his footstool, 
holy is he. Exalt ye the Lord our God ; and worship at 
his holy mount, for the Lord our God is holy. 

" Be thou blessed, O our Rock, our King and Redeemer, 
Creator of holy beings, praised be tliy name forever. O 
our King, Creator of ministering spirits, all of whom stand 
in the heights of the universe, and proclaim with awe in 
unison aloud the words of the living God, and everlast- 

* Beraeoth, Cliapter I, 


ing King. All of them are beloved, pure and mighty, all 
of them in dread and awe do the will of their Master, 
and all of them open their mouths in holiness and purity, 
with song and a psalm, while they bless praise, glorify, 
reverence, sanctify and ascribe sovereignty. The name 
of the Divine King, the great, mighty and dreaded One, 
holy is he. And they take upon themselves the yoke of 
the kingdom of heaven one from another, and give sanc- 
tion to one another to hallow their Creator in tranquil 
joy of spirit, with pure speech, and holy melody, they all 
respond in unison and exclaim with awe : 

" Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord of hosts, the whole 
earth is full of his glory.-' ^ 

"And the Ophanim and the holy Chayoth,^ with the 
noises of great rushing, upraising themselves toward the 
Seraphim, thus over against them they offer praise and 

" Blessed be the glory of the Lord from his place." 

These synagogue services brought the First Mass to 
the end of the preface in our Latin Mass. 

This Temple and synagogue prayer, little changed, 
comes down to our day in the Preface of the Mass. Thus 
far and no farther the synagogue brought the Mass as we 
see it to-day in the Latin Liturgy, as far as the end 
of the Preface. Therefore the Mass in the Roman Rite 
follows the general outlines of the Temple worship Moses 
established. He led the Hebrews in sight of the Promised 
Land but did not himself enter. When from Nebo's 
summit he saw Palestine to the west stretched out be- 
fore him, he had fulfilled his mission and then he died. 
The Jew comes in sight of the supernatural wonders of 
the Mass with its Consecration and Eucharistic Sacrifice. 
A greater than Moses, was foretold to come to lead the 
world into the Christian faith. 

When the Lord and his seven ministers had finished 
the synagogue services, they sat within the Bema or 
sanctuary as the bishop sits on his throne surrounded by 
his ministers during the first part of the mass.^ 

Then the Lord and his ministers rose from their seats, 
deeply bowed down before the Torah, " the Law," then 

* Isaias vi. 3. 'These Hebrew names of the Seraphim and Cherubim are not 
found in the Bible. =» See St. Thomas, Sum. Theol., 3. 22 ; 3 ad 3, etc. 


marched from the sanctnarj^ to the table in the middle of 
the Cenacle. Following the Temple rite they march be- 
fore him according to their dignity, as the clergy still go 
before the bishop up to the altar, figuring the patriarchs, 
prophets, priests, and holy men of the ancient world wlio 
went before Christ to prepare for his coming in personage, 
prophecy and ceremonial. This is the reason that in all 
Church ceremonials the celebrant comes last, that the 
bishop goes up to the altar from his throne at the offertory 
of the Mass. 

Clothed in sacred vestments we described, each carrying 
his staff, they march to the table as the Lord had com- 
manded them to eat the Passover lamb : " And thus 
shall you eat it, 3^ou shall gird your reins, and shall have 
shoes on your feet, holding staves in your hands." ^ First 
the five apostles who had acted as his ministers went, 
then the seven who had read the seven sections of the 
Law, and lastly came the Prince of the House of David 
clothed in royal purple and vestments of cloth of gold, 
embroidered in white, red, green and violet — the sacred 
colors of the Temple of the Lord of hosts. 

The rule was that each one should take part in the 
evening worship before celebrating the Passover, and up 
to this time the Cenacle was filled with the seventy- 
two disciples and the people he had converted who had 
followed him from Galilee to attend the Passover — men 
and women being separated by a low balustrade down the 
center of the room. 

But as the law laid down that not less that ten or 
more than twenty persons could form a band to celebrate 
the Passover, all withdrew and left him alone with his 
apostles forming a band of thirteen.'-^ The others formed 
into " bands " and held their Passover in the various 
rooms into which the Cenacle buildings were divided.^ 

» Exod. xii. 11. = Geikie, Life of Christ, i. 191 to 210, 445 to 475. " Ibidem, 
vol. iC 130 ; Luke viii. 1 ; Edersheim, Life of Christ, i. 572. 

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Clothed in sacred vestments we described, cinctures 
binding up their loins, shoes on their feet, turbans on their 
heads, staffs in tlieir hands, the Lord and his apostles 
came to the table to eat the Passover according to the 
rites God laid down through Moses for their fathers.^ 

As they could not well hold their staffs while reclining, 
they hand them to the servants, as the bishop hands his 
crosier to one of his ministers before ascending to the 
altar, to sacrifice and eat the real Lamb of God in the 
Eucharist. They did not wear the turbans reclining at 
the table, and we suppose they removed them, as the 
bishop puts off his miter before going up to the altar. 

Before the Bema or sanctuary, in the middle of the 
Cenacle, three tables had been prepared ; arranged in the 
form of a U, one across the ends of the other two, so the 
servants could come in between and wait on the guests. 
These tables the Romans called the Triclinium, " Three 
Beds." ' 

The tables for Passover were always covered with 
linen table-cloths, the cross table having three covers, 
and the ends of the upper cloth hung down to the floor,' 
as seen in our churches in the three linen altar cloths, 
the upper one hanging down at the ends of the altar. 

The muster who presided at a feast, who was called 
the a'rchitriclinus,* " the master of the three beds," re- 
clined at the middle of the cross table, his place being 
called the medius : " the middle." He had at his right 
hand, in the place called the summits: "the highest," one 
of his relatives or his dearest friend, and on his left, in 
the immus, " the lowest," another friend. Celebrating the 

* Exod. xii. 11. 2 Edersheim, Life of Christ, ii. 115, 491 ; Geikie, Life of Christ, 
ii. 114 ; Smith's Die. of Bible, Feasts, etc. ' Talmud, Babyl., c. x. p. 211, etc. 
* John ii. 8-9. 



Passover, in order to image \\u) high priest, with his 
ISagan beside him in Temple ceremonj', the master placed 
beside him on his right a prominent Rabbi, "the joresi- 
dent of the synagogue," or one he wished to honor. 

Sometimes the couches or divans were quite wide, and 
friend reposed next to friend, their heads over the table, 
left elbow resting on the cushion, feet extended out nearly 
touching the floor, 'i'hus resting near each other, side by 
side, they talked to one another in a low tone and ex- 
changed confidences. 

A large coucli was i)arallel with the cross table, and 
nine small couches had their liDads to the two tables foj- 
the other apostles. Iji the middle of the large couch, at 
the head table, the Lord reposed with his dearest friends. 
Who were these ? In Gospel history, Peter, James and 
John are given as Jesus' dearest friends. First called 
Simon, Christ changed his name to Peter, " the Rock," 
the corner-stone of his Church, and he is always given 
first as the prince of the apostles. Twenty-three times 
Matthew mentions him, nineteen times Mark gives his 
name, twenty times Luke writes of him in his Gospel, and 
John thirty times, while in the history of the infant 
Church — the Acts has fifty-five verses Avith his name. 

James and John, sons of Zebedeus, fishermen of Galilee, 
were of the family of Aaron and therefore Temple priests. 
So say some writers. Nineteen times James' name is 
found in the Gospels and the ^Acts, but his brother John 
does not mention him ; he was appointed, some say, by 
Christ himself as the first bishop of Jerusalem. Famed 
even among Jews and pngans for his holiness, the Jews 
killed him, and their great historian Josephus says tlie 
calamities of the awful siege and destruction of Temple 
and city by the Romans under Titus was a visitation of 
God on the Jews because of James' martyrdom. 

John, " the Pious," youngest of the apostolic band, was 
loved of Jesus above the others, because he was a virgin, 
and into his care he gave his JMother. From his seat at 
Ephesus John ruled the churches in Asia. He wrote his 
Gospel to defend Christ's Divinity, attacked by early 
heretics. Nineteen times we find his name in Gospel, 
and Acts. He does not give his own name, but refers 
to himself as "that disciple whom Jesus loved." 


These three Jesus held in highest esteem because of 
what they represented in his future Church. Peter, first 
bishop of Rome, imaged that long line of Pontiffs who 
taught the world religion. James, the first apostle to 
have a fixed seat, first bishop of Jerusalem, first to form 
a liturgy, first bishop to die a martyr, represented the 
bishops of the world. John imaged the Jewish Church, 
the Temple with its sacrifices, the synagogue witli its 
services, the patriarchal fathers of the nations, the 
prophets with their inspired words and writings in the 
Old Testament, the whole Hebrew religion and history. 

Therefore when Christ raised the dead glrl,^ when he 
was transfigured on Tabor, when he entered into the 
awful sorrows of Gethsemane, when he shoAved his powers 
as God, when he suffered in the garden, he called these 
three — Peter, James and John — to be with him.'- There- 
fore we conclude he called them beside him when he 
celebrated the Last Supper. 

Thus it came to pass tliat the Lord with Peter, James 
and John reclined at the cross table facing the other 
apostles reclining at the outside of the two i)arallel tables 
facing each other. Tlie early Church carefully copying 
every detail of that feast placed the bishop behind the 
altar, where he said Mass facing the people. There was 
the bishop's throne, in the apse of the cathedral, as to-day 
you will find it in St. John Lateran, the Pope's cathedral, 
Rome, and in ancient cathedrals, a custom still followed 
by Oriental Christians. The apostles reposing on- the 
outside of the parallel tables facing each other, gaA'e rise 
to the cathe4ral stalls, and the scats for the clergy in onr 

Resting near the Lord on his right was Peter, his chief, 
jis to-day tlie assistant priest is beside the pontificating 
bishop, as the Sagan was beside the Temple high priest 
when he sacrificed. At his right Avas James waiting on 
the Master, as to-day you see the deacon beside the bishop 
at his right. On the other side was John, as the sub- 
deacon is at the bishop's left. 

As they repose on the couches, Jesus faces James, his 
back is turned towards John, and thus it was easy for the 
latter to lay his bead on Jesus' breast beside him, and ask 

1 Luke viii. 51. » Matt. xxvi. 37. 


in whispered confidence wlio the traitor was, and for the 
Lord to dip the bit of bread into the Cliaroseth, or salad,- 
and hand it to Judas at the other side of James. 

On the cross table before the reclining Lord and his 
" band " of apostles burned the six Passover beeswax 
candles, Avith the different dishes we have described. 
Before him was the crucified roasted lamb resting still on 
his cross, the striking image of Him who was to be crucified 
the next day. The Lord, as Master of the Passover, was 
to carve " the Body of the Lamb," to cut portions of the 
flesh for each, that the victim called since it was chosen 
Monday as " The Lamb of God," might so strikingly fore- 
tell him whom John the Baptist called " the Lamb of 
God who was to take away the sins of the world." ^ He 
was to give himself to them in Communion to fulfil the 
patriarchal and Temple image — the sacrificed lamb. 

Down the ages from the days of Adam and of Abel the 
lamb was sacrificed and eaten as a type of the Redeemer 
in patriarchal, prophetic sacrifice and ceremonial with all 
ther mystic and symbolic meanings. Therefore, he who 
was the true " Lamb of God," the great Antitype to whom 
all pointed was to give himself to them in the Eucharist, 
that as the body was nourished by the lamb's flesh in the 
Old Testament, so Christian souls might be nourished by 
the Body and Blood of the true Lamb of God, Christ. 
For if he were not really present in the Eucharist — in 
Communion, then the types of the Jewish Church would 
never have been fulfilled, the shadow would never have 
its reality, and God himself would have deceived man- 

Ever onward, upward, higher, strive human souls. The 
deepest instincts of our very reason is to tend towards 
truth and perfection eternal in God. The dream and 
aspiration of our race is towards heaven, towards union 
with God in eternal bliss beyond the skies. Union with 
the Deity ! What but this can satisfy the instinctive 
everlasting cravings of our souls? Now the God-man is 
about to fulfil the types, to satisfy that soul-hunger, that 
craving natural to us all. He who was about to die for 
mankind would give himself to us, give his whole self, 

1 John i. 29; Talmud, Babyl., Pesachira, x. 3; Geikie, Life of Christ, i. 891; 
ii. 447. 


his Body, Blood, soul, Divinity, that the millions of the 
redeemed might nourish their spiritual life on him, the 
only font of the supernatural, sole bond of union between 
God and mankind. The roasted lamb of the Old Testa- 
ment with all its mystic ceremonial was united with the 
bread and wine of the New Testament, about to be 
changed into his Body and Blood. Therefore when they 
came to the table, looking back on the past filled with 
type and emblem of this great Supper, and glancing into 
the future, into the other life of heaven, when all Avould be 
fulfilled, Christ uttered the deep sentiments of his loving 

" With desire have I desired to eat this Pasch with you 
before I suffer. For I say to you, that from this time 
I will not eat it, till it be fulfilled in the kingdom of 
God." ' 

With deep desire he wished to fulfil the meanings of 
the Passover, that as he had united the Godhead with our 
humanity in his one jjersonality of the Divine Son, that 
he might unite himself to every member of his Church 
in Communion, and thus bind himself in closest union pos- 
sible to every one of the members of his Church, and thus 
satisfy the longings of our nature for union with the 

As in Temple and in times of prophets and patriarchs, 
every object, every ceremony was emblematic in the 
Passover. In type, image, emblem, religious objects and 
Scripture, God liad revealed the future to their fathers. 
Prophecy and mystery and history hidden in Passover 
from far beyond historic days were now about to be ful- 
filled, revealed, finished, completed, sanctified, unfolded, 
and find the reasons of their revelation. They were to 
be blessed by the Son of God himself. Till then only 
shadows they were to pass into the substance they so 
wonderfully foretold. 

We will therefore ask the reader's indulgence, and 
again recall the mysticism of Passover. Before the Lord's 
place in the middle of the cross table, on a large dish, the 
sacrificed, skinned, roasted lamb rested on his cross. 
Down from prehistoric times, from beyond the deluge it 
had come, it was prepared and eaten at Easter each year 

^ Luke xxii. 15. 


to foretell, far better than any words, preaching, or writ- 
ing the Lord soon to be, arrested, tried, condemned, 
scourged, crucitled, dead, covered Avith yellow serum 
oozing out. His body skinned in scourgings, when he 
was dead looked as though he had been roasted, to show 
that he, filled with unseen lire of the Shekina, the Holy 
Spirit inspiring him with love, was to die to redeem us 
and be eaten as "the Lamb of God" in the Eucharist. 

The three unleaven cakes of wheaten flour mixed with 
water, oil and incense, anointed with a cross, with five 
linger holes, and baked with fire, foretold the Lord's 
body, with its five wounds, broken in his Passion, as it 
were baked in the fire of the Shekina, anointed by the 
Holy Ghost, the real ^lanna Christians eat in Com- 
nmnion. The wine in the cruet was an emblem of his 
blood poured out in his sufferings for mankind's sins. 

The bitter herbs imaged that bitter slavery their 
fathers suffered in Egypt, and the bitter habits of sin, 
which enslave Christian souls. AVine soured becomes 
vinegar, the pleasures of life represented by wine are 
soured by sin and wicked habits, which bind the soul in 
demoniac slavery. 

The flesh meat representing the Leviathan, the hippo- 
potamus of the Xile, was emblematic of Egypt to the Jew, 
and typical of the demon to the Christian. The beast is 
given in Job afflicted by a terrible skin disease brought 
on him by the demon. Job could not understand in. his 
innocence wh}" he Avas so afllicted, but he represented the 
future Christ in his patience suffering the awful scourg- 
ings in Pilate's Forum. The Leviatlian to the Jewisli 
mind was the emljlem of Egypt, their fathers' enemy, but 
the Christian sees in this beast the demon, whom not Job 
but Christ conquered.^ Whence God spoke to Job : 

" Canst thou draw out the Leviathan with a hook, or 
canst thou tie his tongue with a cord? "that is put a 
bridle in his mouth and subdue him ? for a greater per- 
sonage than Job, the Messiah, was to come and rescue 
]nankind from the devil's slavery. The flesh meat also 
reminded them of the elephant tliey named the behemoth, 
"large beast," typical of Babylonia, where for seventy 
years their fathers were enslaved, and was emblematic of 

1 Job iii. 8 ; Migue, Cursus Comp. S. Scripturtc, iii. 978. 


the Old Serpent, who from Eden's gates had enslaved 
Adam's race, and whom Christ was to conquer in his 

At the Passover the master who presided used a larger 
chalice called the mezrak, because at the end of the ban- 
quet he offered his chalice to each guest, "and they all 
drank from it," ^ as a sign of friendship before they 
parted. Law and custom prescribed that each one should 
drink not less than four cups of wine. Women, weak 
persons and the children could not always take four full 
chalices of pure Avine, and in prehistoric clays, they mixed 
the wine Avith water, that they might take the four 
" legal cups." This is the reason that Avater is mixed 
Avith the AA'ine at Mass, Avhich some Avriters say foretold 
the water flowing from the side of the dead Christ. 

The Prince of David's dynasty that night used a large 
sih^er chalice, the famous Gabia, "Chalice," his fore- 
fathers foretold tlie Messiah Avould use, according to 
David's word's : " I will take the chalice of salvation, and 
I Avill call on the name of the Lord."^ 

A curious tradition of the Jcavs at that time stated, that 
this Avas the chalice Xoe used aaIicu he blessed the white 
races in their father Japheth and cursed Ham's children 
in Canaan.^ His son Sem, named Melchisedech, used it 
Avhen he offered bread and Avine, and blessed the He- 
brcAvs in their father Abraham.* It had been handed 
down to the Hebrew kings. When Babylonians sacked 
the city, it Avas lost. But in the twelfth year before 
Christ, Avhen Herod began to build the Temple, it AA^as 
found in the ruins, and for safe keeping placed in the 
Cenacle. Let the reader judge himself the truth of these 
statements. Of it Yen. Bede Avrites — the Martyry he 
mentions being then the ruins of Pilate's palace and 
Golgotha Calvary. 

" In the street leading from the Martyry to Golgotha, 
Avas a shrine, Avhich covered the Lord's Chalice, and 
through the grating they used to touch and kiss it. The 
chalice was of silver, and had tAvo handles, and in it was 
the sponge Avhich Avas offered the Lord from Avhich to 
drink." ^ 

1 Mark xiv. 23. * Psalm oxv. 13, etc. ^ Gen. ix. 31-27. * Gen. xiv. 18, etc. 
^ De Locis Sacris, Cap. 2. 



This chalice was therefore like " a loving cup," having 
two handles so the guests could take it in their hands 
when drinking — this ceremony being the last token of 
their love and esteem for the master of the feast, at 
whose hospitable table they had feasted. When the Lord 
consecrated this the last or fourth cup of wine and passed 
it to his apostles, he fulfilled the meaning of the ancient 
rite of the goblet of love and friendship of the Passover. 

With the great Chalice was a silver plate, belonging 
to the set Melchisedech used when he offered bread and 
wine. This paten held the three cakes of unfermented 
bread. Chalice and plate were covered with napkins as 
the sacred vessels are covered on our altars. At each 
apostle's place was a small goblet or chalice called a cos 
or sepil. Following the Jewish rite the early Christians 
used more than one chalice, till abuses rose and our 
present discipline began. 

Near the end of the cross table, on the Master's left, 
was a small table copied after the Temple golden table 
on which the priests each Sabbath placed the proposition 
bread and wine before the Lord.^ At Passover, on this 
table they placed the chalice the master used, the plate 
holding the three cakes of unleaven bread and the two 
flagons holding wine and water.*'' Therefore we suppose 
that on this table rested the ancient historic Gabia, 
" Chalice," with its silver plate holding the three cakes 
and the two vessels, one of wine the other of water. After 
the master breaks the Aphikomen into two halves, one 
half is returned to this table, the other lay on the table 
before the master. These two parts of the middle cake 
are referred to frequently during the ceremonies. 

At Passover the master's friends, or the " standing 
men " of the synagogue filled the chalices of the guests 
with wine and mixed it with water from this flagon, and 
also used this water to wash their hands. To-day in the 
sanctuary beside the altar, stands the credence table, 
coming from the Temple, Avhereon at High Mass you see 
the chalice, the paten, or little plate, with the bread, these 
being covered as during the Passover, and beside them 
the cruets of wine and water.^ Peter, James and John 

» Talmud, Ha{?aga, 53. ^ See St. Thomas Sum. 3a Q 74, A. 6-8. etc. » See 
Geikie, Life of C'hrist, ii. 191, 51 1, etc. 


acting as " standing men " of the Jewish Church, perhaps 
poured the wine and water into the chalice for the Lord. 
To-day the assistant priest stands beside the bishop, 
while the deacon and subdeacon prepare and pour the 
wine and water into the chalice. 

The oldest part of the Passover was the ceremonial at 
the table when they ate the lamb's flesh, and the feast of 
unleaven bread when they took the bread and wine with 
prayer, Psalm and anthem. The synagogue services or 
evening prayers were added after the Babylonian Cap- 
tivity, but this service at the table came down from the 
patriarchs, or from Moses and the prophets. 

The synagogue service was sung in a loud tone, while 
the table Seder was recited in a lower voice. The syna- 
gogue worship brought the Passover to the end of what 
we call the Preface of the Mass. During this first part 
of the Mass, the celebrant sings in a loud tone, while he 
recites the Canon in a low voice. Why is this? Some 
writers say the Canon is thus said in a low voice because 
of the persecutions of the Roman empire, and that then 
they said Mass in secret places and in a low voice lest 
enemies might hear them. 

But enemies would have heard the first part of the 
Mass which was always sung from the beginning when 
possible. The Orientals, not disturbed by Roman perse- 
cutions, sang the Mass from apostolic days, and therefore 
this does not seem a valid reason why the Canon is re- 
cited in a low tone. This Canon, found only in the Latin 
Liturgy, the Mass St. Peter established at Rome, is the 
most sacred part of the Mass, and corresponds to the 
sacred Seder of the Passover the Jews said at the table 
in a lower voice. St. Peter, leader of the apostolic band 
therefore established the Latin Liturgy with its Canon 
more according to the Jewish Passover Rite than the 
other apostles, who established Liturgies of the Mass in 
different languages. 

Two intervals of rest divide the Passover Seder into 
three sessions. They claim one section foretold the suf- 
ferings of the Messiah, the second the sufferings in hell, 
and the third the wars against Gog " The Mountain," 
"The High," and Magog, his country, foretold to fight 
against Israel. He was a figure of that Anti-Christ pro- 


phesied to figlit against Christians towards the end of the 

Each person celebrating the Passover held the scroll of 
the Liturgy in his hands, and read the service Avith the 
master, the latter leading. Therefore each apostle held 
his scroll or book of the Passover Liturgy in his hands, 
and with Christ recited the prayers. For this reason the 
priest when being ordained, or the bishop at his consecra- 
tion, says the Mass with the ordaining or pontificating 

When they came to the table they reclined on the 
couches, recalling their fathers' freedom after the Egyptian 
slavery, and emblematic of the rest of mankind from the 
trials and troubles of the Old Testament. Thus they began 
that part of the Passover Liturgy which corresponds to 
the Canon of the Latin Mass. In remembrance of this 
leclining position, when tlie celebrant begins the Canon 
with these words : " Thee therefore most merciful Father," 
etc., he raises up his hands, brings them down on the edge 
of the altar table, and bends deeply down, resting the ends 
of his fingers on the edge of the table in memory of Christ 
and his apostles reclining at the Last Supper. 

The Gospels give only words and incidents which did 
not belong to the Passover — the Lord's words, the wash- 
ing of the feet, the prophecy of Judas' treason, the Con- 
secration, the Communion, the words of warning, the 
promise to pray for Peter against the demon's wiles — 
these did not belong to the Jewish feast, and they are 
given in the Gospels. 

Why were not all the details of the First Mass given ? 
because they would have been superfluous. Every Jew 
celebrated the Passover. He had reclined at the table 
since he was confirmed at twelve; he knew the ceremo- 
nial and the Liturgy of Passover, and it would have been 
useless to fill the Gospels with the Liturgy and Cere- 
monial, for all Hebrews, as well as most i)agans, knew or 
could learn all about the Passover. 

Can the Passover of the days of Christ be laid before 
the reader ? We give the rite as we saw it celebrated in 

' Seo Zanolini ])e Festi^ .Tud.-eonim, C. i. Note (J. We refer tlifl> reafler to 
t)iis work, to Beiiedict XIV. De Festis D. N. Jesu Christi, Cursus Coiup. S. 
S<M'Iptur{B, and to various Jewi«?h writers, the Talmud, Lives of Christ, etc., 
for numerous details of the following pages. 


Jerusalem, and place Christ as leader of this hand of 
twelve apostles. We do not say that the following is 
absolutely correct, but it is as near the Last Supper as it 
is possible to reconstruct it after the lapse of nearly 
twenty centuries. 

The Greek Gospels say "he reclined " at the table, our 
Bible says he " sat down." " And when the hour was 
come he reclined, and the twelve apostles with him."' 

The Liturgy of the Passover, formed of praters, 
Psalms, chants, anthems, directions, rubrics, etc., were 
the foundations on which the apostles, apostolic men and 
great saints formed the fifty-four different Liturgies of 
the Mass. The most famous, the Poman Rite, established 
by Peter in the Eternal City, and with little change 
comes down to us under the name of the Latin or Roman 

The Jews call these services at the table the Seder, 
" Section," to distinguish it from the synagogue prayers 
and services already given, and which were said in the 
Bema or sanctuary. Whence did this Passover Liturgy, 
or Seder, arise ? Some Jewish writers say Moses is its 
author ; others that Moses laid the foundation, and that 
the prophets and great men of Israel added to it ; but all 
agree that it took its rise way back in times immemorial, 
beyond the Babylonian Captivity. The Palestine Jew 
has hardly changed an iota of his religion since these 
far-off days, and he spurns the idea of any important 
additions to the Seder since the prophets lived. Nothing 
equals the conservatism of the Jerusalem Hebrew* regard- 
ing his faith.'- We will give the fourteen Divisions of the 
Hebrew Passover Liturgy, under different headings, witli 
free translations modern Jews give of these Hebrew 

1 Luke xxii. 14. ' See Edersheim, Life of Christ, I. 438, IL 137, 138 ; Geikie, 
Life of Christ, etc. 


Sanctificatiox of the Passover. 

1. the kaddesc, " saxctify." (say the sanctifi- 

They pour the wine into the chalices, mix it with 
water, saying this prayer, as a blessing over the wine : 

" Blessed art thou, O Eternal, our God, King of the 
Universe, Creator of the fruit of the vine. 

" Blessed art thou, O Eternal, our God, Sovereign of 
the Universe, who hath chosen us from among all people, 
and didst exalt us above all nations, and didst sanctify us 
with thy commandments ; and with love thou has given 
us, O Eternal, our God, solemn days for joyous festivals, 
and seasons for gladness, this day of the Feast of un- 
leaven bread, the season of our freedom, a holy convoca- 
tion, a memorial of the departure from Egypt. For thou 
has chosen and sanctified us above all people ; and holy 
festivals thou has caused us to inherit, with love, and 
favor, joy and gladness, O Eternal, who sanctifieth Israel 
and the seasons. 

" Blessed art thou, O Eternal, our God, King of the 
Universe, who hatli preserved us alive, sustained us, and 
brought us to enjoy this season." 

They drink the first goblet of wine. While washing 
the hands the rubric states that they are not to say the 


After drinking the first cup of wine, all rise and wash 
their hands. Before, during and after the Passover, they 
washed their hands. Following this rite the celebrant of 
the Mass washes his before, twice during, and after Mass. 
Then they again reclined and began the Supper.^ 

' Edersheim, Life of Christ, II. 0, 10. 152, 205, 215. For rules for washing of 
hands see Geikie, Life of Christ, I. 207, 451, Talmud, etc.. 



Jesus takes the parsley the Scripture calls the "bitter 
herbs," dips it into the vinegar, and hands a portion to 
each. Holding it in their hands, all together say : 

" Blessed art thou, O Lord our God, King of the Uni- 
verse, Creator of the fruit of the earth." 



Jesus uncovers the three cakes of Passover, which lay 
on the plate on the credence table, covered with a napkin. 
" Drawing forth," he takes the middle cake and breaks 
it into two equal parts, as the celebrant of the Mass 
breaks the Host into two equal parts after the Consecra- 
tion. The smaller half he lays again on the plate, hiding 
it under a napkin till toward the end of the feast. 

This part of the middle cake was called the Aphikuman, 
which they pronounced Ophikoman : " the heavenly 
manna," " the heavenly bread," " Food of Angels," and 
reminded them of the manna falling from heaven to feed 
their fathers in the desert. It was so sacred it was hid- 
den till near the end of the feast. This the prophets 
ordered to show that the mysteries of the Mass were hid- 
den in the Passover. Following this rite the bread and 
wine are always covered after being offered on our altar. 
Half the Ophikoman was covered on the table with the 
other cakes, the other half was covered with the prayer 
shawl, as we will later describe. 


The Master uncovers the cake of unleaven bread and 
holds up the dish with the cake. Witli eyes uplifted to 
heaven they say this prayer, which seems to have come 
from the days of the Babylonian Captidty, when the 
prophets foretold and Israel hoped they would return 
to their country. 

" Behold this is the bread of affliction our fathers ate 
in the Land of Egypt. Let all who are hungry enter and 
eat thereof. At present we celebrate it in here, but next 
year we hope to celebrate it in the land of Israel. This 


year we are servants, but next year we hope to be free- 
men in the land of Israel." 

They fill again the chalices with wine from the large 
cruet on the credence table and mix it with water. They 
cover the chalices with napkins, as they had covered the 


They wash their liands again lest they might luive 
become soiled. The Passover services prescribed tliis 
second washing of the hands before taking the food from 
the common dishes with tlie lingers, for tliey did not use 
table knives and forks in the days of which we write. 
They were very careful to follow the Law regarding 

They hold up the unleaven bread wliile tlie youngest 
asks the question. When he finishes they lay • it 
on the table. Then they explain the meanings of the 
ceremony, following the directions God gave ]\Ioses." 
"And when your children shall say to you: What is the . 
meaning of this service ? You shall say to them. It 
is the victim of the passage of the Lord, when he passed 
over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt striking 
the Egyptians and .saving our house."- The Passover 
rubric says. " The youngest in the company asks," etc. 
John therefore asked the question. 

" Wherefore is this night distinguished from all other 
nights ? On all other nights we eat either leavened or un- 
leavened bread, but on this night only unleaven ; on any 
other nights we may eat any kind of herbs, but on this 
night only bitter herbs ; on all other nights we do not 
dip even once, but on this night twice; on all other 
nights we eat or drink either sitting or reclining, but on 
this night we all recline ? " 


THE cake). 

The Master makes a sign to bring the dish on the 
credence table with the two cakes of unfermented bread 
to him. He takes the cakes and shows them to the one 

' Levitv XV, iind xvi. ^ Kxoil. xii. 2Cj-27. 


who asks the questions ; when the paschal lamb is men- 
tioned, he points to it; wijen the wine is mentioned all 
take up their cups of wine and hold them in their hands. 
Reading from the Liturgy all together they answer John's 

" Because we were slaves to Pharaoli in Egypt, and the 
Eternal our God brought us forth from thence with a 
mighty hand, the outstretched hand of the Most Iligl), 
l)lessed be he. Had he not brought our ancestors from 
Egypt, we, and our children, and our children's children, 
would have continued in bondage to the Pharaohs in 
Egypt. Therefore, although we are all wise, all of us 
men of understanding and experience, all of us having 
knowledge of the Law, nevertheless it is incumbent on us 
to discourse of the departure from Egypt, and all who 
largely discourse on the departure from Egypt are looked 
on as worthy of praise." 

A little more than a page of this part of the Liturgy is 
Avritten in the language, form and style of the Talmud, 
giving the names and ideas of famous Rabbis who lived 
in the middle of the second century after Christ. These 
parts were evidently added about this epoch. We are not 
certain regarding some minor portions immediately 
following, as internal evidence seems to hint that they did 
not exist at the time of Clirist ; but we give them to let 
the reader judge for himself. The words, " It is said,'' 
refer to Bible statements, but there are no quotation 
marks in the Liturgy. 

" Blessed be the Omnipotent, blessed is he who hath 
given his Law to his people Israel, blessed be he whose 
Law speaketh distinctly of four children of different dis- 
positions, viz: the wicked, the slmjile, and he who hath 
not the capacity to inquire. 

" The wise son thus expresses himself : What mean 
these statutes and judgments, which the Lord our God 
has commanded us ? Then shalt thou instruct him 
in all the laws of the Passover, also that w^e must not 
have a dessert brought to the table after the paschal 

"The wicked son expresses himself thus. What mean 
you by this service ? By the expression " you " it is clear 
he do^s not include, himself, and as he hath withdrawn 


himself from the collective body of the nation, it is proper 
that thou retort on him, and therefore answer him thus, 
This is done because of that which the Eternal did for me, 
when I went from Egypt, i. e. for me, but not for him, for 
had he been there, he would not have been thought worthy 
to be redeemed. 

" The simple son artlessly observes. What is this ? Then 
shalt thou answer him : For with a strong hand the 
Eternal brought us out of Egypt, from the house of 

" But as for him who hath, not the capacity to inquire, 
thou must begin to discourse, as it is said, And thou shalt 
show thy son that day saying. This is done because of that 
which the Eternal did for me, when I went forth from 

" Possibly you may think that he (the father) is bound 
to explain this from the first day of the month, Nisan, 
therefore it is said on that day, yet as it says on that day, 
it might be inferred that it must be whilst it is day, but as 
it is said. This is done because of that, etc., from which it is 
to be inferred at no other time, but when the unleavened 
cake and bitter herbs are placed before thee. 

" Our ancestors were anciently idolaters, but at present 
the Lord hath brought us near to his service, as it is said : 
And Joshua said unto all the people, thus saith the Eternal, 
the God of Israel, your ancestors dwelled on the other 
side of the River (Euphrates) in old time, even Terah, the 
father of Abraham, and the father of Nachor, and served 
other gods. 

" And I took your father Abraham from the other side 
of the flood, and led him through all the land of Canaan, 
and multiplied his seed, and gave him Isaac, and I gave 
unto Isaac, Jacob and Esau, and I gave unto Esau mount 
Seir for his possession, but Jacob and his children went 
down into Egypt. 

" Blessed be he who strictly preserveth his promise 
unto Israel, blessed be the Most Holy who premeditated 
the end of the captivity, that he might perform what he 
had promised to our father Abraham between the parts." 
(Note in the Liturgy.) " The covenant made with Abra- 
ham when he was commanded to divide the heifer, goat 
and ram, through which a smoking furnace and flaming 


lamp passed, by which the covenant was made between 
God and Abraham, and is therefore called the covenant 
made between the parts," as is said : And he said unto 
Abraham, Know for certain, that thy seed shall be 
strangers in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve 
them, and they shall afflict them four hundred years. 
And also that a nation, whom they shall serve will I 
judge, and they shall afterwards go forth with great 

" Lift up the cup of wine and say : 

" And it is this same promise which hath been the sup- 
port of our ancestors and of us also, for not one only hath 
risen up against us, but in every generation there are 
some who rise up against us to annihilate us, but the 
Most High, blessed be he, hath delivered us out of their 

" Set the cup on the table again. 

" Search and inquire what Laban,^ the Syrian intended 
to do to our father Jacob, for Pharaoh decreed the de- 
struction of the males only, but Laban intended to root 
out the whole, as is said : A Syrian hath nearly caused 
my father to perish, and he went down into Egypt, and 
sojourned there with few persons, and there became a 
great, mighty, and populous nation. 

" And he went down into Egypt, compelled thereto by 
the word of God, and sojourned there, by which we are 
taught that he did not go down to settle there, but only 
to sojourn, as is said : And they (Joseph's brethren) said 
unto Pharaoh, To sojourn in the land we are come, for thy 
servants have no pasture for their flocks, for the famine 
is sore in the land of Canaan, now therefore we pray thee 
let thy servants dwell in the land of Goshen. 

"With few persons, as it is said: With threescore and 
ten souls, thy ancestors went down into Egypt, and now 
the Eternal, thy God, hath made them as the stars of 
heaven for multitude. 

" And he there became a nation, by which we are in- 
formed that the children of Israel v/ere distinguished even 
in Eg3^pt as a peculiar people. 

" Great and mighty, as it is said : And the children 
of Israel were fruitful and increased abundantly, and 

^ Geu, xxvii ; Gen. xxxi. 


waxed exceedingly mighty and the land was filled with 

" And populous, as it is said : 1 have caused thee to 
multiply as the vegetation of the field, and thou becomest 
considerable and great and adorned witli many beauties, 
thy breasts are formed, and thy hair grown, yet thou art 
naked and bare. 

^'And the Egyptians ill-treated us, afflicted us, and laid 
heavy bondage upon us. And the Egyptians ill-treated 
us, as it is said : Come let us deal wisely with them, lest 
they nuiltiply, and it come to i)ass if tliere chance to be 
a war, tliat they might go over to our enemies, light 
against us, and so get them out of tiie land. 

" And they afflicted us, as it is said : And they set over 
them taskmasters to afflict them with their burdens, and 
they built for Pharaoh store cities, even Pi thorn and 
Raamses. And they laid heavy bondage upon us, as it is 
said : And the Egyptians made the children of Israel 
serve with rigor. 

" And we cried unto the Eternal, the God of our an- 
cestors, the Eternal heard our voice, and observed our 
affliction, our labor and our oppression. 

" And we cried to the Eternal, the God of our ances- 
tors as it is said : And it came to pass in the course of 
time, that the king of Egypt died, and tlie children of 
Israel sighed by reason of their bondage, and they cried 
and their cry ascended unto God, by reason of tlieir 

"And tlui Eternal heard our voice as it is said: And 
(^od beard their groaning, and remembered his covenant 
with Abrahau], Isaac and with Jacob, 

" And he saw our affliction, this denotes their being 
denied the company of their wives to prevent propaga- 
tion as it is said: And God looked on tlie children of 
Israel, and God had knowledge of their affliction. 

" And our grievousness, this denotes the destruction 
of the male children, as it is said, Every son that is boru 
ye shall cast into the river, but every daughter you shall 
save alive. 

" And our oppression, this denotes fatigue, as it is said : 
And 1 have ako seen the oppression with which th(i' 
Egyptians harass them. 


" And the Eternal brought us forth from Egypt with 
a strong hand, and with an outstretched arm, with terror 
and with signs and wonders. 

" And the Eternal brought us forth from Egj^Dt not by 
means of an angel, nor by means of a seraph, nor by means 
of a messenger, but the Most High, blessed be he, Him- 
self is his glory, as it is said : And I will pass through 
the land of Egypt this night, and I will smite all the 
first-born in the land of Egj^pt, both of man and beast, 
and on all the gods of Egypt will I execute judgment, I 
am the Eternal." 

" And I will pass through the land of Egypt, I myself 
and not an angel, and T will smite all the lirst-born, I 
myself, and no seraph, and on all the gods of Egypt, I 
will execute judgment, I myself, and not a messenger, I 
am the Eternal, I am He and no other. 

" With a strong hand, this denotes the murrain, as it is 
said : Behold the hand of the Eternal will be upon thy 
cattle, which are in the field, upon thy houses, upon the 
asses, upon the oxen, and upon the sheep, a very grievous 

"And with an outstretched arm, this denotes the 
sword, as it is said elsewhere on such an occasion : And 
a drawn sword in his hand stretched out over Jerusalem. 

" And with great terror, this denotes the appearance 
of the Divine Presence, as is said : For God assayed to go 
and take unto him a nation from the midst of another 
nation, by proofs, signs and wonders, by war and a mighty 
hand, by an outstretched arm, nnd great terror, according 
to all that the Eternal, your God, did for you in Egypt, 
before your eyes. 

"And with prodigies, this denotes the miracles per- 
formed with the rod, as it is. said : And thou shalt take 
this rod in thy hand, wherewith thou shalt do the pro- 

" And with wonders, tliis denotes the plague of blood, 
as is said : And I will do wonders in the heavens, and on 
earth, blood and fire and ascending pillars of smoke. 

" It may also be explained thus : ' With a strong ' hand 
denotes two plagues ; ' with an outstretched arm, ' two 
plagues 'with great terror,' two plagues ; ' with prodigies,' 
two plagues; 'with wonders,' two plaguec. 


" There are ten plagues which the Most High, blessed 
be He, brought on the Egyptians in Egypt, viz : 

Blood, Frogs, 

Vermin, Murrain, 

A MIXTURE, Noxious beasts, 

Boils, Hail, 

Locusts, Darkness, 
The slaying of the first-born. 

When each plague is mentioned the Jews of our day let 
fall a drop of wine on the floor. The reader will notice 
that the killing of the first-born makes eleven plagues, 
and that the slaying of the first-born in Egypt is given as 
a special category in itself, for it was the last and greatest 
punishment God inflicted on Egypt. Thus it stands out 
alone because it foretold the killing of the Virgin's First- 
born on Calvary. 

" What abundant favors hath the Omnipresent con- 
ferred on us ! 

" For if he had but brought us forth from Egypt, and 
had not inflicted justice upon the Egyptians, it would 
have been sufficient. 

" If he had inflicted justice upon them, and had not 
executed judgment upon their gods, it would have been 

" If he had not executed judgment on their gods, and 
had not slain their first-born it would have been sufficient. 

" If he had slain their first-born, and had not bestowed 
their wealth on us, it would have been sufficient. 

" If he had given us their wealth, and had not divided 
the sea for us, it would have been sufficient. 

"If he had divided the sea, and had not caused us to 
pass through on dry land, it would have been sufficient. 

" If he had caused us to pass through the dry land, 
and had- not plunged our oppressors in the midst thereof, 
it would have been sufficient. 

" If he had plunged our oppressors in the midst thereof, 
and had not supplied us with the necessaries in the wil- 
derness, forty years, it would have been sufficient. 

" If he had supplied us with the necessaries in the 


wilderness forty years, and had not fed us with manna, 
it would have been sufficient. 

" If he had fed us with manna, and had not given us 
the Sabbath, it would have been sufficient. 

" If he had given us the Sabbath, and had not brought 
us to Mount Sinai, it would have been sufficient. 

" If he had brought us near to Mount Sinai, and had 
not given us his law, it would have been sufficient. 

"If he had given us the law and had not brought us to 
the land of Israel, it would have been sufficient. 

" If he had brought us to the land of Israel, and had 
not built the Temple, it would have been sufficient. 

"How much then are we indebted for the manifold 
favors the Omnipresent conferred on us ? He brought us 
forth from Egypt, executed judgment on the Egyptians, 
and on their gods, slew their first-born, gave us their 
wealth, divided the sea for us, caused us to pass through 
on dry land, plunged our oppressors in the midst thereof, 
supplied us with the necessaries in the wilderness forty 
years, gave us manna to eat, gave us the Sabbath, brought 
us near to Mount Sinai, gave us the law, brought us into 
the land of Israel, built the chosen holy Temple for us to 
make atonement for our sins. 

" Whosoever doth not make mention of the three 
things used on the Passover, hath not done his duty and 
these are they, the paschal lamb and the bitter herbs, the 
unleaven cake. 

" The paschal lamb, which our ancestors ate during the 
existence of the holy Temple, what did it denote ? It 
denoted that the Most Holy, blessed be he, passed over our 
fathers' houses in Egypt, as is said : And ye shall say it 
is the Lord's Passover, because he passed over the houses 
of the children of Israel in Egypt, when he smote the 
Egyptians, and delivered our houses, and the people 
bowed their heads and worshipped " 

The Master takes up the cakes in the dish lying on the 
table, shows them to the apostles as a memorial of their 
freedom and continues the Liturgy. 

" These unleavened cakes, wherefore do we eat them ? 
Because there was not sufficient time for the dough of 
our ancestors to leaven, before the Holy Supreme King 
of kings, blessed is he, appeared to them and redeemed 


them as is said : And they baked unleaven cakes of the 
dough, which they brought forth out of Egypt, for it was 
not leavened, because they were thrust out of Egypt, and 
could not tarry, neither had they made any provision for 

Now the Master takes the lettuce, with the green top 
of the horse-radish, and shows it to the company as a 
memorial of the Egyptian slavery while he continues. 

" This bitter herb, why do we eat it? Because the 
Egyptians embittered the lives of our ancestors in Egypt, 
as is said : xVnd they embittered their lives with cruel 
bondage, in brick, mortar and in all manner of labor in 
the field, all their labor was imposed on them with rigor. 

" Therefore it is incumbent on every Israelite, in every 
generation, to look on himself, as if he had actually gone 
forth from Egypt as it is said : And thou shalt declare 
unto thy son on that day, saying, This is done because 
of that which the Eternal did for me, when I came forth 
f j'om Egypt. It was not our ancestors only that the Most 
Holy, blessed be he, redeemed from Egypt, but we also 
did he redeem with them ; as is said : And he brought 
us forth from thence, that he might bring us to the land 
v/hicli he swore to our fathers." 

They drink the wine and the service continues. 

" Therefore we are in duty bound to thank, praise, 
adore, glorify, extol, honor, bless, exalt, and reverence him, 
who wrought all the miracles for our ancestors and us. 
For he brought us forth from bondage to freedom, from 
sorrow to joy, from mourning into holidays, from dark- 
ness to great light, and from slavery to redemption, and 
therefore let us chant unto him a new song, Hallelu-Jah, 
" Praise Jehovah." 

" Blessed art thou, O Eternal, our God ! Sovereign of 
the Universe, who has redeemed us and our ancestors 
from Egypt ; and didst cause us to attain the enjoyment 
of this night, to eat therein unleavened cakes and bitter 
herbs. O Eternal! our God, and the God of our fore- 
fathers, mayest thou cause us to attain other solemn 
festivals and seasons, which approach us, that we may 
rejoice in the building of tliy city, and exult in thy 
service, and that we may th.cre eat of the sacrifices and 
paschal lambs, whose blood shall be sprinkled on the 


horns of thine altar, that they may be acceptable : then 
we will give thanks to thee with a new song for our 
deliverance and redemption. Blessed art thou, O Eternal, 
who redeemed Israel. 

The Little Hallel. 

They sing the Psalms composing what was then called 
the Little Hallel. The Master began, the others responded. 

Christ. " Praise the Lord, ye children. 

Apostles. " Praise ye the name of the Lord, etc. 
(Psalm cxii.) 

Christ. " When Israel went out of Egypt. 

Apostles. " The house of Jacob, from a barbarous 
people, etc. (Ps. exiii.) 

This was named the Little Hallel to distinguish it 
from the Great Hallel, which will be found later in the 
Passover, the latter being sung in the Temple and during 
the processions coming up to the great Jewish Festivals. 
Members of the School of Shamai stopped at the end of 
Psalm cxiii., but the strict Pharisees sang other Psalms 
and then held the first recess. 


He takes the bitter herbs, the lettuce, dips them in the 
vinegar, rolls them around a portion of the Embamma 
also called the Charoseth, the salad, formed of apples, al- 
monds, fruits, etc., and hands a portion to each, saying. 

" Blessed art thou, O Lord, our God, King of the Uni- 
verse, who hast sanctified us with thy commandments, 
and hast commanded us to eat the bitter herbs." 

While saying this prayer they eat tlie bitter herbs re- 
calling the bitter slavery of their fathers in Egypt, and 
shadowing forth the bitter slavery of sin and the repent- 
ance of Christians filled with sorrow preparing for Com- 
munion by confession. 

During the preceding ceremonial half of the broken 
Aphikoman rested with the two other cakes covered with 
a napkin on the little plate before the Master. Jesus 
now uncovers the plate, takes half of this cake, breaks off 
twelve pieces and hands one to each of the apostles while 
they say together : 


" Blessed art thou, O Eternal, our God, King of the 
Universe, who bringeth forth bread from the earth. 
Blessed art thou, O Lord, King of the Universe, who hast 
sanctified us with thy commandments, and hast com- 
manded us to eat unleaven cakes." 

Each dipped his piece of bread into the dish of Charo- 
seth, typical of the bitter slavery of their race in Egypt, 
and with the Master ate the portion as a sign of friend- 
ship towards their leader. The rite continues in our day. 
If you eat bread with a Bedouin of the Orient, it is a 
sign of a contract of love and friendship between you and 
him, and he will protect you with his life. Taking from 
him the portion, and eating it with him, showed how the 
apostles loved their Master. 


Christ takes the third or under cake lying under the 
half of the broken Aphikoman, breaks off thirteen pieces, 
rolls them in the horse-radish, eats his piece, and hands a 
portion to each of the apostles as a sign of friendship and 
in memory of the Temple Sanctuary with all its sacrifices 
and ceremonies. While eating these portions they say : 

"Thus Hillel did during the time the holy Temple 
stood. He took the unleaven cake and bitter herb, and 
ate them together, that he might perform what is said : 
"With unleaven cakes and bitter herbs shall they eat 
it." ' 

Jewish writers say this word Hillel comes from the 
Hebrew Aillel, " The Elder," and refers to Esdras, who 
led the Hebrews back from the Babylonian Captivity. 
But some hold that it refers to the famous Hillel Hazza- 
keh, so celebrated in Jewish history, who flourished about 
the time of the first Herod, and who died before Christ's 
birth. The latter Hillel was born in Babylonia and came 
when a youth to Jerusalem to attend the famous schools 
which then flourished in Judea. Too poor to pay for his 
education, he listened at a window where, one day he 
fell asleep and was found covered with snow, and they 
admitted him as a free scholar. He became the most 
learned of the Scribes, was made Nasi, " President " of 

» Exod. xii. 8. 


the Sanhedrin for life. He gathered up the traditions 
now found in the Talmud, and formed a liberal school in 
opposition to that of his contemporary Shammai, the 
latter being very rigid. Another Hillel who flourished 
in the fourth century after Christ reformed the Jewish 

Eating this bread of friendship dipped into the Charo- 
seth of Egj^ptian bondage, eating to remind them of their 
freedom, eating as a bond of love between them and their 
Master, the Lord spoke warning words, prophetic words 
foretelling the basest betrayal of all human history. 

" And whilst they were eating he said : ' Amen, I say 
to you that one of you is about to betray me.' And they 
being very much troubled began every one to say : ' Is it 
I, Lord ? ' 

" But he answering said : * He that dippeth his hand 
with me in the dish the same shall betray me. The Son 
of man indeed goeth as it is written of him, but woe to 
that man by whom the Son of man shall be betrayed. It 
were better for that man if he had not been born.' And 
Judas that betrayed him answering said : ' Is it I, Rabbi V 
He said to him, 'Thou hast said it.' " ^ " And he said to 
them, ' One of the twelve who dippeth his hand with me 
in the dish.' " ^ 

Replying to Judas' question he said : " Thou hast said 
it," as much as to say, " It is you." The Greek of St. 
Mark's Gospel has not ' Judas that betrayed ' him as 
given in our translation, but, 'Judas betraying him,' 
which shows that the traitor all along had meditated the 
betrayal, and that it was not an after-thought. The 
words, " It were better for that man if he had not been 
born," is a quotation from the Book of Henoch, a prophetic 
and peculiar book much used by the Jews of that day 
and which foretold the betrayal. 

The Passover was always a time of rejoicing ; mirth, 
gladness and joy reigned round the table, but the Lord's 
words filled them with consternation. " Is it I ? " each 
one asked himself. Sadness setted down on the " band." 
They began to talk among themselves and ask who would 
be so base as to betray the Master they so loved. 

The time came now to take the third chalice of wine, 

» Matt. xxvi. 31-25. * Mark xiv. 20. 


nnd tliey fill the cups with wine from the great cruet and 
mix with water from the flagon saying while filling each 
chalice : 

*' Blessed art thou, O Lord, King of the Universe, 
Creator of the fruit of the vine." 

Custom immemorial, and Passover rubric directed each 
guest to drink four goblets or chalices of wine. They 
liad taken t^^■o and this was the third. The Gospels tell 
us what here happened. 

" And having taken the chalice, he gave thanks and 
said, * Take and divide it among you. For I say to you 
that I will not drink of the fruit of the vine till the king- 
dom of God come." ^ 

The Gospels give tlie very words of the Jewish Liturgy : 
"the fruit of the vine." In these days they made wine 
of different fruits. But wine of the grape *' of the vine " 
Avas alone used at Passover. Christ's words show us that 
this was the wine of the grape used at the Last Supper, 
and from that day wine made from grapes has been al- 
ways used at Mass, and no other wine is valid. 

He said he would not drink it till he took it in his 
Father's kingdom, the Church he established through his 
death. While hanging on the cross, the soldiers offered 
him vinegar mixed with gall, but he refused it because he 
was a Nazarene forbidden wine or vinegar.^ 

He drank from the fourth chalice after he said this, 
but he did not contradict himself, for it was not wine 
but his consecrated Blood, and this was why he spoke 
these words. A change of substance took place at the 
Consecration, and he called their attention to it. If this 
change of substance did not and does not take place, at 
the Last Supper and at every Mass, the wine was only a 
type and figure of his blood. The Churches therefore 
which believe not in the Real Presence are no higher or 
no nearer the supernatural than the Jewish Church. 

Christ excepted, all drank from the great chalice with 
the words given above. Then they washed their hands 
saying : 

'^ Blessed art thou, O Lord, our God, King of the Uni- 
verse, who hast sanctified us with thy connnandraents, 
and hast commanded us to wash the hands." 

J Matt. xxvi. 27, SO; Mark xiv. 25; Luke xxii. 16, 18. ' Deut. xxix. 6; Numb. vi. S. 


Two feasts were celebrated at the Passover, one that of 
the Passover proper, the other of unleaven bread,' One 
was the Legal the other the Common Supper. The fii'&t 
supper that night fulfilled, with the death of Christ, all 
types and bloody sacrifices of the Old Testament, while 
the feast of unleaven bread began the New Testament. 
The first, the strict Passover, wherein the lamb was eaten, 
was held for only one night, for Christ was sacrificed only 
once on the cross. But the feast of unleaven bread whicli 
then began lasted for a w^eek ended with an octave. The 
octave signifying completeness, typified eternity in heaven 
and was emblematic of the Mass where Christ is sacrificed 
day by day on our altars by priests of the eternal order 
of Melchisedech.^ 

When they had finished eating the lamb with the bitter 
herbs with the difterent Passover foods and had drank the 
three cups of wine, our Lord and his apostles said the 
following thanksgiving prayer ending the First Supper : 

Christ. " Brethren, let us give thanks. 

Apostles. " Blessed be the name of the Eternal from 
hencefo]'th and forevermore. 

Christ. " We will bless our God of whose bounty we 
have been satisfied. 

Apcfstles. " Blessed be our God of whose bounty we 
have been satisfied and through whose goodness we live." 

They carefully gather up the bones and remains of the 
lamb, remove and burn them, to foretell how the body of 
the dead Lord was the next dav taken dow^n from the 
cross and buried before sundown. 

The Passover supper then ended and the recess began. 
Christ v/as about to confer two sacraments on the mem- 
bers of Ids band. lie took the sacramentals of the Old 
Testament, the signs and ceremonies of the Jewish Church, 
and raised them to the dignity of two great sacraments of 
the New Testament. Holy Orders and Communion were 
to be the very sou] and heart of his future Church, and 
he would now confer them on his apostles. But first he 
gave them a sensible sign of the innocence of soul and 
purity of heart required in all who would receive these 

'•VAnd when supper was done, the devil havincj- pat 

1 Zanolini, De Fest. JuU. - Psalm cix. 4, 


into the heart of Judas, the son of Simon, the Iscariot, to 
betray him, knowing that the Fatlier had given all tilings 
into his hands and that he came from God and goeth to 

" He riseth from supper, and layeth aside his garments, 
and having taken a towel (called luntith, " towel," used 
at bath) he girdeth himself. After that he poureth 
water into a basin, and began to wash the feet of the dis- 
ciples, and to wipe them with the towel wherewith he 
was girded. (He come first to Peter his chief.') He 
Cometh therefore to Simon Peter. And Peter saith to 
him, " Lord, dost thou wash my feet ? " Jesus answered 
and said to him. " What I do thou knowest not now, but 
thou shalt know hereafter.' Peter saith to him : *' Thou 
shalt never wsah my feet." Jesus answered him : '' If I 
wash thee not, thou shalt have no part with me." Simon 
Peter saith to him, " Lord, not onl}^ my feet, but also my 
hands and my head." Jesus saith to him : " He that is 
washed needeth not but to wash his feet, but is clean 
wholly. And you are clean, but not all." For he knew 
who he was that would betray him, therefore he said : 
" You are not all clean." ^ 

Washing, emblem of baptism, the Lord used to show 
them the innocence of soul required for their ordination 
and first Communion, which Judas did not have. They 
had. all taken the Passover or legal bath, but their bare 
feet were soiled Avalking over the floors, and by words 
and acts Christ showed again the betrayal. 

" Then after he had washed their feet, and taken his 
garments, having sat down again ^ he said to them : 
" Know you what I have done to you ? You call me 
jMaster and Lord, and you say well, for so I am. If I, 
then, being Lord and Master, have washed your feet, you 
also ought to wash one another's feet. For I have given 
you an example, that as I have done to you, so 5m:)u do 
also. Amen, amen, I say to you. The servant is not 
greater than his lord, neither is the apostle greater than 
He that sent him. If you know these things you shall 
be blessed if you do them." 

" I speak not of you all, I know whom I have chosen, 

^ Oeilvie, Life of Christ, ii. 440. ' See Mi^ne, Cursus Comp. S. Scripturse, iii. 
llij.") ; John xiii.4 to 11. ^ The Ureek LexL says " having again recliued," 


but that the Scripture may be fulfilled : " He that eateth 
bread with me shall lift his heel against me." ^ At present 
I tell you before it comes to pass, that when it shall come 
to pass you may believe that I am the Messiah.^ 

Christ knew the Temple was to be destroyed, that its 
priesthood was to pass away, that another priesthood 
foretold according to the order of Melchisedech was to 
rise over the world, be eternal and sacrifice him in 
Eucharistic Offering. This was the burden of prophetic 
words of the Old Testament, of Passover ceremonial, of 
Temple worship and of proposition bread and wine. 

The High Priest of eternity was not to stay always 
here in our world of sufferings and sorrows, but after 
finishing the work his Father gave him to do, man's re- 
demption, to return to heaven. Would he leave the world 
without a divinely ordained priesthood ? Then mankind 
would be worse off than before he came, for there would 
be no sacrifice, no religious body of men who could speak 
with divine authority. The w^orld required a priest- 

He would give the world priests to sacrifice him in 
truth and reality, as the Temple priests had sacrificed 
him in type and figure. He was about to offer liimself, 
his life, his Body, Blood, soul and Divinity at that table, 
and complete that offering on the cross the next day. 
But he must show the apostles how to sacrifice him at 
the Last Supper, that they might do the same in the 
Mass. They must take part with him in his first Mass, 
that the Last Supper might be united with every other 
Mass down the ages till the world ends. 

What order did he raise them to ? Did he make them 
priests or bishops ? If he made them simple priests, they 
could not have ordained other priests, and with their 
death the priesthood would have died. The Jewish 
priesthood was to end with the destruction of the Temple, 
the sacrifices of the ancient religions were gradually to 
cease, and without a priesthood the Christian world would 
have been left without a divinely appointed body of re- 
ligious teachers. 

Acting as a Bishop — in his highest order, he consecrated 
them bishops of equal rank giving them religious power, 

> Psalm xl. 7-10 ; Osee xii, 3. « John xiii. 4-19. 


that with him thc}^ might taice part in his Eucharistic 
Sacrifice, as the bishop being consecrated takes part with 
the consecrating bishop, that thus thej" might ordain 
priests, and consecrate bishops in the cliurches they would 

What rite did he follow ? The ancient ceremony of 
Temple and Synagogue. Therefore at least in external 
rite the apostles saw nothing new oi" strange in their 
ordination. God does nothing abruptly, and Christ cuiue 
not to condenni but to fulfil the ancient Hebrew I'ites. 
J3ut the apostles did not know the full meaning of tlie 
ceremonies till the Holy Ghost came on Pentecost. 

The Temple high priest, the Hebrew priest, the king, 
the magistrate, the Rabbi, the guests at Passover were 
anointed on head and hand with holy oil, and hands laid 
on them when inducted into their offices. This was the 
ceremonial which had come down in Israel from remotest 
days, and the Jews called this laying on of hands the 

Jacob imposed his hands in form of across on Joseph's 
two sons.'-^ Moses laid his hands on Josue, when giving 
him power as general over the hosts of Hebrews with 
grace to conquer the Promised Land.^ Jewish physicians 
anointed the sick with oil, which Rabbi Simeon says Avas 
mixed with wine, the ceremonial usually taking place on 
the Sabbath.'' The Tahnud in many places mentions 
this anointing.' 

Not less than three Rabbis could ordain a Rabbi in the 
days of Christ. This was the custom in the early 
Church, when three bishops consecrated a bishop. 
When the custom fell into disuse, Pope Anecletus, the 
third from Peter, forbade a bishop consecrated by less 
than three bishops. That has been the discipline down 
till our day. 

First, we conclude Christ consecrated the holy oils, for 
the holy oils of the Temple were hallowed by the high 
priest before being used, say learned writers, who also 
hold that since the Last Supper the holy oils are conse- 

1 Edersheim, Life of Christ, ii. 210 ; Sketches of Jewish Life, 276. 280, 282 : 
Geikie, Life of Christ, ii. (!79 ; Farrar, Life of Christ, ii. 579; Babylonian Tal- 
mud, passim, etc. *Gen. xlviil. IS. ' Dent xxxiv. 9. *Talimid in Hor. v. ii. 4ir). 
' Oeikie. Life oi' Christ, ii. &J6 : Eaen^heiiu. Tempic; 71 ; Life of Christ 555, 3S0, 
etc.. Sketches of Jewish Life, 231, 28;.'. 


crated on Holy Thursday in all Christian rites. Down 
from the apostolic days come the custom. St. Favain, 
Bisliop of Rome fi'om 236 to 240, writes ^ tliat after 
Christ had washed the apostles' feet, he showed them 
how to mix the oil and consecrate the holy clnism.^ 
Cliristian Lupus states Pope Sylvester '■' teaches that 
Christ established the rite of blessing the oils. In every 
Oriental rite they bless the oils on Holy Thursday. The 
Greeks, Sclavonic and other Eastern Christians mix the 
chrism with thirty-two different perfumes, imparl ing an 
intensely sweet smell. 

In the form of a cross they laid their hands on the 
head of the high 23riest, priest, rabbi, magistrate, and on 
every official of church and state." They anointed the 
the heads of the guests with oil during the Passover.^ 
They put the oil on the head in the form of a cross, or 
Greek cross.^ This is the reason that clergymen are 
ordained in all Christian rites with oil and the imposition 
of hands in the form of a cross. 

We must conclude, although we find no record, that 
Christ ordained his apostles with holy oil and imposed 
his hands on them, as the Lord laid down the rite in 
Moses' day.' This rite of consecrating bishop and priest 
with holy oil and imposition of hands, comes therefore 
down to us from the Temple, the synagogue, and the 
Last Supper. 

The guests held their scrolls of the Passover Service, ' 
and followed the leader, with him pronouncing the words. 
He ordained them therefore, for he wished them to take 
part with him in the first JMass. According to the Last 
Supper, and apostolic custom, the clergyman about to be 
ordained a priest or consecrated a bishop, says the words 
of the Mass with the bishop. 

Laying his hands on their heads, did he say : " Receive 
ye the Holy Ghost " ? Did he place on their heads and 
shoulders the Holy Scrolls of Moses' five books with the 
prophetic and historic books of the Old Testament taken 
from the Aaron in the sanctuary ? Did the holj^ oil flow 
on their beards as it had on Aaron's, when Moses conse- 

J Tomb. I. roncil. Epist. I. ^ >ijg^ne. Cursus Comp. S. Theoloprice De Olio 
Raero. ^ Lib. Pont., born A. D. 370. * P:dersheini, Temple, 71 ; Sketches, 281. 
as'J: Life of Christ. H. 554. etc. ^ Geikie, Life of Christ, I. 5W : H. 382, 555. 
^ Geikie, Life uf Chfist, IL 5?'.! : FaiM-ai-'s Li'e of Christ, IL 183. '' Exod. xxix. 


crated him? History hints not on these. They were 
now bishops to take part with liim in the First Mass, to 
immolate and offer him in Eucharistic sacrifice. Only 
after the resurrection did he give them power to forgive 
sins.' The power of sacrifice related to his real Body and 
Blood. The forgiveness of sins was to be exercised on 
his mystic body, the members of his Church. 

The full powers of the Episcopate imprinted its charac- 
ter in their souls, but the graces of Holy Orders lay 
dormant in them, for he had not yet suft'ered, sin was 
not atoned, mankind was not yet redeemed. Pentecost, 
the fiery Shekina, the Holy Ghost, came in the cloud, 
tongues of red burning flame filled the apostles with 
the graces of the apostolate and episcopate, completed 
graces of the Holy Orders they had received at the Last 
Supper. But the Lord reminded them of the powers he 
had given them to act as his agents, his ministers to the 

" Amen, amen, I say to you, he that receiveth whomso- 
ever I sendeth, receiveth me, and he that receiveth me, 
receiveth him that sent me. When Jesus had said these 
things, he was troubled in spirit, and protested and said. 
Amen, amen, I say to you that one of you will betray 
me," ^ Why was he troubled in spirit -at this solemn 
ordination of the apostles ? Because he knew that he had 
ordained Judas Avith murder in his heart. He had im- 
posed his holy hands on and raised to the apostolic col- 
lege the meanest man of human history. 

They were now the first bishops of the Catholic 
Church, bearing the fulness of the episcopal order, with 
its imprint on their souls lifting them to the liighest 
spiritual power a creature can receive, giving them a 
power even the heavenly spirits can never exercise. 
But they did not feel the fires of love of God and man 
lifting them to the heights of the supernatural no one 
ever feels who has not received Holy Orders. Tlie 
change in the Passover rite was hardly perceptible to 
their eye. It differed little from each Passover they had 
attended since they were boys of thirteen. 

But towards the end of the l*assover, after the Com- 
munion, he warned them as to the dangers of pride and 

» John XX. 23. * Jobu xiii. SO. 31. 


vanity and tyranny, tlie special temptations of rulers, 
flattered by their subjects. He told them he had made 
them officials of his Church to offer the Eucharist and sit 
on episcopal thrones as judges over his people, as since 
the bishops sit on their episcopal thrones. 

" And you are they who have continued with me in my 
temptations. And I appoint to you, as my father hath 
appointed to me, a kingdom. That you may eat and 
drink at my table in my kingdom, and may sit upon 
thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.* 

He made them his agents to act for him in saving 
souls, and in offering his Sacrifice. The agent binds the 
one who appoints him. Thus the apostles were clothed 
with the spiritual powers of Christ. Of this he re- 
minded them when he said : 

" Amen, amen, I say to you, he that receiveth whom- 
soever I send, receiveth me, and he that receiveth me re- 
ceiveth him that sent me." ^ 

The Son of God pontificating as the Great Bishop of 
the world thus raised the apostles from laymen to be 
bishops, that they might take part with him in the first 
Mass, and that he might show them how to consecrate 
bishops after he had gone from earth to the glories of 
his Father. The words " Do this in memory of me " 
related then not oidy to the Mass but to the ordination 
and the consecration of the clergy in every age and coun- 

Three orders we find typified in the GospeLs, — the 
Papacy in Peter, the bishops in the apostles, and the 
diocesan priests in the seventy- two disciples. These 
three are the foundations of the Church. All other 
orders or bodies of religious ordained to the priesthood 
are accidental, came later — the apostolic age did not have 
them, the Church could exist without them. But when 
the diocesan priesthood, represented by the seventy-two 
disciples, separated from the episcopate, represented by 
the apostles, and became an order of simple priests differ- 
ent from the bishops, we do not find. All signs seem to 
indicate that it was about the time the deacons were 
ordained.^ These are the priests belonging to the diocese 
who serve under the bishop and act as pastors, assistants, 

» Luke xxiL 28-30. « John xiii. 30. » Acts vi ; Philip i. 1 ; 1 Tim, iii, 8-12, 


etc. The religious orders Avere founded by famous men 
— nearly all being saints, — during the middle ages, or 
many centuries after the apostolic age. 

The time between the two suppers was thus taken up 
with the ordination rites, the second supper, the feast of 
unleaven bread, then began, wherein the reader will find 
more solenni ceremonies, holier prayers, deeper devotion, 
for it related more strictly to the Eucharistic Sacrifice. 



Now they set the table for the feast <U* unleaven bread. 
The preceding ceremonies recalled the history of the 
patriarchs, the delivery of the Hebrew's from the Egyp- 
tian bondage, the giving of the Law on Sinai, the story 
of their nation, their juovidential mission among the 
I)agans, and pointed to the crucifixion to take place the 
next day. 

The Passover proper ended, or raUic]- developed into 
the feast of unleaven bread, which now began and lasted 
till the 21st day of the moon, that is for a week, and ended 
with a great feast on llie octave. The Passover was 
celebrated onl}^ once, the feast which followed was cele- 
brated for a week, each night it was held with holy so- 
lemnity, for it foretold the Mass which takes place not 
once, but continues down the ages, lasting till the end, 
offered by priests of the eternal order of Melchisedech. 
The octave typifies eternity with God in the other world. 
Therefore not to the Passover, strictly speaking, which 
foretold the death of Christ, but to the feast of unleaven 
l»read we must look for the origin of the ceremonial of 
the Mass. 

11. TZAPHUN "the niDDEX." (take the piece of the 


Christ uncovers the half of the broken middle cake, 
which he had broken into two equal parts at the begin- 
ning of the Passover Seder, and which up to this time 
hail been lying IxM'ort^ him covered witli a napkin, as the 


paten lies on the altar covered with the purificator during 
Mass. Taking in his hands this half of the Aphikoman, 
he hreaks off a particle, and eats it in memory of the 
paschal lamb they had just eaten. Then he breaks off a 
])article for each guest and lays it in the left palm of each. 
This was the way the celebrant of the Mass in the early 
Church gave Communion. The other half of the Aphiko- 
man was concealed from the beginning, that is covered 
with a napkin. The hiding of this piece came down 
from Moses or the prophets to foretell that the Mass was 
hidden in the Passover rite. Later they hid the other 
half of the Aphikoman with a more solemn ceremony we 
will soon describe. 


Each apostle receives his particle of bread, saying, 
" Blessed art thou, O Lord, King of the Universe, who 
bringeth forth bread from the earth." Then they eat the 
particles of bread. 

The Menachot Table (page 87) shows how the Temple 
sacrifices were offered with movements forming a cross. 
As the Temple ceremonial was an extension of the patri- 
archal Passover, or as the latter was a compendium of the 
former, long before Christ, the precise epoch Ave cannot 
find, the Hebrews offered the bread and wine with these 
movements of the Temple ceremonial. 

The master of the feast, one after the other raised up 
first the bread and wine, then they offered them to God 
with pra3^er. Then he lowered them. Tlie Hebrews called 
these movements the Teruma. Before placing on tlie 
table the plate of bread or tlie chalice full of wine, tlu» 
master moved tiiem from him to the west, the move 
benig called molUh^ then towards him, to the east, called 
umeul^ towards the south, to his left, the action being the 
mahale^ and then to his right, to the north, the rite being 
the morul, then he laid the vessels of bread and wine on 
the table. 

While raising or lowering the bread and wine, the 
" standing men " and officials near the master put their 
hands under and touclied the vessel, while the prayer 
was said dedicating the sacrifice to God. The reason 



was this. In the Temple the animals were thus offered 
alive, and it required a numher of priests to raise up the 
victims, especially when large, and to move them high up 
in the air to the four points of the compass. But at Pass- 
over women were forbidden to touch the vessels of bread 
and wine during the offering, because they could not 
officiate in the Temple, and lest evil might be suspected 
if they took part with the master.* 

The Jews before Christ supposed that the Temple 
sacrifices were raised up and thus offered to God as 
sacrifices for sins, but they did not see that these two 
movements of the victims, as well as of the bread and 
wine of Temple and at Passover foretold how Christ 
would be raised up on his cross, and taken down for 
burial. They also write that the four movements, to the 
west, east, south and north, signified that the sacrifices 
were offered for all the nations living in the four quarters 
of the world. But the Christian sees that the rite fore- 
told the cross on which the world's Victim was to be 
later sacrificed. 

With these movements coming down from Temple and 
Passover, the bread and wine are offered during the offer- 
tory of the Mass, and the deacon touches the paten 
holding the bread and the chalice of the wine as the 
Temple priests and " standing men " did in Temple and 

Every victim in the Temple was thus offered by the 
Jewish priesthood, which was later to demand the death 
of Christ. Then with the one who brought the victim, 
they placed their hands on the animal's head, palms 
down, and placed Israel's sins, the sins of his family, or 
the sins of the one for whom he offered the sacrifice on 
the victim. In this way at Passover the master of the 
feast, after offering the bread and wine, spread out his 
hands over them, and placed his sins on them. Now let 
us see what Christ and the apostles did at this part 
of the Last Supper. No record has come down directly 
relating to this ceremony, and we can only give the 
religious custom as we find it among the Jews of that 
epoch, as we see it now in the Mass. 

The Lord carefully following every rite and custom of 

* See Zanolini, De Festis Judaeorum. c. iv., etc. 


Passover in his day. uncovered tlie Aphikoman on the 
silver plate and raising up the paten, he offered the bread 
to his Eternal Father. James at his right, we suppose, 
touching the plate. Then he moved it the four points of 
the compass, making a cross as the celebrant of the Mass 
does, and then laid it on the table. 

One of the apostles, perhaps James, at his right, filled 
the great Chalice, the Gabia, with wine. Another apostle, 
— was it John ? — mixed the wine with water as the sub- 
deacon does at a high Mass, and the Lord offered the 
chalice of wine with the Temple ceremonial we have 
given, as to-day the wine is offered during Mass by raising, 
lowering and making with it a cross. 

After offering the bread and wine did Christ spread 
out his hands over them according to the Temple rite 
after offering the victims ? Was it at this time that he 
offered his life Body and Blood as the Victim of the 
sins of all men ? The celebrant at Mass, just before the 
Consecration, holds out his hands over the bread and wine 
according to the Temple ceremony, and we conclude 
Christ did the same, but we do not find the exact time of 
the Passover when this was done. Then they hid the 
Aphikoman on the little plate. 

The Jews of our day hide half of the Aphikoman in 
different ways. In this country they often put it under 
a little cushion, on which they lay the left elbow in 
memory of the reclining position of the time of Christ. 
In Jerusalem the writer saw the master of the feast cover 
the plate with a napkin. Emely Beaufort ^ says, that 
after the boy asked the question : " What is the meaning 
of these ceremonies," etc. " The master laid a white 
cloth over the boy's shoulders, and removing the cover- 
ings from the table, he took one of the large cakes of the 
Passover bread, till then hidden, and breaking it in half, 
tied it into the end of the cloth, and slung it over the 
shoulder of the youngest boy, who kept it for ten minutes, 
and then passed it to the next, and so on — all continuing 
to recite from the books without stopping." 

We conclude therefore that Christ hid the Aphikoman 
on the paten, in the end of the prayer- shawl, which was 
of the form and size of our benediction veil, and placed 

^ " la Egyptian Sepulchres and Syrian Shrines." 



it on the shoulders of St. John, the youngest, who held it 
up before his eyes till after the Consecration, At a low 
Mass the paten, covered with the purificator, lies partly 
under the corporal. Some of the Jews of our day cover 
the bread in this way. 

The youngest at the table held the plate before him 
covered with the prayer-shawl on his shoulders. It was 
he who asked the questions, " Wherefore is this night 
distinguished from all other nights," etc. John was the 
youngest of the apostolic band, and we suppose therefore 
he held the hidden Aphikoman before his face so he 
could not see his Master. What did John in this ancient 
Passover ceremony typify ? In his Gospel,' John tells us 
that when thej^ heard the Lord had risen, he and Peter 
ran to the tomb. Let us see what these apostles repre- 
sented, in the words of one of the early Popes : 

" Those disciples ran the fastest, who loved liim, 
Christ, more than the others, namely Peter and John. 
The two ran, but John ran faster than Peter. The lirst 
came to the tomb, but did not dare to enter. Peter, who 
was behind, came and entered. What, brethren, did this 
mean? are we to believe that this minute Gospel descrip- 
tion has no mysteries? By no means. John would not 
have said he outran, but did not enter, unless ho ])ohoved 
there was a mystery hidden. What did John signify 
but the Synagogue, and what Peter, but the Church." ^ 

John represented Jewish Church, Temple and syna- 
gogue with their services, the Jewish people and their 
stubborn conservatism. John behind his Master holds the 
silver plate with the Aphikoman, "The heavenly manna," 
" the bread of angels," up before his eyes, blinding him so 
he cannot see his Lord, for the Jewish people would not 
see in Jesus their Messiah. They did not believe his words 
said in their synagogue when he promised the Eucharist, 
his Body and Blood, " I am the living bread which came 
down from heaven. This is the bread which came down 
from heaven. Xot as your fathers did eat manna and 
died."^ Let the reader see the whole of John vi. 

Therefore from apostolic times the subdeacon, at a high 
Mass and when the bishop pontificates, holds the paten 

^ John, XX, 4-6. 
« John vi. 51, 59. 

2 St. Gregory, Horn. xxii. in Erang. of John's Gospel 


covered with the end of the benediction veil up before 
his eyes behind the celebrant, imaging the Hebrews who 
rejected their Messiah and who still persist in their 

Now begins the Temple ceremonial of incensing the 
bread and wine. On burning coals in the censer, little 
differing from the censer of our day, the Master puts the 
incense. He swings the censer to the four points of the 
compass over the bread and wine, as the incense was 
offered in the Temple, repeating the words of the Psalm 
over that bread and wine offered each Sabbath in the 

" Let my prayer be directed as incense in 'thy sight, the 
lifting up of my hands as evening sacrifice. Set a watch, 
O Lord, before my mouth, and a door round about my 
lips. Incline not my heart to evil words to make excuse 
in sins." ' 

A servant takes the censer and incenses the beard of 
each, beginning with the Lord, then going to each apostle 
according to his dignity. Did he swing the censer once 
or more ? History is silent. To do that he went into the 
space between the tables, passing from one to another as 
the servers at Mass incenses the celebrant and members 
of the clergy in the choir, after the offertory.^ 

Then they washed their hands lest they might have 
become soiled during the recess and preceding ceremony. 
Did the}^ say the words of the Psalm, " I will wash my 
hands among the innocent," etc.,^ the celebrant of the 
Mass now says while washing his hands? We cannot 
find a record. 


" Blessed art thou, O Lord, our God, King of the Uni- 
verse, who feedeth the whole world with thy goodness, 
and with grace, kindness and mercy, giveth food to every 
creature, for his mercy enduretli forever. And as his 
abundant goodness has never been deficient towards us, 
so may we never be in want of sustenance, for ever and 
ever, for the sake of his great name, for he is the God 
who feedeth and sustaineth all, and dealeth beneficently 

1 Psalm cxl. 2 See p. 211, 212. s psalm xxv. 6 to end. 


with all, and providetli food for all the creatures that he 
created. Blessed art thou, O Lord, who giveth food to 

" We will give thanks to thee, O Lord, our God, for 
having caused our forefathers to inhabit this desirable 
land, and because thou hast brought us forth from the 
land of Egypt, and redeemed us from the house of bond- 
age, and for thy covenant, which thou hast sealed in our 
flesh, for the Law which thou hast taught us, and for the 
statutes which thou hast made known to us, and for the 
life, and kindness, and mercy, which thou hast graciously 
bestowed on us, and for the food wherewith thou dost 
feed and sustain us continually every day and hour." 

" And for all these things, O Lord, we will give thanks 
to thee, and praise thee. Blessed be thy name continually 
in the mouth of every living creature forever and ever, 
as it is written: When thou hast eaten and art satisfied, 
then shall thou bless the Lord thy God for the good land, 
which he hath given thee. Blessed art thou, O Lord, for 
the land and for the food." 

" O Lord, our God, we beseech thee, have compassion 
on thy people Israel, on Jerusalem thy city, on Sion the 
residence of thy glory, and on the great and holy house 
of David thine own anointed, and on the great and holy 
house, which is called l)y thy name. Thou art our God, 
Father, Pastor and Feeder, our jMaintainer, Supporter and 
Enlarger. Enlarge us speedily from all our troubles, and 
suffer us not, O Lord, our God, to stand in need of the 
gifts of mankind, nor their loan, but let us depend on thy 
full, open and extensive hand, so that we may not be put 
to shame nor ever be confounded." 

*' O God, and the God of our fathers, Avilt thou cause 
our prayers to ascend, and come, approach, be seen, ac- 
cepted, heard, and thought on, and be remembered in 
remembrance of us, and in remembrance of our fathers, in 
remembrance of thine anointed JVIessiah, tlie son of David, 
thy servant, and in remembrance of Jerusalem, thy holy 
city, and in commemoration of all thy people, the house 
of Israel before thee to a good issue, with favor, with 
grace, witli mercy, to life and peace on this day of tlie 
Feast of Unleaven Bread. O Lord, our God, remember us 
thereon for good, visit us with a blessing, and save us to 


enjoy life, and with the word of salvation and mercy, 
have compassion and be gracious to us. O have mercy on 
us and save us, for our eyes are continually toward thee, 
for thou, O God, art a merciful and gracious King." 

The following prayer was evidently composed when 
the Jews were in captivity in Babylon : 

" O build Jerusalem, the holy city, speedily in our days. 
Blessed art thou, O Lord, who in thy mercy buildeth 
Jerusalem. Amen. Blessed art thou, O Lord, our God, 
King, Strength, Creator, Redeemer and Sanctifier of 
Jacob, our Pastor, the Shepherd of Israel, the beneficent 
King, who dealeth beneficently with all, for he hath been, 
is, and ever will be daily beneficent towards us. He hath 
dealt bountifully with us, as he doth now, and ever will 
be, granting us grace, favor, mercy, enlargement, deliver- 
ance, prosperity, blessing, salvation, consolation, main- 
tenance and sustenance ; and may we never want mercy, 
and a peaceable life with every good. May he who is 
most merciful reign over us for ever and ever. May he 
who is most merciful, be praised in heaven and on earth. 
May he who is most merciful, be adored throughout all 
generations ; be eternally glorified amidst us, and be 
honored amongst us to all eternity. May he who is most 
merciful, maintain us with honor. May he who is most 
merciful break the yoke of captivity from our neck, and 
lead us securely to our land. May he wlio is most merci- 
ful send us abundant blessing in this house, and on this 
table on which we have eaten. May he who is most 
merciful, send us Elijah, the prophet of blessed memory 
to bring us good tidings of salvation and consolation." 

Elijah, "My God is Jehovah," translated into the Greek 
as Elias, was foretold to come and prepare the way before 
the Messiah.^ The Jews of that time had mixed up the 
prophecies relating to this great prophet-recluse who 
lived in the desert in the days of the wicked kings of 
Juda. John the Baptist lived like liim and came in his 
spirit preaching penance and baptizing. He pointed out 
Jesus the Prophet of Nazareth, supposed son of Joseph, 
as the Messiah and the true " Lamb of God." During the 
transfiguration, Elias representing the prophets came in 
person, and Moses representing the Torah or Law with 

* Malach. iv. 5. 


all its Temple ceremonial came, and these the two greatest 
men of old appeared on Tabor's heights, one each side of 
the Messiah, showing that all proplieey and all the Law 
were fulfilled in Jesus. 

When the Jews at Passover mention Elijah they place 
a cup of wine on the doorstep for Elias and say these 
Avords of Psalm Ixxviii. 6-7 : 

" Pour out th}^ wrath upon the nations that have not 
known thee, and upon tlie kingdoms that have not called 
upon thy name, because they have devoured Jacob and 
have laid waste his place." 

At the Passover pn Sion, Jerusalem, a woman filled the 
cup, opened the door, and placed it on the doorstep. 
Jewish writers say this has been a part of the Passover 
from most ancient times, and that it related to the Baby- 
lonian captivity. The Palestine Jews still expect the 
Kedeemer, the strict Hebrews of other lands are divided 
on the question, but the reformed synagogue hardly look 
for his coming. 

During the Passover at the time of Christ, they prayed 
to the saints of the Old Testament, the patriarchal fathers 
of their race. The Talmud says : " Whence do we deduce 
that we should mention the patriarchs in the prayer? 
Because it is Avritten "O ye seed of Abraham his servant, 
ye sons of Jacob his chosen. With thy arm thou hast 
redeemed thy people the children of Jacob and of Joseph." ' 
Following these prayers to the great and holy men of 
Israel, when forming the Liturgies of the Mass, the 
apostles mentioned the names of the early saints and 
martyrs written on the dyptics, and later their names 
were incorporated into the Canon of the Latin Mass. 

"May he who is merciful bless my honored father, the 
master of this house, my honored mother, the mistress of 
this house, their children, and all belonging to them, us 
and all belonging to us, as our ancestors, Abraham, Isaac 
and Jacob were blessed with all and every good, thus may 
he bless us altogether with a complete blessing, and let 
us say Amen. May they in heaven show forth our merit 
for a peaceable preservation, and may we receive a blessing 
from the Lord and justice from the God of our salvation, 

1 Talmud Babyl. 31agilla C. II. 26, 47, etc. The Talmud here quotes these 
words as being in Psalm civ. 6, which is a mistake. 


and may we find grace and good understanding in the 
sight of God and niisn." 

" May he who is most merciful cause us to inherit the 
day that is entirely good. May he wlio is most merciful 
make us worthy to behold the day of the Messiah, and 
eternal life in tiie future state. He giveth salvation to his 
king, and showeth mercy to his anointed, to David and 
his Seed forever. May he who maketli peace in his high 
heavens grant peace to us and to all Israel, and say ye 

" Fear the Lord all ye his sahits, for there is nu want 
to those who fear him. The young lions do lack and 
suffer hunger, but those who seek the Lord shall not want 
anything. Praise ye the Lord, for he is good, for his 
mercy endureth forever. Thou openest thy hand and 
satisfieth the desires of every living thing. Blessed is 
the man who will trust in the Lord, and the Lord will be 
his trust. Blessed art thou, O Lord, our God, King of the 
Universe, Creator of the fruit of the earth." 


(Finish the Llallel). 

This Antiphon having been said they then all sing the 
ILallel composed of the following Psalms. Hallel is a 
contraction of Halleluia, " Praise Jehovah. It is Alleluia 
in our Liturgies. 

Psalm cxiii. (bis), " When Israel went out of Egypt, etc. 

" exiv. " I have loved, because the Lord, etc. 

" cxv. " I have believed, therefore I have, etc. 

" cxvi. " O praise the Lord, all ye nations, etc. 

" cxvii. " Give praise to the Lord, for he is 

good," etc. 

In these Psalms the apostles could see the wonderful 
prophecies of Christ, the Last Supper, and his death. 
When they came to the words " What shall I render to 
the Lord for all the things that he has rendered to me ? 
I will take the chalice of salvation, and I will call upon 
the name of the Lord," ' we suppose that then Christ took 
the chalice in his hands, as we do just after the Consecra- 

1 Psalm cxv. 12-13. 


tion of the Host in the Latin Liturgy. Psalm cxvii. is 
given in the Liturgy of tlie Passover thus, the Master 
saying the first part of the verse, the others replying : 

" Give praise to the Lord ; for he is good : 

For his mercy endureth forever. 
Let Lsrael now say that he is good, 

That his mercy endureth forever. 
Let the house of Aaron now say. 

That his mercy endureth forever. 
Let them that fear the Lord say, 

That his mercy endureth forever," etc. 

In Psalm cxvii. 22, the words " The stone which the 
builders rejected, the same is become the head of the 
corner," etc., foretold his official rejection by the Jew- 
ish Priesthood the Sunday before in the Temple, and his 
rejection by the whole people the next day in Pilate's 
Hall. Jesus referred to this in his instructions in the 
Temple.^ When they come to the words of Psalm cxvii. 
25, 26, Christ sang one line and the apostles repeated the 
same words after him. 

Christ. " O Lord, Hosanna. 
Apostles. " O Lord, Hosanna. 

Christ. " O Lord, send now prosperity, we beseech thee. 
Apostles. " O Lord, send now prosperity, we beseech 

" Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord," etc. 

The word Hosanna is a contraction of the Syro- 
Chaldaic of the Hebrew, Anna Adonai hoschihanna, 
" Save us now, we beseech thee." This gave rise to the 
same word Hosanna at the end of the Preface in the 
Latin Mass, and to words of the same nature in the other 
Liturgies. Then follows the Prayer of the 


(The service thus performed will be acceptable to God.) 

" All thy work, O Lord, shall praise thee, thy pious 
servants, with the righteous who perform thy will, and 

» Matt- xxi. 42 ; Luke xx. 17. 


thy people, the house of Israel with joyful song shall 
give thee thanks, bless, praise, glorify, extol, reverence, 
sanctify, and acknowledge thy kingly name, O our King, 
for to thee it is proper to offer thanksgiving, and pleasant 
to sing praise to thy name, for thou art God from ever- 
lasting to everlasting." 

Melchisedech's chalice, the cos-ha-beraehali,^ " The cup 
of blessing," the fourth cup of wine mixed with water of 
the Jewish ceremonial, covered with a napkin, stands be- 
fore the Messiah.^ I^yiiig between it and the edge of the 
table was the silver plate holding the half cake of un- 
leaven bread which had been hidden the Aphikoman still 
covered with a linen cloth. These were not partaken 
till the master of the feast had explained the whole cere- 
monial of the Passover, and we suppose the Lord pointed 
out their mystic meanings. 

The Aphikoman, " The heavenly bread or manna," of- 
every Passover, reminded them of the desert manna on 
which their fathers had lived for forty years, and that was 
the fondest memory of the nation. " As Moses brought 
down manna so the Messiah would bring down a more 
wonderful food," ^ " God made manna to descend for them 
in which was all manner of tastes. The young tasted bread, 
the old honey, and the children oil." * Teachings had 
come down from the prophets that when the Messiah 
came he would repeat the wonders of the manna. The 
Rabbis taught " As the first Saviour, Moses, the deliverer 
from Egyptian bondage, caused manna to fall from heaven 
for Israel, so the second Saviour, the Messiah, will also 
cause manna to descend for them once more, for it is 
written, " There will be abundance of grain in the land." ^ 
Thus they interpreted the prophecies of the Eucharist the 
only-begotten Son was about to fulfil in the Aphikoman. 
and change the shadow into the reality.'' 

The Passover rite in the days of Christ, still ob- 
served by strict Jews of the Orient, is as follows. The 
master of the feast makes a sign to the boy holding the 
hidden plate with the Aphikoman, who brings it to him. 

* Farrar. ii. 291. * The wines of Judea are described in Edersheim, Life of 
Christ, ii. 208, and Geikie, Life of Christ, i. 450-573. ^ Edersheim, Life of Christ, 
i. 176. * Talmud explained by Lightfoot, Hor. Ileb. iii. nn I. ^ Nork, 174. ^See 
Zanolini, Disputat de Festis Judseormn, Benedict XIV^. De Festis Dom. N. 
Jesus Christi et B. M. Virgin, col. 144, 6.V.>, Migne f^dition. 


'J'lie master uncovers it, breaks oft" a piece ^^■llicll he eats. 
Then he breaks off a piece for each and kiys it on the 
guest's left palm. The guests take tlie pieces of bread 
between thumb and index finger and put them in their 
mouths. The master drinks the wine from the chalice, 
then hands it around to the guests, wlio all drink from it. 
They thus take the bread and wine in memory of Noe, 
^lelchisedech and the proposition bi-ead and wine of the 
Temple. This ends the feast, and they are forbidden 
to eat or drink anything after tliis, even a dessert is for- 
Ijidden.* Tlie Gospel narrative and Consecration words 
according to the Roman rite show that Christ carefully 
followed the Jewish custom and the Passover rule. 

" Jesus took bread, and blessing, broke and gave to 
them." ^ " And having taken the chalice, giving thanks, 
he gave it to them, and they all drank of it." ^ 


"Taking it in his holy and venerable hands, and with 
eyes uplifted to thee, O God, his Father, giving thanks to 
thee, He >i* blessed, He ^ broke and He »j, gave to his dis- 
ciples saying : Take ye all of this : 


" which is given for you. Do this for a commemoration of 

It was the Aphikoman in his hands, over which he pro- 
nounced these words. He breaks oft* a piece for each and 
lays the Particle in the left palm of each apostle, for that 
was the Passover rite. The apostles take It with right 
thumb and index finger and place It in the mouth. This 
was the way Communion was given in the early Church, 
and women covered the left palm with a linen napkin. 
The Oriental Churches still give Comnumion this way. 

At Passover the master of the feast took his large 
chalice in his hands, raised it up with a thanksgiving 
prayer, drank from it, and passed it round to the guests, 
as a loving cup and a bond of friendship between them. 
And they all drank as a sign of esteem, friendship, and 
love of the master at whose hospitable table they had 

' See Talmud. » MatL. xxvi. -J?. ^ Mark xiv. 2;i. ♦ Luke xxii. 10. 


celebrated the Passover. The Gospel and the Lathi Rite 
show us that Christ followed this Jewish custom. 

" In like manner, after he had supped, taking this goodly 
chalice in his holy and venerable hands, also giving thanks 
to thee,^ he gave to them saying, Drink ye ^all of this : 

''FOR 7:HIS is the chalice of 31 y 

''As often as you do tliis you shall do it in my memory. 
And I say to you, I will not drink from henceforth of this 
fruit of the vine, until that day wiien I shall drink it new 
with you in the kingdom of my Father."'^ 

Following the Passover custom fundamental to the 
feast, for Christ broke no religious rite or ancient ordi- 
nance, he first partook of the chalice himself as the cele- 
brant of the Mass always does. Then he passed the 
chalice to each of the apostles. " And they all drank from 
it." In the early Church the chalice was thus passed to 
all who received Communion till abuses forced a change 
of discipline. 

The first three Gospels give the words of Consecration.^ 
St. John omits them, for in his sixth chapter, he had given 
the Avords of Christ regarding the Real Presence. 

What mean the words "The New and Eternal 
Testament and the JMystery of Faith ? " A testament is 
a will bequeathing property, and is not valid till the per- 
son who makes it dies. Christ refers to his death on the 
morrow, when tlio Passover of the Hebrews will end, 
when the Xew and eternal Testament will begin with the 
glories of the redeemed. No one can believe in the Real 
Presence without faith, a gift of God, and even to those 
with faith it is a mystery of faith. 

Did a long interval of prayer and praise intervene be- 
tween the Consecration and Communion ? This we find 
In every Christian Liturgy of the Mass. But the Gospel 
words seem to imply that immediately after the words 
he gave Communion to the apostles. 

^Matt. xxvi. S7. ^ Matt, zxvi S9, ' Matt. xxvi. 28 ; Mark. xiv. 82; Lukd 
xxii. 19-SO. 


But human worldly elements were still the motives 
of their actions, and they hegan to dispute about the first 
and chief places they were to occupy in tlie Holy Orders 
to which he elevated them in his Kingdom, the Church, 
of which he had made them bishops and apostles. 

" And there Avas also a strife amongst them, which of 
them should seem to be the greater. And he said to 
them : ' The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them, and 
they that have power over them are called beneficent. 
But you not so, but he that is greatest among you, let 
him be as the least ; and he that is the leader as he that 

" For which is the greater, he that reclineth at the table 
or he that serveth ? Is not he that reclineth at the table ? 
but I am in the midst of you as he that serveth, and you 
are they who have continued with me in my temptations. 

" And I appointed to you, as my Father hath appointed 
to me, a kingdom. That you may eat and drink at my 
table in my kingdom, and may sit upon thrones judging 
the twelve tribes of Israel." ^ 

He alludes to his kingdom, the Catholic Church, which 
was to spread over the world, interpenetrating all govern- 
ments, boundless as the human race. But he, the King, 
was not to reign here in this world, but mid the unnum- 
bered spirits and redeemed souls of heaven to be bought 
by the cross on the morrow. When a king is away, his 
prime minister administers the laws, and rules for him in 
his absence. Would he be so foolish as to leave his king- 
dom to anarchy ? Would that be the act of a wise states- 
man ? He provided for the future. He turned to his 
chief apostle Peter, and promised the power he gave him 
after the resurrection, when he appeared as the lone Per- 
sonage on the shores of Galilee. He gave then to Peter 
power to : " Feed his lambfolds, to govern his lambfolds, 
to feed his sheepfolds," as John tells us in his Greek 
Gospel.^ To Peter now he says : 

" Simon, Simon, behold Satan hath desired to have you, 
that he may sift you as Avheat. But I have prayed for 
thee, that tliy faith fail not, and thou being once con- 
verted, confirm thy brethren." ^ 

Peter thought he was very strong in faith and devotion 

1 Luke xxii. 21-31. « John xxi. 1.5 to 17, » Luke xxii. 31, 3!i. 


to his Master. But he was to learn a lesson of human 
weakness when not upheld by the Holy Spirit. There- 
fore the Lord told him he would deny him three times 
before the next morning. Only after the Holy Ghost 
came down on them did they understand all the Master's 
words, acts and the lessons of that their last Passover. 

After Communion they sang the Thanksgiving Hymn 
given in the Jewish Liturgy. They sang it like a Lit- 
any ; Christ singing the first versicles, the apostles 
responding : " For His mercy endureth forever." 

O, give thanks to the Lord for he is good : 

O, give thanks to the God of gods : 

O, give thanks to the Lord of lords : 

To him who alone doeth great wonders : 

To him who by wisdom made the heavens : 

To him who stretched out the earth above the 

waters : 
To him who made great lights : 
The sun to rule by day : 
The moon and stars to rule by night : 
To him who smote Egypt in their first-born : 
And brought out Israel from among them : 
With a strong hand and outstretched arm : 
To him who divided the Red Sea : 
And made Israel to pass through the midst of it : 
But overthrew Pharao and his host in the Red Sea : 
To him who led his people through the wilderness : 
To him who smote great kings : 
And slew famous kings : 
Sihon king of the Amorites : 
And Og king of Bashan : 
And gave their lands for an heritage : 
Even an heritage unto Israel his servant : 
Who remembered us in our low estate : 
And hath redeemed us from our enemies : 
Who giveth food to all flesh : 
O, give thanks to the God of heaven : 

" The breath of all living bless Thy name, O Lord, our 
God, the spirit of all flesh continually glorify and extol 
thy memorial. O, our King, thou art God from eternity 




to eternity. Besides thee we acknowledge neither king, 
redeemer or saviour. Thou redeemest, deliverest, main- 
tainest, and hast compassion on us in all times of trouble 
and distress, we have no other king but thee. Thou art 
God of the lirst and God of the last, the God of all crea- 
tures, tlie Lord of all produciioiis, tliou art adored with 
all maniior of praise, who governeth the Universe with 
tenderness, and thy creatures with mercy. Behold the 
Lord neither slumbereth nor sleepeth, but rouseth those 
who sleep, awakeneth those \\ ho slumber, causeth the 
dumb to speak, looseneth those that are bound, support- 
eth the fallen, and raiseth those who droop, and therefore 
thee alone w^e adore. Although our mouths were filled 
with melodious songs as the drops of the sea, our 
tongues Avith shouting as the roaring billows thereof, our 
lips with praise like the wide extended firmament, our 
eyes with sparkling brightness like the sun and moon, 
our hands extended like the towering eagles, and our feet 
as the hinds for swiftness, Ave nevertheless are incapable 
of rendering sufficient thanks unto thee, O Lord, our God, 
and the God of our fathers, or to bless thy name, for one 
of the innumerable benefits which thou hast conferred on 
us and on our ancestors. For thou, O Lord, our God, 
didst redeem us from Egypt, and i-elease us from the 
house of bondage, in the time of famine thou didst sus- 
taui us, and in plenty thou didst nourish us. Thou didst 
deliver us from the sword, saved us from pestilence, and 
from many sore and heavy diseases thou didst withdraw 
us. Hitherto thy tender mercies have supported us, and 
thy kindness has not forsaken us. O, Lord our God, for- 
sake us not in the future. Therefore the members of 
which thou hast formed us, tlie spirit and soul which 
thou hast breathed into us, and the tongue which thou 
hast placed in our mouths, lo ! they shall worship, bless, 
praise, glorify, extol, reverence, sanctify and ascribe 
sovereign powder unto thy name. O, our King, every mouth 
shall adore thee, and every tongue shall swear to thee, 
and every kniic shall bend to thee, every I'easonable being 
shall worship tlieo, every ln^arl, sliall revere thee, the In- 
ward parts and reins shall sing jDraise to thy name, as it 
is written, all my bones shall say, O Lord, who is like 
unto thee ? who deliveruih the weak from him who is 


too strong for him, the poor and need}* from tlieir op- 
pressor. Who is like unto thee ? Who is equal to thee ? 
Who can be compared unto thee ? great, mighty and tre- 
mendous God, most high God, possessor of heaven and 
earth. We praise, adore, glorify and bless thy name, so 
saith David. 

" Bless the Lord, O my soul, and all that is within me, 
bless his holy name. 

" O God, who are mighty in thy strength, who art 
great by thy glorious name, mighty for ever, tremendous 
by thy fearful acts. The King who sitteth on the high 
and exalted throne, inhabiting eternity, most exalted 
and holy is his name, as it is written : Rejoice in the 
Lord, O ye righteous, for praise is becoming to the just. 
With the mouth of the upright thou shalt be praised, 
with the lips of the righteous blessed, with the tongue 
of the pious extolled, by a choir of saints thou shalt be 

" And in the congregation of many thousands of thy 
people the house of Israel shall glorify thy name, O our 
King, through all generations, for such is the duty of 
every created being towards thee, O Lord, our God, and 
the God of our forefathers, to render thanks, to praise, to 
extol, to glorify, to exalt, to ascribe glor}', to bless, to 
magnify, and to adore thee, witli all the songs and praises 
of thy servant David, the son of Jesse. 

"May thy name be praised for ever, our King, the 
Almighty, the King great and holy in heaven and on 
earth, for to thee, O Lord, our God, and the God of oiir 
fathers, belongeth song, praise, hymns and psalms, miglit 
and dominion, victory and power, greatness, adoration, 
holiness and majesty, blessings and thanksgivings ; these 
are thine from henceforth to everlasting. Blessed art thou, 
O Lord, Almighty King, great with praises. Almighty 
to be adored, the Lord of wonders, who hath accepted 
songs of psalmody. King Almighty who livest eternally." 

They sing the following Hymn.^ Some Jewish writers 
say it was composed in the Middle Ages, others hold it 
comes from the prophets : nobody knows its author. Did 
it foretell Christ arrested at midnight near the Wine- 
press, Gethsemane? 

^ Mark xiv, 2(5. 



Then thou didst perform abundant miracles in the night. 
In the beginning of the first watch of this night, 
The just professor of God (Abraham) conquered when he 
divided his company at night. 

And it came to pass at midnight. 

Thou didst threaten the king of Gerar with death in a dream 

by night, 
Thou didst terrify the Syrian in the dead of the night. 
And Israel wrestled with an angel and overcame him in the 


And it came to pass at midnight. 

The first-born of the Egyptians thou didst crush at midnight. 
Their strength found them not when thej^ rose at night. 
The swift army of the prince of Haroshet thou didst tread 
down with the stars of the night. 

And it came to pass at midnight. 

The blasphemer who imagined to lift up his head against thy 

beautiful habitation, thou didst frustrate by the number 

of his slain in the night. 
The idol Bel and its statue were overthrown in the darkness of 

the night. 
To the meritorious man the secret was revealed in the vision 

of the night. 

And it came to pass at midnight. 

He who got drunk with holy vessels (Balshassar) was slain at 

He wlio was delivered from the den of lions interpreted the 

dreadful dreams of the night. 
The Agagite cherished enmity and wrote letters at night. 
And it came to pass at midniglit. 

Thou didst awaken all thy conquering power against him by 
disturbing the sleep of the king in the night. 

Thou wilt tread the winepress (Getlisemane) when saying to 
the watchman, What of the night ? 

Let the watchman (Israel) say aloud. The morning is come 
after night. 

And it came to pass at midnight. 

O, may the day draw nigh that is neither day nor night, 

O, thou Most High make known that under thee belongeth the 

day and also the night, 
Appoint watchmen to thy city (Jerusalem) all day and all 



O, illuminate as the splendor of the day, the darkness of the 

And it came to pass at midnight. 

On the second night, that is the first night of unleaven 
bread, the following is said : 

And ye shall say this is the sacrifice of tlie Passover, 

Thou didst wonderfully show forth thy mighty power of the 

Above all solemn feasts thou didst exalt the Passover. 
Thou didst reveal to the Oriental (Abraham) the miracles 

wrought in the midst of the night of the Passover. 
And ye shall say this is the sacrifice of the Passover. 

Thou didst appear to him in the heat of the day on the Pass- 

He entertained the Angels witli unleavened cakes on the 

And he ran to the herd as a memorial of the offerings of the 

And ye shall say this is the sacrifice of the Passover. 

The inhabitants of Sodom provoked God to anger and they 

were consumed by fire on the Passover, 
Lot was delivered who baked cakes for tlie Passover. 
Thou didst sweep the land of Mopli and Noph, when thou didst 

pass through on the Passover. 
And ye shall say this is the sacrifice of the Passover. 

O Lord, thou didst wound the head of the first-born on the night 

of the observation of the Passover. 
O Omnipotent ! yet thou didst pass over the first-born son 

(Israel) being marked with the blood of the sacrifice of the 

And ye shall say this is tlie sacrifice of the Passover. 

The strong and fortified city (Jericho) was surrendered in the 
season of the Passover. 

Midian was destroyed by the cake of barley bread, like the offer- 
ing of the omer of barley on the Passover. 

The mighty men of Pull and Lud were destroyed with burning 
fire on the Passover. 

And ye shall say this is the sacrifice of the Passover. 

The king abode yet in Nob this day, till the time of the Pass- 

The part of the hand wrote the destruction of the foundation 
of the Babylonian empire on the Passover. 

Even the time when the watch was set and the table prepared 
on the Passover. 

And ye shall say this is the sacrifice of the Passover. 


Esther feathered the congregation to fast three days on the 

The sworn enemy (Haman) ^ thou didst cause to be executed on 

a gallows fifty cubits high, on the Passover. 
These two things shalt thou bring in a moment on Utz on the 

Thy hand will then be exalted as on the night whereon was 

sanctified the Festival of the Passover. 
And ye shall say this is the sacrifice of the Passover." 

The Passover ended. They were all now bishops. All 
had received Communion. Some writers seem to think 
that Judas left before the end of the feast and that he 
did not receive the Eucharist. But this is a mistake, for 
the law strictly commanded every male Hebrew, not 
prevented by good reasons to be present, and forbade him 
to leave the table before he had fulfilled all its rites and 
ceremonies. If Judas left before the supper was over he 
would have been under Kareth, " Cut off," " Excom- 

Judas (twelve of this name are mentioned in the Bible. 
Two of the apostles were called Judas, the other being 
Judas Thaddeus) Iscariot was thus called from the 
little village to the south of Hebron where he was born, 
mentioned only once in the Old Testament in the Carioth 
of Josue,"^ the name being a Hebrew word meaning " The 
man of murder " or " of extermination." Thus was his 
betrayal foretold in the name of the village of his birth. 
He was a miser, loved money more than he did his Lord, 
had been acting as a spy for Joseph Caiphas his uncle, 
the high priest, and had promised the officials of the 
Temple to show Christ's place of prayer in Gethsemane. 
This arch traitor had for days been scheming Avith his 
uncle Caiphas, his cousin tSarah, the latter's daughter, 
and the Temple officials for the betrayal of the Master. 
Let us see how the Lord treated Judas. 

At the end of the Passover, the master used to dip 
bread into the charoseth and hand it to his dearest 
friend, as a special mark of love, friendship and esteem. 
When John asked his master in confidence, who would 
betray him, Jesus dipped the morsel into the dish typical 
of Egyptian bondage, and handed it to Judas as a special 

1 Translated in our BiVjle Aman, Esther iii. ^ Josue. xv. 25, 



and ii public mark of friendship for Judas, although he 
knew his murderous designs.^ Thus the God-man, who 
taught men to love their enemies, handed the betrayer 
the sop of friendship to show he held no feeling of hatred 
towards him, and to give the world an example of full 
forgiveness of his enemy. 

" When Jesus had said these things, he was troubled in 
spirit, and hejprotested and said, ' Amen, amen, I say to you 
that one of you Avill betray me.' The disciples therefore 
looked upon one another doubting of whom he spoke. 
Now there was leaning on Jesus' bosom one of his disciples 
whom Jesus loved. Simon Peter therefore beckoned to 
him and said to him, * Who is it of whom he speaketh ? ' 
He therefore leaning on the breast of Jesus saith to him, 
* Lord, who is it,' Jesus answered, ' He it is to whom I 
shall reach bread dipped.' And when he had dipped the 
bread he gave it to Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon. 
And after the morsel Satan entered into him. And Jesus 
said to him: * That which thou • do, do quickly.' Now 
no man at the table knew for what intent he said this to 
him. For some thought because Judas had the purse, that 
Jesus said, ' Buy those things which we have need of 
for the festival day,' or that he should give something to 
the poor. He therefore having received the morsel went 
out immediately. And it was night." ^ 

The feast of unleaven bread lasted for a week, each 
" band " of Jews brought to the place where they 
celebrated the supper the eatables required, and the 
apostles supposed that the Lord sent Judas to buy these 
things for the next supper in the booths of the Lloly City 
which were always open during eight Passover nights. 

Down to his uncle Joseph Caiphas went that basest 
man of human history to get tlie money they promised 
him to show them the Master's place of prayer. The 
Lord had now offered as a sacrifice himself, his Body and 
Blood as a Victim for the world's sins and to fulfil all 
the figures and types of the Jewish religion. Therefore 
the shades of his Passion began to close over him. But 
when Judas had gone he preached these burning words 
of love, of unity, of sublime principles to the eleven 

1 Edersheim, Life of Christ, ii. 509, 511. « John xiii. 21-30. 


apostles as his last sermon before his death. Then a 
little before the midnight hour, with his band he passed 
out the Sion Gate, crossed the Tyropoeon vale, went 
through Ophel, passed the Cedron and entered Geth- 
semane and the awful sufferings of his Passion we have 
described in the book The Tragedy of Calvary. 




Aaron's rod, meaHing of, 21. 

Abel's sacrifice, 32, 33. 

Abraham's tomb at Hebron, 60 ; lived 
with Sem, 220. 

Absolution of hi^h priest, 329. 

Abtinas, house of, 58 ; prepared Tem- 
ple incense, 66 ; held process secret, 

Adam's sixty-five children, 82 ; funer- 
al, 222 ; skull buried on Calvary, 223. 

Adonai, 41. 

Agrippa, Herod, failed, 168, 215 ; 
counted paschal lambs, 174. 

Alb, origin of, 290. 

Alcohol, different kinds of, 98. 

Alleluia, origin of, 188, 336. 

Altar breads in Temple, 164, 165; for 

linens, origin of, 

Last Supper, 343 

343, 345, 379. 
Altar of incense, 23, 24 ; sacrificial, 28, 

57; typified Calvary, 29; on Moriah, 

57 ; golden, how cleaned, 72 ; in Ori- 
ental Churches, 262. 
Altar railing, origin of, 249, 354. 
Altar steps, origin of, 352. 
Ambition of the apostles, 426. 
Amice, origin of, 298. 
Amphorae, 100. 
Ampulae, 101. 
Annas, high priest, 167. 
Anointing, origin of, 105 ; how Christ 

was, 111, 112 ; of high priest, 289. 
Aphikoman, 20 ; meauing of word, 391, 

401, 415, 423 ; how hidden, 415 ; how 

Christ consecrated the, 424. 
Apostle in Jewish Church, 254, 257. 
Apostles, why Christ chose twelve, 

Archisynagogos, 254. 
Architriclinus, the, 206. 
Ariel, sacrificial altar called, 56. 
Ark in synagogue, 217. 262 ; in Cenacle, 

357; for Moses' Books in Temple, 

20 262 
Ark of Covenant, 20, 262 ; hid on Mt. 

Nebo, 71. 
Arks, Bezeleel made three, 58. 
Assistant priest, origin of, 353, 379,381. 
Avarice of Temple priests, 165, 166, 

Azazael, meaning of word, 67. 
Azymus bread, 165. 



Balm, 109, 

Balshasser of Babylon, 133. 

Bath before Passover, 179, 345 ; prayer 
at, 204. 

Bath, high priest's, 61, 62, 64, 77; at 
Passover, 206. 

Beard, honored by Hebrews, 121, 211. 

Behemoth, 140. 

Bema of Cenacle, 351. 

of synagogue, 246, 
or sanctuary, 246. 

Benediction, the eighteenth, at Last 
Supper, 362. 

Berretta, origin of, 309. 

Biccurim, "first-fruits," 125, 131. 

Bishop, origin of titles, 251. 

why he sits on throne, 377; 
goes to altar at offertory, 378 ; Christ 
as a, 350, 407. 

apostles appointed, 283, 350 ; 
ministers, origin of, 353. 

Bitter herbs, 140. 

Black vestments, origin of, 169, 170, 

Blessing, origin of, 109. 

Blessings, of high priest over Torah, 

Blood, how high priest sprinkled, 71, 
72, 73 ; sprinkled seven times, 73 ; of 
paschal lamb, 136 ; sprinkled on 
altar, 204, 336. 

Brazen serpent broken, 167. 

Bread, origin of word, 88 ; unfer- 
mented and fermented, 88 ; proposi- 
tion, 24, 57 ; why chosen for Pass- 
over and Mass, 86-92 ; names of, in 
Temple, 92 ; and wine, ceremonies 
of, in Temple, 92, 93. 04 ; search for 
leaven, 153 ; how offered at Pass- 
over, 188, 213 ; how made for Pass- 
over, 343. 

Breads, altar breads at Last Supper, 

Bridge over Cheesemongers' St., 839. 

Bone of lamb not broken, 138. 

Book, the Temple a, 17. 

Bottle, origin of name, 100. 

Bow, beginning Mass, origin of, 358. 

Broach, on cope, origin of, 306. 

Burial in churches, origin of, 229 ; 
among the Jews, 273. 

Byssus, 288. 




Cain, history of, 32. 33. 

Caiphas, palace site of. 234. 

(Jakes, hou' made for Passover, 39. 

Calamus ]14. 

Calvary, why they faced in Temple, 

Camped round Jerusalem, 174. 

Candle, Easter, 27, 28; light of, l.^S ; 
at Passover, 182, 343. 

Candles on altar, origin of, 343, 344 ; 
origin of six at High Mass, 34.'>, 382. 

Candlestick of Temple, 24-2«. 103 ; 
history of, 2(5 ; of synagogue, 27, 249 ; 
Day of Atonement. <i<.>. 

Canon, origin of, 387 ; whj' in a low 
tone, 387. 

Captivity, Babylonian, 48. 

Carpenter, Christ foretold as a, 248. 

Carved, how tlie lamb was, 206. 

Cassock, origin of, 2'J7 ; material and 
color of, 297. 

Cedron valley, why so called, 57. 

Cenacle, built by Herod, 229 ; names 
of, 229, 340; belonged to Christ's 
family, 231, 341 ; the first church, 
232; present condition of, 233-238; 
how furnished, 341, 342, 344. 

Censer in Temple, 69. 

Chagigah, 202, 203. 

Chalice, antiquity of, 101, 335; of 
mixed blood, 173, 194 ; value of, iu 
Temple, 174 ; Christ used, 385. 

Charoseth, 185, 186, 344. 

Chasuble, origin of, 300, 302. 

Cherubim, meaning of, 22. 

Choir in church, origin of, 261, 334. 

Chometz. 89, 91, 154, 157. 

Chrism, origin of word. lOG. 

Christ, miricles at death of, 68 ; mean- 
ing of word, 106 ; why he did not 
preach till thirty, 252 ; coming down 
Olivet, 321 ; scenes when he entered 
Temple, 232 ; carrying the lamb, 331, 
337; leaving Temple foretold, 338; 
entering the Cenacle, 348. 

Christs, the Jews expected two, 51. 

Ciborium, in Temple, 20, 21. 

Clergymen, agents of Christ, 80. 

Cloth of crimson wool on scapegoat, 

Clothes show wearer's office, 285. 

Collectors in church, origin of, 257. 

Communion, why Christ instituted, 
382; how given at Last Supper. 412, 

Confession of sin on scapegoat, 73 ; 
lamb, 334; in Temple, 32:^-329 ; fore- 
told, 153, 155, in early Church, 329. 

Confirmation, origin of, 305. 

Continents, settlement of, 222. 

Cope, origin of, 301. 

Corporal, why deacon puts on altar, 

Cos, at Passover. 102. 

Couch at Passover, origin of, 208 ; 
Last Supper, position of, 380. 

Country people in time of Christ, 270. 

Court judges, etc., njbes in, 300. 

Covr-naiit. tho Old. bv"kon, 279. 
Credence table, origin of, 380. 
Creed of Jewish Church, 373, 375. 
Crosier, bishop's, origin of. 291 : the 

prophets. ?Ai ; apostles, 815 ; in the 

Temple, 333. 
Cross in Ten) pie sacrifice, 37. 48, 3^.4. 
Crowns, tlie tliree in the Temple, 59. 
Crucifixion, liow foretold, 16. 
Cruets, origin of, 386, 392. 
Crumbs, 214. 

Consecration at Last Supper, 429. 
Cyrus delivered the Jews, 290. 


Dance in vineyards, 104 ; Last Supper 

compared to a, 356. 
Date of Last Supper. 317. 
David capt<ired Sion, 226: buried on 

Sion, 227, 238 ; treasures buried wiiii 

him, 227 ; sought by .Herod, 229. 
Day of Atonement, 4f-7l, 195 ; St. Paul 

on, 78, 79. 
Deacons, origin of, 255, 256. 380. 
Dead, prayers for the, 271-277, 34.5. 
Dioceses, origin of, 243, 253. 
Disciples, why Christ chose, 72, 250. 
Divisions of men, three in Temple, 172. 
Doctor, origin of, 250. 
Dominus vobiscum, origin of, 341. 
Drawers, origin of 290 ; why worn, 296. 


"Easter Duty," foretold, 131. 

Elephant, meaning of, 141. 

Elias at Passover, 213, 214 ; mentioned 
at Last Supper, 419. 

Elohim, 40, 41,46. 

Ephod of high priest, 291. 

Epistle and Gospel, origin of reading 
the, 255. 

why we sit at, 265. 

Eucharist in early Church, 280 ; prom- 
ised by Christ. 373. 

Eve of Passover, 320-339 ; fasting on, 

Exorcist, origin of, 257. 

Fasting before Passover, 168,169; be- 
fore Communion, 821, 323. 

Father, spiritual, origin of title, 251. 

Feasts, Solomon's, 207 ; Hebrew, 212, 
of devotion, 214. 

Fire the ever-burning in Temple, 29. 

Flute, in the Temple, 2.59. 

Foods, bread and wine most nourish- 
ing, 87. 

Foundation Stone in Holy of Holies, 7L 

Frankincense, 114. 


Gabia, "Great Chalice," 102. 
Gabriel, the archangel, 118. 
Galbiinuii), 114. 

Galilee, meoning of word, 217. 
Gnnno, fuiiilv made hiead for Temple, 

(;o, 9."., lo:;. 



Gemara of Talmud, 49, 51. 

General Confession at Mass, origin of, 

Genesis, how handed down, 220, 221. 
Girdle, origin of, 290, 298 ; two kinds of, 

298, 299. 
Glove, the bishop's, origin of. 313. 
Goat, the scapegoat, 68 ; how chosen, 

68, meaning of name, 67; vision of 

Christ as the, 97. 
Goats, the two on Day of Atonement, 

Gold to covex* Temple, how bought, 

166, 167. 
Gospel, reading of. came from Temple 

and synagogue, 76. 264 ; origin of 

Idssing, the, 207, 368. 
Grape, cultivation of, 97. 
Grotto of Creed, 319. 


Habdalah. meaning of, 182. 

Hallel in Temple, 337 ; at Last Supper, 

401, 421. 
Hand of Lord writing on palace wall, 

Hands spread over victims, 203, 415; 

at prayer, 271 ; why held out at 

Mass, 271, 360. 
Handkerchief, origin of, 307. 
Head, why covered and uncovered, 

Heating house in Temple, 56. 
Helen, Assyrian queen, 64. 
Herbs, bitter, at Last Supper, 384. 
Hezekiah, king, what he did, 167. 
High priest represented Christ, 54 ; 

vestments of the, .56 ; defiled, 70 ; 

how he entered Holy of Holies, 70 ; 

in heaven, 80, 81. 
Hillel, Esdras, 402. 
Holies of Temple, meaning of, 23, 80 ; 

scene in, 116. 
Holy of Holies represented heaven, 

17, 19 ; dwelling-place of Holy Ghost, 

Holy Spirit, in Talmud, 189. 
Holy water in Jewish church. 55. 
Holy water font, origin of, 245. 
Homilies, the Clementine, 282. 
ffosauna, origin and meaning of, 337. 
Host, why broken. 89. 90 

why broken at Last Supper, 391, 

House of Shammai and of Hillel, 190. 
House, the Golden, 19. 
Hymns at Last Supper, 427, 430, 431 

Incense in Temple, 68, 69, 70, 118, 115' 
116; how made 115 ; at Last Suppen 
360. 417. 

Incensing the clergy, origin of. 212 


.Inmep. hiP Liturgv, 23i 

per, 380. 
Japheth, meaning of 

Noe blessed, 95, 

at Last Sup- 
96 ; why 


Jehovah, 40, 46 ; meaning of word, 41 ; 
pronounced Day of Atonement, 68 ; 
when said in Temple, 67. 

Jehudah Hansi, begins Talmud, 49. 

Jericho, inhabitants of, 167. 

Jerome, 49. 

Jerusalem, 'founded by Sem. 224 ; 
names of, 224 ; in days of Christ, 318 ; 
belonged to all the people, 340. 

Jesus Christ, meaning of word. 41. 

Job, why afflicted, 38^. 

John, the apostle, at Last Supper, 380 ; 
signified the Jews. 416. 

Judas, history of, 432 ; Beti-ayal, fore- 
told, 403, 407 ; why Christ gave him 
the "sop." 432; wliere he hanged 
himself, 225. 

John the Baptist, history of, 116-120, 


Kareth, '•excommunication. 180." 
Kid, why chosen for Passover, 127, 135. 

meat of, 207. 
Kiddush, meaning of, 168, 182. 
Kings of Judea buried on Sion, 229. 
Kiss of peace, 280. 

Kisses, why celebrant kisses altar, 348. 
Kneeling in Temple, 73. 

Lamb, how patriarchs sacrificed the, 
31 ; why chosen, 135; when chosen, 
126, 319'; of the passover, 127, 820; 
how sacrificed in Egypt, 129, 333, 335 ; 
sacrificed in four places, 128 ; how 
skinned, 173: how crucified, 136, 174, 
175, 342 ; whv bones not broken, 177 ; 
how roasted, 137, 174, 342; eaten, 
138; how remains of removed, 176 ; 
why Christ called. 320 ; at Last Sup- 
per, 349, 383. 

Language of Judea in Christ's time, 
246, 270. 

Last supper revealed. 3?il. 

Law, how read in Temple, 265, 268. 
synagogue, 267. 

Laying on of hands, 408, 409. 

'' Leisure men," in synagogue, 256. 

Lettuce at Passover, 185. 

Leviathan, 141. 

Linen table-cloths, the three, 108. 

Litanies in Temple. 325, 327. 

Liturgy of the Mass in apostles' days, 
281 ; Church in heaven, 82. 

" Lord wept," church of, 319. 


Macarius, John the Baptist's prison, 

Magdalen, history of Mary, 111. 
Manna, 20; history of, 20, 21 ; meaning 

of, 21. 
Marriage the Jews, 277, 279. 
Mass ceremonial, oricrin of, 349. 
Matins, origin of lessons of, 255, 369. 
Matzoth. 89, 91, 154. 
1 Megillah, the, at Last Supper, 370 



Melchisedech, who was? 217-225; 
meaning of name, 219 ; recent dis- 
coveries regarding:, 219. 

Memra, the Divine Word, 45. 

Menachot Table, 37. 

Mercy Seat of God, 20. 

Messiahs, the two, of Jews, 51, 248. 

]\Iill, for grinding grain. 88. 

Mishna of Talmud, 49. 57. 

Monday and Thursday worship, 240, 

Moed Katon, 220. 

Monev boxes, origin of, 245, changers' 
profits, 320. 

Moodayim, 181. 

Moriah. present condition of , 57, mean- 
ing of word, 337. 

Moses' tomb, 61. 

Music in church, origin of, 2.57, 262. 
Temple. 259 ; Oriental, 263 ; reformed 
by Pope Gregory, 262. 

Must, grape juice, 101. 

Myrrh, origin of word, 106. 


Nebuchonosor, meaning of word, 48. 
Nemrod, author of paganism, 221, 222. 
Noe, type of Christ, 218 ; why he 

blessed the white races. 95. 
Nuptial Mass, origin of, 279. 


Octave, origin of the, 198. 

Oil of ointment, 105, 289; holy in 

Temple, 106; origin of holy. 112, 113. 
Offerings in Temple, 171 ; origin of in 

Church, 318. 
Offertorv at Last Supper, 413. 
Omer. "first fruits," 131, 199-202 
Or, ''break of day," 153. 
Orders of clergy, the three, 411. 
Ordination of the apostles. 407-411. 
Organ, when played in Temple, 115, 

Oven, how made, 90, 195. 


Palestine, climate of. 06. 

Palhedrin chamber, 54, 55. 

Pallium, origin of. 305, 306 ; worn by 
Christ, 306. 

Paphus, Mary Magdalens' husband, 111 . 

Paraceve. meaning of, 318, 322. 

Parish, origin of, 254. 

Passover, meaning of word, 124 ; the 
second, 125. 179 ; history of, 124 to 
13.5, 181 ; in tlie davs of the Kings, 
132, 133: Babylon destroyed on, 133 ; 
Josephus on. 142, 143; how the Sa- 
maritans celebrated, 143-145 ; in Jer- 
usalem, 146. 157 ; preparations for in 
New York, 160-162*; in time of Christ, 
192. 195. 

Paten Christ used, 336 ; why hidden 

Pax vobis, origin of, 341. 

Per omnia saicula sa^culorum, 3G1. 

Peter and John at Last Supper went 
ahead, 339, 380, 426. 

Phylacteries, 270, 292, 294 ; of gold 
worn by apostles, 294 ; at Last Sup- 
per, 354. 

Piccola, 259. 

Plain chant, origin of, 262. 

Pontifical Mass at Last Supper, 350. 

Poor-boxes, origin of, 245. 

Porch, meaning of, 29, 245. 

Porter in the Hebrew Church, 256 ; 
of Temple, 347. 

Pots, kettles, etc., at Passover, 158. 

Prayer-shawl, 270. 

Prayers for rulers, origin of, 266 ; the 
dead, 271-277 ; to the saints, 274, for 
the dead, 420. 

Preface, origin of, 377. 

Presbytery, origin of, 243, 253, 350. 

Priest, father was first, 34, 35 ; how 
ordained in Temple, 110 ; selection 
of, 289. 

Prisoner, delivery of, no, Passover, 199. 

Prophet's mantle, the chasuble, 302. 

Prophetic books, when first used, 269. 

Proposition bread, how prepared, 163. 

Prostration, origin of at ordination, 110. 

Prostrations in Temple, 73. 

Presbyters, origin of the, 254. 

Psalms, how written, 188, 189. 258; 
when composed, 260; how sung at 
Last Supper, 421. 422. 

Pulpit, origin of, 28, 246. 

Purgatory, Jewish belief in, 191-273. 

Purple, why Christ wore, 307, 357. 


Rab, meaning of word, 249. 

Rabbi of synagogue, 249; Christ acted 

as a, 250, 251, 253, 2.^6 ; how honored, 

252 ; tlieir duties, 253, education of, 

Railing altar, origin of the, 249. 
Rational of high priest, 291. 
Read, how Christ read in synagogue, 

Reading Scriptures in church, origin 

of, 370. 
Reclining at Passover, 184, 209, 388. 
Redeemer first revealed, 29. 
Relics in altar stone, why, 230. 
Representative instinct, 15, 16. 
Rice at weddings, origin of, 279. 
Ring, origin of bishops', 311 ; customs 

relating to, 312. 
Ripha, Cain's wife, 82. 
Roast meat, origin of, 136. 137. 
Rope tied to high priest, 71. 

Sacramentals of Jewish church. 86. 

Sacrifice, nature of, 31, 32, 33, 34 ; dif- 
ferent kinds of, 86 ; symbolism of, 
36 ; the cross on, 37, 38. 

Sagon, assistant to high priest, .54, 67 ; 
separated, .54, 55. 

Salem, meaning of word, 223. 

Scapegoat, how chosen, 67 ; if defiled, 
73 ; his pagan conductor, 74, 78 ; liow 
led to death, 74, how killed, 75. 

Sanctuary lamp, origin of, 247, 344 ; 



Sanctus, the, at Last Supper, 377, 368. 

Saudals, origin of, 294. 

Scrolls of the Law, 263. 

Seal on animals for Temple, 333. 

Search for leaven bread, 1.53-155. 

Sem was Melchisedech, 217, 225 ; when 
he died, 221,225. 

Seraphim, meaning of, 23. 

Sermons in time of Christ, 247. 

Service in Temple, order of, 65. 

Shaving, origin of, 211. 

Shawl, the prayer, 304. 

Shekina, meaning of, 42 ; in Holy of 
Holies, 19 ; resting-place of, 22. 

Shema, 190. 

Shirt, origin of, 300. 

Shoe, origin of, 294-296. 

Simeon's prophecy of Christ, 28. 

Sin, how confessed in Temple, 323-328. 
on animals in Temple, 65 ; prayer 
putting, 66. 

Singing at Last Supper, 356. 

Singing the services, origin of, 257. 

Sion, history of, 224-338 ; names of, 
225 ; captured by David, 226 ; wealthy 
part of Jerusalem, 231 ; present con- 
dition of, 234-238. 

Solomon buried on Sion, 229. 

Solomon's palace, 228. 

Spikenard, 111. 

Spirit, the Holy, 44. 

Stacte in incense, 113. 

Stage, origin of the, 15, 16, 246. 

Staff or crosier, bishop's, origin of, 

Stalls of churches, origin of, 247, 381. 

" Standing men," 255. 

Standing,. saying Mass, 210, 269, 

Stipends, origin of, 203. 

Stole, origin of the, 303 ; fringes on, 
303, 304. 

Stool on which they sat, 207. 

Subdeacon at Last Supper, 380. 

Synagogue, origin of, 239-249 ; build- 
ing, 239 ; plan of, 244 ; music in, 257 ; 
service, 264-271 ; Christ in the, 270 ; 
apostles preached in, 280 ; service at 
Last Supper, 349. 

Synagogue in Alexandria, 247 ; of 
Cenacle, 357. 

Tabernacle, typified the Jews, 18. 

Table of proposition bread, 24. 

Talmud, history of, 48-53 ; Jerusalem 
and Babylonian, 48, 49 ; saved by 
Papal Decree, 50 ; on the Passover, 
153-197; language of, 263. 

Temple, model of church, 15; repre- 
sented heaven, 18 ; God its Archi- 
tect, 18, 177 ; divisions of, 19 ; a Poem, 
16 ; a Book, 17 ; covered with gold, 166. 

Ten to twenty men formed a band, 173. 

Terraces of Judean hills, 87. 

Throne, the bishop's, 411.